著者
鹿村 恵明 真野 泰成 小茂田 昌代 根岸 健一 佐藤 嗣道 宮崎 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.9, pp.1263-1273, 2016 (Released:2016-09-01)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

This nationwide survey aimed to evaluate reduction of drug and medical costs due to prevention of serious adverse drug reactions through pharmaceutical inquires by community pharmacist, and investigate relation with iyaku bungyo (separation of dispensing from medical practice) rates. Using the national list of pharmacies, 10% of pharmacies were randomly selected by prefecture and asked to participate in an Internet-based survey. The survey period was 7 days, from July 21 to July 27, 2015. Of the 5575 pharmacies queried, 818 responded to the survey (response rate: 14.7%). The proportion of inquiries to total prescriptions was 2.6%. Among these, the proportion of prescriptions changed in response to inquiry was 74.9%. An estimated 103 million yen was saved by reducing drug costs, and 133 million yen was saved by reducing medical costs due to prevention of serious adverse drug reactions. Comparison of prescription change rates between pharmacies with high and low iyaku bungyo rates indicated that the proportion of prescriptions changed was significantly higher in pharmacies with high iyaku bungyo rates than in those with low iyaku bungyo rates (78.2% vs. 69.9%, p<0.01). The findings suggest that inquiries about prescriptions are useful in ensuring the safety of pharmacotherapy and reducing the cost of healthcare. They also suggest that iyaku bungyo promotes prescription changes through inquiries, leading to proper use of pharmaceutical products.
著者
田村 恵理 岸本 桂子 福島 紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.133, no.6, pp.737-745, 2013 (Released:2013-06-01)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 2 1

This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in ‘Maintenance Problem’ between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were ‘active-inactive’ and ‘frequency mask use’, a negative factor was ‘age’. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.
著者
岸本 桂子 羽坂 亜希子 山浦 克典 福島 紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.10, pp.1401-1413, 2016 (Released:2016-10-01)
参考文献数
40

Pharmacy is required to shift toward human service such as hearing the complaints of health. But the study about help-seeking behavior to pharmacist is not really investigated. We hypothesized that a decrease in expression visibility, due to pharmacists' typical masks, may negatively impact help-seeker' trust in pharmacist. The sample included 100 drugstore customers aged ≥18 years. Participants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to two groups: evaluation of clear-masked and normal-masked pharmacists. After viewing a video with either male or female pharmacists wearing either clear or normal masks, participants completed a questionnaire. The primary outcome was trust in pharmacist measured by the Trust Scale and the secondary outcome was impression of the pharmacist measured by nineteen pairs of adjectives. There were no differences by gender on trust scores. Results revealed that both male and female pharmacists who wore clear masks were rated as more trustworthy than normal-masked pharmacists (p<0.001, d=0.903, and p=0.001, d=0.716, respectively). Sixteen of nineteen adjectives reported for pharmacists wearing normal masks indicated greater negative intention than those with clear masks (d=0.431-1.469). In most cases, among pharmacists wearing clear masks, results showed positive correlations between trust and each impression adjective (r=0.279-0.710). Our findings indicate that pharmacists wearing normal masks, which partially hide facial expressions, may decrease customer's trust in pharmacist. Further, normal masks were associated with negative impression. To avoid the inhibition of help-seek behavior, we recommend that pharmacists wear a clear mask and increase non-verbal communication.
著者
眞部 遥香 野澤 茜 松元 美香 大谷 道輝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.6, pp.763-766, 2017 (Released:2017-06-01)
参考文献数
16

Steroid ointments are frequently mixed with moisturizer. It was reported that steroid ointments mixed with moisturizer increase permeability. There are only few studies done on the permeability of the moisturizer. We researched moisturizing effect of heparinoid ointment (Hirudoid Soft ointment) diluted with white petrolatum (Propeto) on the dry skin models by measuring water content of stratum. Two to four fold dilution of Hirudoid to white petrolatum resulted in a significant decrease in the moisturizing effect of the active ingredient. There was no significant difference in moisturizing effect between four times diluted mixture and white petrolatum alone. This leads to the conclusion that steroid ointment mixture with moisturizer is frequently used, but we should take more caution regarding the decrease of moisturizing effect.
著者
大町 康
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.4, pp.557-563, 2015 (Released:2015-04-01)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.
著者
佐藤 芳樹 菅谷 なえ子 中川 友夫 森田 昌敏
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.4, pp.631-642, 2015 (Released:2015-04-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1 1

We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detected, and their concentrations ranged from 0.0085-0.23% DEP in nine samples, 0.012-0.045% DBP in four samples, and 0.012-0.033% DEHP in four samples. No other phthalate esters were detected. Furthermore, we estimated phthalate exposure via breathing in commonly used aromatic and deodorant aerosol products, then evaluated the associated risk. The estimated levels of phthalate exposure were lower than the tolerated daily limit, but the results indicated that aromatic and deodorant aerosol products could be a significant source of phthalate exposure.
著者
竹田 修三
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.133, no.10, pp.1093-1101, 2013 (Released:2013-10-01)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
3 3

Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2′,6′-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.
著者
清水 忠 上田 昌宏 豊山 美琴 大森 志保 高垣 伸匡
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.8, pp.987-998, 2017 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational program on EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students. Our preliminary educational program included the following four sessions: 1) ice breaker, 2) formulation of answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario using the PICO criteria, 3) critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist, and 4) critical appraisal of the results and integrating the evidence with experience and patients values. Change in knowledge and skills related to EBM were evaluated using pre- and post-seminar 4-point scale questionnaires comprising of 14 questions. A total of 23 pharmacists, 1 care manager, and 5 pharmacy students participated in our EBM educational seminar. Knowledge and skills related to several variables improved significantly post-seminar (pre-seminar 2.80 versus 3.26 post-seminar; p<0.001). Specifically, the skills of formulating answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario and critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist improved. Our findings suggested that EBM educational program using problem-based learning was effective in improving EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students.
著者
須藤 鎮世
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.11, pp.1197-1211, 2015 (Released:2015-11-01)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
1 3

The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points. 1) Radiation doses were underestimated by half because of disregard for major residual radiation, resulting in cancer risk overestimation. 2) The dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2 is used, but the actual DDREF is estimated as 16, resulting in cancer risk overestimation by several times. 3) Adaptive response (hormesis) is observed in leukemia and solid cancer cases, consistently contradicting the linearity of LNT. Drastic reduction of cancer risk moves the dose-response curve close to the control line, allowing the setting of a threshold. Living organisms have been evolving for 3.8 billion years under radiation exposure, naturally acquiring various defense mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, and immune response. The failure of LNT lies in the neglect of carcinogenesis and these biological mechanisms. Obstinate application of LNT continues to cause tremendous human, social, and economic losses. The 60-year-old LNT must be rejected to establish a new scientific knowledge-based system.
著者
小島 周二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.134, no.2, pp.155-161, 2014 (Released:2014-02-01)
参考文献数
10

Since the Fukushima nuclear plant accident following the great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011, we have been warned to be careful about possible radiation exposure almost every day in newspapers and on TV. Radioactive iodine (131I) and cesium (134Cs, 137Cs) produced by nuclear reactions were released into the air during and after the accident, and have been scattered by the winds in Tohoku and in the Kanto district. Even today, 2 years after the accident, there is great public concern about possible pollution of foodstuffs and fishery products with radioactive cesium, not only in Japan, but also in other countries. On the other hand, decontamination work has been proceeding, including removal of contaminated soil near the accident site. Since the accident, many media reports have continued to tell us only that current dose levels of radiation are not dangerous to human health. But, many people are not satisfied with such vague statements, and want to understand the situation in more detail. So, it is important to provide basic education about the effects of radiation to the general public. I am a professor of the Department of Radiation Biosciences at Tokyo University of Science, and so I am very familiar with radiation and its dangers. So, in my lecture today, we would like to explain the effects of radiation and put the present situation into perspective, so that people will better understand the risks, and not be unnecessarily afraid.
著者
松田 尚樹 森田 直子 三浦 美和
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.134, no.2, pp.135-142, 2014 (Released:2014-02-01)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1 1

The accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive materials resulting in the radioactive contamination of a wide area of eastern Japan. Residents of the Fukushima prefecture experienced various unavoidable damages and fear of radiation effects on their health. A reliable communication of accurate risk assessment for residents is required as a countermeasure aimed at the reconstruction of Fukushima. Here, the current status of individual dose estimation and the issues relating to the radiation risk perception are discussed.
著者
小園 亜希 諌見 圭佑 塩田 喜美子 津曲 恭一 永野 真久 井上 大奨 安達 るい 平木 洋一 中川 義浩 神村 英利 山道 研
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.5, pp.769-776, 2016 (Released:2016-05-01)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
2

Falls are common in elderly patients and are often serious. Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of fall. Older adults often take multiple drugs for chronic diseases, and thus may be at increased risk from drugs associated with fall. We investigated the association between drug use and falling in hospitalized older people, with the goal of identifying medications that may increase the risk of a fall. A retrospective case control study was performed at the National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Saishunso Hospital in Japan. Medications taken by patients who fell (n=57) were compared with those taken by patients who did not fall (n=63). The median age (interquartile range; IQR) of the fall and non-fall groups were 75.0 (67.0-83.0) and 80.0 (70.3-84.5) years, respectively. The characteristics of the two groups were similar, with no significant differences in age, sex, or body weight. The probability of falling increased when the patients used zolpidem [odds ratio (OR)=2.47; 95%CI: 1.09-5.63; p<0.05] and calcium channel antagonists (OR=0.299; 95%CI: 0.13-0.68; p<0.01), and was also related to physical factors (OR=2.27; 95%CI: 1.01-5.09; p<0.05). Elderly patients taking zolpidem may fall due to sleepiness, and blood pressure control may be important to prevent orthostatic high blood pressure. In the treatment of elderly people, medical staff should try to choose drugs that prevent fall or are not associated with falling.
著者
Xiaolu FENG Jincai LU Hailiang XIN Lei ZHANG Yuliang WANG Kexuan TANG
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.131, no.3, pp.423-429, 2011 (Released:2011-03-01)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
13 18

The aim of this study was to ascertain the anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and its chemical constituents. The adjuvant arthritic rat model was developed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of different fractions of ethanol extraction from C. spinosa L. The fraction eluted by ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) had the most significant anti-arthritic activity. The chemical constituents of this fraction were therefore studied; seven known compounds were isolated and identified as: (1) P-hydroxy benzoic acid; (2) 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural; (3) bis (5-formylfurfuryl) ether; (4) daucosterol; (5) α-D-fructofuranosides methyl; (6) uracil; and (7) stachydrine.
著者
早瀬 幸俊
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.3, pp.121-132, 2003-03-01 (Released:2003-03-26)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
15 12

By October 2002, the separation of prescribing and dispensing in Japan had already been implemented for 28 years since the system was inaugurated in 1974. Although the separation rate reached 44.5% in 2001, the questions, “Is the separation necessary in Japan?” or “Has the system been working successfully?” are often heard. These questions are raised because people have not noted the advantages of the system yet, and because the separation itself has many problems or shortcomings. These questions are not only from pharmacists, but also from physicians, patients, or medical and educational institutions. If the problem concerns pharmacists, it is assumed to stem from their lack of ability required for the separation. A breakthrough for an early solution of the problem will be found in a change in education, which includes a range of clinical subjects and long-term clinical practices.
著者
細野 智美 近藤 愛子 神林 泰行 本間 真人
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.8, pp.999-1003, 2017 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

Several case studies have reported a possible drug interaction between warfarin and tramadol where tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. To assess this drug interaction, changes in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) before and after tramadol coadministration were investigated in patients receiving warfarin. For this study, we examined 54 patients (male/female: 22/32, 68.4±12.7 years) who were being treated with warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis obliterans, congestive heart failure, and other vascular diseases. Significant increases in PT-INR were observed 9.5 (1-118) d after coadministration of tramadol (1.81±0.56 vs. 2.47±1.10, p<0.01). Twenty-eight patients (PT-INR increased group) with PT-INR elevation of greater than 0.5 or dose reduction of warfarin after coadministration of tramadol were compared with other groups of patients to find drug interaction risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower levels of albumin (3.5 g/dL or less) [odds ratio (OR) 22.1; 95%CI 2.9-169.9]; lower eGFR (50 mL/min or less) (OR 7.7; 95%CI 1.4-42.0); and PT-INR before tramadol coadministration (OR 38.2; 95%CI 3.7-397.6) were characteristic of the PT-INR increased group. These results suggest that tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin in patients with higher PT-INR, lower albumin levels and decreased renal function as the risk factors for this drug interaction.
著者
篠崎 幸喜
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.132, no.2, pp.237-241, 2012 (Released:2012-02-01)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
2 2

We used a mobile electrocardiograph to manage the adverse effects and interactions of drugs, especially QT-prolonging drugs, in a community pharmacy setting. We report the case of a patient in whom the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) was lowered, after monitoring by community pharmacists. Case: An 80-year-old woman was under donepezil (5 mg/d) therapy for Alzheimer's disease and also taking other drugs that interact with donepezil, namely, benidipine (8 mg/d) and atorvastatin (10 mg/d). The patient was visited almost every month, and an electrocardiogram was usually obtained. QTc prolongation (avg. 470±9 ms) was observed in the first to third tests. Her doctor was informed about these results and the risk factors (advanced age, gender, and drugs interactions (benidipine and atorvastatin)) associated with TdP and asked to respond promptly since several cases of donepezil-induced TdP have been reported. As a result, benidipine was replaced with amlodipine, while the remaining drugs were continued. After the change, a significant decrease in QTc values were observed in the fourth to seventh tests (avg. 441±9 ms, p=0.010), thereby indicating a decrease in TdP risk. The Drug Interaction Probability Scale (object drug, donepezil; precipitant drug, benidipine) score was +6 (probable). Thus, QTc shortening was a result of differences in donepezil-benidipine and donepezil-amlodipine interactions.
著者
大山 勝宏 井上 みち子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.7, pp.1065-1071, 2016 (Released:2016-07-01)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
3

Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.
著者
清水 忠 西村 奏咲 上田 昌宏
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.138, no.8, pp.1085-1093, 2018-08-01 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
7

Recently, it has been reported that only a small number of sixth-year students who had undergone a long-term pre-clinical training in the fifth year found organic chemistry useful. To explain this, we hypothesized that pharmacists are unable to utilize the knowledge of organic chemistry to solve clinical problems. With the aim of addressing this problem, we conducted a workshop consisting of a series of lectures and exercises on structural similarity, solubility, absorption, and metabolism of drugs based on a chemical structural formula. Then, we administered a questionnaire survey to 253 participants who had participated in our workshop. The questionnaire comprised 17 questions, and free descriptions were analyzed using text mining. Results showed that, although about 45% of the participants confirmed the chemical structural formula described in the medical package insert, and about 22% of the participants had the opportunity to check the metabolites described in the drug interview form, more than 90% of the participants were interested in the workshop contents. Thus, pharmacists may want to learn how the process of utilizing the chemical structural formula can be applied to their clinical practice.
著者
炭 昌樹 長谷川 千晶 森井 博朗 星野 伸夫 奥貫 裕美 金本 賢枝 堀江 美弥 岡本 陽香 藪田 直希 松田 雅史 神谷 貴樹 須藤 正朝 増田 恭子 岩下 由梨 松田 佳織 本岡 芳子 平 大樹 森田 真也 寺田 智祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.138, no.5, pp.715-722, 2018 (Released:2018-05-01)
参考文献数
10

The importance of community-based care systems has increased due to the highly aging population and diversity of disease. To enhance the cooperation among healthcare professionals in community-based care systems, a two-day on-site training program for community pharmacists based on a multidisciplinary team approach was conducted at the Medical Science Hospital of Shiga University from April 2015 to March 2017. There were two professional courses in this training program: the palliative care course and nutrition support course. Both courses consisted of common pharmaceutical care training as follows: regional cooperation among healthcare professionals, pharmacist's clinical activities in the ward, pressure ulcer care, infection control, and aseptic technique for parenteral solutions. Each course was limited to 2 participants. A questionnaire was given to participants in the training program. Seventy-five pharmacists participated in the training and all of them answered the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 86% of participants felt that 2 days was an appropriate term for the training program. Positive answers regarding the content of each program and overall satisfaction were given by 100% and 99% of the participants, respectively. In the categorical classification of free comments regarding the expected change in pharmacy practice after the training, both “support for patients under nutritional treatment” and “cooperation with other medical staff” were answered by 24 participants. These results suggested that the 2-day on-site training for community pharmacists facilitated cooperation among healthcare professionals in the community.
著者
清水 敏之
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.2, pp.173-178, 2016 (Released:2016-02-01)
参考文献数
16

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize microbial components and initiate subsequent immune responses. TLR7 and TLR8 recognize single-stranded (ss)RNA and initiate innate immune responses. Moreover, several small-molecule compounds have been identified as TLR7 and TLR8 activators. We determined the crystal structures of unliganded and ligand-induced activated human TLR8 dimers. Upon ligand stimulation, the TLR8 dimer was reorganized such that the two C-termini were brought into proximity. Ligand binding induces reorganization of the TLR8 dimer, which enables downstream signaling processes. To elucidate how TLR8 recognizes its natural ligand, ssRNA, as well as how the receptor can be activated by ssRNA that is structurally and chemically very different from the chemical ligands, we performed crystallographic studies of TLR8 in complex with ssRNA. TLR8 recognizes, at distinct sites, uridine and small oligonucleotides derived from the degradation of ssRNA. Uridine bound the site on the dimerization interface where small chemical ligands are recognized, whereas short oligonucleotides bound a newly identified site. Based on structural information, new compounds have been developed. We describe the crystal structure of a newly developed agonist, C2-butyl furo[2,3-c]quinolone.