著者
高倉 実
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.4, pp.349-357, 1992-03-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological demands on the referees and their movement patterns during rugby games. With this knowledge, training programmes for referees can be more scientifically prepared to meet the physiological demands of the game. Initially seven Japanese regional referees performed a treadmill running test to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (V^^.O_2 max), heart rate (HR) versus V^^.O_2 max regression line to estimate oxygen uptake (V^^.O_2) during rugby games. Referees were investigated for HR via PE3000 heart rate monitor and were filmed with a video tape recorder to estimate the distance covered on the field according to the type of activity performed during rugby games. The results were as follows; 1) The mean V^^.O_2 max of referees was 3.19 l/min (45.3 ml/kg/min). 2) The mean HR of referees during rugby games was 157.4 beats/min, which corresponded to 82.9% of the maximal HR and 77.2% of V^^.O_2 max. As referees performed approximately 50% of actual playing time at an intensity above 8O% of V^^.O_2 max. 3) The mean HR of referees during the second halves were significantly greater than those during the first halves. As for the same referees, the mean HR when refereeing at the semifinal or final game was significantly greater than that when refereeing at the first round. 4) The mean total distance covered in a 60 minute game for a referee was 4315.4 metres.There was no significant difference in distance covered by the referee comparing the first and second halves of a game. 5) Jogging shared the highest percentage of 43.0% of the total distance covered, followed by walking (28.3%) and running (12.5%). There was a considerable amount of backwards movement required by referees (9.9%). A relatively small percentage of distance covered in a game was by sprinting (2.1%) and sidestep (4.2%). From these results, it was suggested that the aerobic work predominated in refereeing and backwards movement was an important action for referees.
著者
我部 杏奈 高倉 実 宮城 政也 喜屋武 享
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.4-10, 2020

<p><b>Background:</b> Dental caries is the most prevalent lifestyle-related disease worldwide for children. A low socio-economic status (SES) is significantly associated with a higher risk of having dental caries. Since children spend most of their day at schools and are susceptible to the school context, oral health promotion activities in schools are recommended. Tooth-brushing after school lunch, which is one of the oral health programs in school, may help prevent dental caries regardless of their SES level.</p><p><b>Objectives:</b> The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dental caries, SES and the time of tooth-brushing after school lunch among elementary school students.</p><p><b>Methods:</b> The cross-sectional study was conducted of 43 public elementary schools under the jurisdiction of two education board offices in Okinawa, Japan in 2018. The participants were 1,248 students of fifth graders who had obtained consent from their parents or caregivers. The students' dental caries experiences were extracted from personal dental records of medical checkup in the schools. The indicator of SES was the financial assistance for education by the municipalities. The data of dental caries and SES was provided by the schools. We confirmed with school nurse teachers at each school whether tooth-brushing after school lunch was conducted or not. In addition, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted for students to obtain information on socio-demographics, lifestyles, and family relationships. Using multi-level logistic regression models, the association of SES and tooth-brushing after school lunch with dental caries were analyzed. In that case, SES, socio-demographic variables, and lifestyles were used as the individual-level variables; tooth-brushing after school lunch was used as the school-level variable.</p><p><b>Results: </b> Students with lower SES were more likely to experience dental caries than those with higher SES (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.24-2.38). Students in the schools not carrying out tooth-brushing after school lunch were more likely to experience dental caries than those in the schools doing it (OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.05-3.02). Adjusted for the individual-level and school-level variables, these findings were in the same direction.</p><p><b>Conclusions:</b> This study showed that dental caries of students were associated with SES. Additionally, toothbrushing at schools may contribute to the prevention of caries in all students attending schools.</p>
著者
高倉 実 宮城 政也 喜屋武 享
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.43-51, 2020

<p><b>Background:</b> The leading causes of death,disease, and academic failure among youth are strongly associated with health-risk behaviors. These behaviors are started and established during childhood and adolescence, and extend into adulthood. It is important to monitor the prevalence and trends in health-risk behaviors in order to plan, implement, and assess effective prevention efforts.</p><p><b>Objectives:</b> The aim of this study was to estimate trends in health-risk behaviors among Japanese high school students in Okinawa prefecture from 2002 to 2016.</p><p><b>Methods:</b> The study samples were 2,852 students from 25 public high schools in 2002, 2,892 students from 25 public high schools in 2005, 3,248 students from 29 public high schools in 2008, 3,386 students from 30 public high schools in 2012, and 3,441 students from 30 public high schools in 2016. Data from self-administered anonymous surveys were analyzed to assess trends in the proportion of students who engaged in selected health-risk behaviors. Behaviors studied included those that contribute to injuries, cigarette use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors.</p><p><b>Results: </b> There was a significant increase in motorcycle helmet use and in seatbelt use and decrease in a ride with drinking driver. In boys, having been in a physical fight showed a significant decrease. Lifetime cigarette use, early initiation of cigarette use, current cigarette use, current frequent cigarette use, and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day decreased. Lifetime alcohol use, early initiation of alcohol use, current alcohol use, and episodic heavy drinking also decreased. Girls who have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone decreased. A significant decrease in sexual experience was detected. Those having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse also decreased. The prevalence of condom use during their last sexual intercourse increased. Girls who had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years decreased. Those having described themselves as overweight decreased. Those who have eaten vegetables during the 7 days before the survey increased, but boys who have eaten fruits during the 7 days before the survey decreased. In girls, unhealthy weight control behaviors such as the use of diet pills and forcing oneself to vomit decreased, but going without eating for over a day increased. Those watching TV for 3 hours or more per day decreased, but playing computer games or using a computer for 3 hours or more per day increased.</p><p><b>Conclusions:</b> This study shows that many health-risk behaviors among high school students in Okinawa improved between 2002 and 2016. Conversely, sedentary behavior using computer and computer games, having eaten fruits among boys, and fasting among girls deteriorated over this period.</p>
著者
伊藤 早苗 朝倉 敬子 杉山 賢明 高倉 実 等々力 英美
出版者
日本健康学会
雑誌
日本健康学会誌 (ISSN:24326712)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.2, pp.76-82, 2020

<p>Salt and potassium intake were estimated from spot urine obtained from children and their mothers at public elementary schools in Okinawa Prefecture. Estimated salt intake was 7.8 ± 1.6 g / day for children and 8.9 ± 2.1 g / day for mothers. Estimated potassium intake was 1157 ± 273 mg / day for children and 1580 ± 322 mg / day for mothers. The proportion of those who meet the Dietary Goals of the dietary reference intakes for Japanese (2015 edition) was determined. Only 5.7% of the boys, 13.8% of the girls and 12.0% of the mothers met the Dietary Goals for salt. Only 3.3% of the boys, 0.7% of the girls, 2.0% of the mothers met the Dietary Goals for potassium. There was a significant positive correlation between salt intake of girls and their mothers. In boys, there was no significant correlation with mothers for both salt and potassium intake. It is expected to improve their diet for reducing salt and increasing potassium intake while taking this gender difference into consideration.</p>
著者
喜屋武 享 高倉 実
出版者
日本健康教育学会
雑誌
日本健康教育学会誌 (ISSN:13402560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.229-245, 2019

<p>目的:教科学習中の学習を伴う身体活動介入(active lesson program,以下,ALP)の質を評価し,介入による身体活動,体格,健康指標,学業への有効性に関するエビデンスを更新すること.</p><p>方法:2015年4月から2018年8月に公刊された学術論文を5つの電子データベース(ERIC, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, EMBASE)より選定した.選択基準は1)身体活動と学習内容の双方が含まれた授業であること,2)身体活動量,体格,体力要素,学業成績,学習行動促進要因を介入効果指標としていること,3)ランダム化比較試験,準実験デザイン研究,前後比較研究のいずれかであること,4)5歳~18歳の児童生徒が対象であること,5)介入期間が少なくとも1週間以上であること.学習内容が含まれない身体活動小休止,複合的な介入の一部として実施されたALP,特異的な集団(肥満児や障がい児)を対象とした研究は除外した.研究のバイアスリスクは,the Cochrane Collaboration "risk of bias" assessment toolを用いて評価した.</p><p>結果:10研究が採択・除外基準に適合した.そのうち,6研究は身体活動と学業の双方を,3研究は学業のみを,1研究は身体活動のみを評価した.10研究のうち2研究は,ALPと有酸素運動による小休止を比較したのに対し,その他は身体活動を伴わない授業を対照群として設定していた.全ての研究でALP後の身体活動量の増加を認めた.身体活動を伴わない学習と比較した場合,ALPの標準学力テストに対する積極的効果を示した研究は2研究あったが,その他の研究は群間の差を示さなかった.学習行動促進要因の1つである課題従事行動を評価した4研究が,ALPの積極的効果を示した.バイアスリスクは低程度から高程度であった.</p><p>結論:研究デザインの質は改善しているものの,バイアスリスクは高い.総じてALPは学力を阻害することなく身体活動を促進させることのできるプログラムであるといえるものの,健康指標への有効性について言及するためには更なる検討が必要である.</p>
著者
喜屋武 享 高倉 実
出版者
日本健康教育学会
雑誌
日本健康教育学会誌 (ISSN:13402560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.229-245, 2019-08-31 (Released:2019-08-31)
参考文献数
53

目的:教科学習中の学習を伴う身体活動介入(active lesson program,以下,ALP)の質を評価し,介入による身体活動,体格,健康指標,学業への有効性に関するエビデンスを更新すること.方法:2015年4月から2018年8月に公刊された学術論文を5つの電子データベース(ERIC, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, EMBASE)より選定した.選択基準は1)身体活動と学習内容の双方が含まれた授業であること,2)身体活動量,体格,体力要素,学業成績,学習行動促進要因を介入効果指標としていること,3)ランダム化比較試験,準実験デザイン研究,前後比較研究のいずれかであること,4)5歳~18歳の児童生徒が対象であること,5)介入期間が少なくとも1週間以上であること.学習内容が含まれない身体活動小休止,複合的な介入の一部として実施されたALP,特異的な集団(肥満児や障がい児)を対象とした研究は除外した.研究のバイアスリスクは,the Cochrane Collaboration “risk of bias” assessment toolを用いて評価した.結果:10研究が採択・除外基準に適合した.そのうち,6研究は身体活動と学業の双方を,3研究は学業のみを,1研究は身体活動のみを評価した.10研究のうち2研究は,ALPと有酸素運動による小休止を比較したのに対し,その他は身体活動を伴わない授業を対照群として設定していた.全ての研究でALP後の身体活動量の増加を認めた.身体活動を伴わない学習と比較した場合,ALPの標準学力テストに対する積極的効果を示した研究は2研究あったが,その他の研究は群間の差を示さなかった.学習行動促進要因の1つである課題従事行動を評価した4研究が,ALPの積極的効果を示した.バイアスリスクは低程度から高程度であった.結論:研究デザインの質は改善しているものの,バイアスリスクは高い.総じてALPは学力を阻害することなく身体活動を促進させることのできるプログラムであるといえるものの,健康指標への有効性について言及するためには更なる検討が必要である.
著者
與古田 孝夫 石津 宏 秋坂 真史 名嘉 幸一 高倉 実 宇座 美代子 長濱 直樹 勝 綾子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.81-91, 1999-03-31 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
36

To clarify Japanese university students' attitude toward suicide and to relate it with their views on life and death, a questionnaire survey was conducted for 1, 366 students of University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa Prefecture in 1992 The major findings were as follows.1. The subjects who had thought about suicide (called "suicide awareness" group) accounted for 6.3% ; compared between the students from Okinawa and those from other prefectures this rate was significantly higher in the latter (p<0.01).2. The suicide awareness group thought about death earlier in their lives and had more positive attitude toward death such as "release from suffering, " "beautiful" and "peaceful" than other two groups.3. The association between attitude toward suicide and consciousness about death in the homeland was recognized by the suicide awareness group (a half of the students) more than by other two groups (p<0.001) and the suicide awareness group showed higher proportions in justification of suicide (p<0.001) and in courageous behavior for suicide (p<0.05).4. Compared with other two groups, the suicide awareness group had a higher proportion in positive feeling on the effect of religion on death (p<0.001) and a lower proportion in belief of metempsychosis (remigration of souls) (p<0.001).5. Regarding the association with terminal situation, the suicide awareness group showed a higher proportion in recognition of cerebral death as human death (p<0.001) and differed from other two groups in desired place at death and desired treatment in the terminal period.
著者
秋坂 真史 尾尻 義彦 高倉 実
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科學 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.375-381, 1997-08-01
被引用文献数
8 1

In order to obtain the basic data for the relationship between factors related to sports and bone density of high school girls, bone densities of a heel were measured, and physical characteristics and living backgrounds on exercises were surveyed.The subjects were one-hundred and forty two girls (15〜18years, mean±SD=16.5±0.84years)of a high school in Nagano prefecture, accepted our visiting bone health check.Bone density was measured by ultrasound bone-densitometer 'Achilles'(Lunar).As for the data, we obtained the stiffness index(Stiffness)with a self-registered questionnaire for the items of physical and exercise factors for the girls in puberty.High school girls who belong to a sport club have significantly higher bone density than other girls.In detail, those who do the sports which consist of mainly running or jumpping, have significantly higher bone density than others who do no sports.There also were significants on the kinds of sports, on the frequency of sports and on the duration of sports.Moreover, those who had the regular sports history have higher bone density than those who had no regular sports history, and the mean Stiffness of the group that care to do physical exersises daily was higher than those who do not care to do exercises.These results suggest that there are many kinds of factors related to sports which favourably contribute to obtain sufficient bone mass of high school girls who are in a developmental stage.
著者
高倉 実
出版者
日本健康教育学会
雑誌
日本健康教育学会誌 (ISSN:13402560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.4, pp.239-244, 2016 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
29

目的:平成28年6月11日~12日に沖縄科学技術大学院大学で開催された第25回日本健康教育学会学術大会における学会長講演の内容を報告する.内容:はじめに沖縄の健康状況の現状と推移について触れ,平均寿命の延びが鈍化していることや生産年齢層の死亡率が高いことを示した.そして,その背景要因について,ライフスタイルが直接的な決定要因であること,その根本的原因と考えられる社会的決定要因の状況がきわめて悪いことを紹介した.次いで,健康の社会的決定要因の観点から,沖縄の「ゆいまーる」に代表される特徴的な社会的文脈と健康との関係について焦点を当て,沖縄の社会関係が健康悪化をバッファするかもしれないことについて考察した.これに関して,これまでの沖縄における高齢者および青少年の社会関係と健康に関するいくつかの知見を紹介した.結論:これらの知見を勘案して,人々の社会関係を活かした健康教育・ヘルスプロモーションがきわめて重要であることを強調した.
著者
等々力 英美 大屋 祐輔 高倉 実 大角 玉樹 青木 一雄 佐々木 敏 勝亦 百合子
出版者
琉球大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

沖縄野菜を主体とした沖縄型食事介入による 1-2 年間の無作為割付比較試験を行った。 対象者は横浜東京在と沖縄在住の 40-60 歳代夫婦、合計 61 1 名であった。伝統的沖縄食事パターンによる短期の介入の後に、継続する情報介入を行うことで、血圧の減少が持続していた。薄味の食事摂取による集中的な教育効果と、情報介入による長期の働きかけの組み合わせは、減塩を含めた食事指導の有効なツールの1つになりうると考えられた。