著者
齋藤 慈子 篠塚 一貴
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.187-197, 2009 (Released:2010-01-22)
参考文献数
86
被引用文献数
1

Compared with dogs (Canis familiaris), the social cognitive abilities of cats (Felis catus) have not received much research attention, probably because cats are not considered to be as social as dogs. However, cats have in fact developed sociality in conspecifics and, needless to say, cat-human relationships after their domestication. This paper initially considers the reasons behind the underestimation of cats' social abilities, and then reviews social behavior among conspecifics and in the cat-human relationship. Several studies have provided evidence that cats possess social intelligence. Since their intelligence is considered to be expressed in different context from that of dogs, methods different from those used to study dogs are therefore needed for investigating their social abilities. Appropriate experiments or devices will undoubtedly unravel the high social intelligence of cats.
著者
澤 幸祐
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.59-67, 2012 (Released:2012-07-27)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 1

Many researchers have been interested in cognitive abilities of animals and investigated those issues by using several methods. Associative learning theory, which is mainly adopted in classical and operant conditioning literature, has been considered “simple” and sometime “appropriate” account of animal behavior from the point of view of Morgan's canon. In present article, criticism toward associative account and another reason why associative account is appropriate for animal behavior were reviewed, proposing proper usage of associative learning theory in complex animal behavior. One possible answer in present discussion is that associative learning theory is some kind of “intermediate language”, which can work as the bridge among neural mechanism, psychological faculty in animals, and anthropomorphic explanations.
著者
中尾 央 後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.65.1.1, (Released:2015-02-07)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1

This paper considers methodological problems in animal metacognition studies. After summarizing a variety of experimental designs to study animal metacognition, we review recent literature that were not included in Fujita (2010)'s more comprehensive review. We then examined Carruthers (2008; Carruthers and Rithie 2012)' skeptic argument against animal metacognition. He argued that no experiments thus far successfully exclude the possibility that animals, as well as human infants, elicit "metacognitive" responses without explicitly and consciously monitoring internal representations. We argued that newly developed experimental paradigms to study explicit memory processes could be a key to reject Caruuthers' skeptic argument and thus facilitate understanding how we access to the internal representations.
著者
中尾 央 後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.45-58, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1

This paper considers methodological problems in animal metacognition studies. After summarizing a variety of experimental designs to study animal metacognition, we review recent literature that were not included in Fujita (2010)'s more comprehensive review. We then examined Carruthers (2008; Carruthers and Rithie 2012)' skeptic argument against animal metacognition. He argued that no experiments thus far successfully exclude the possibility that animals, as well as human infants, elicit "metacognitive" responses without explicitly and consciously monitoring internal representations. We argued that newly developed experimental paradigms to study explicit memory processes could be a key to reject Caruuthers' skeptic argument and thus facilitate understanding how we access to the internal representations.
著者
後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.49-57, 2012 (Released:2012-07-27)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
3 1

Anthropomorphim is an enduring controversy in comparative cognition. Some studies in comparative cognition search for human-like behavior as evidence for evolutionary continuity of mental processes as Darwin encouraged. Others eschew interpreting observed behaviors in terms of anthropomorphic mental processes. Even in the former cases, students of comparative cognition often use the predictions by associative learning or reinforcement learning as killjoy explanations to examine the existence of complex cognitive processes shared between humans and other species. In the present paper, I reviewed some of such challenges, including my own, to show how anthropomorphic questions can be studied scientifically. I also reviewed other studies in which the killjoy explanations were inappropriately applied. Misuses of the killjoy explanations are typically revealed by showing human adults behave differently from the experimenters anthropomorphic predictions.
著者
瀧本 彩加
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.67.1.4, (Released:2017-05-17)

Recently, there have been more and more chances to talk about our study in English even in domestic conferences, symposiums or workshops in Japan. However, unfortunately, almost all of us have not received enough training for making English presentation yet. Therefore, I would like to introduce the very basics of pronunciation, making slides, way of talking and answering questions from the audience to help beginners through their first English oral presentation.
著者
渡辺 茂
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.89-97, 2009 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
34

Animal study in modern psychology has started as animal model study for general theory of human behavior. I examined pigeons and songbirds as models of human visual cognition and human auditory cognition respectively. Due to difference in anatomical structures and evolutionary history between the birds and humans, research to understand human cognition by avian models has limitation. On the other hand, researches with birds, far distant animals from human beings, are crucially important to understand visual and auditory cognitive faculty in general, because these faculties are not human-specific but widely spread in animal kingdom.
著者
瀧本 彩加
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.65.1.4, (Released:2015-05-09)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
2

Prosocial behaviors have been considered a hallmark of humans in the past. However, accumulating experimental data in comparative cognitive science have revealed that nonhuman animals also show prosocial behaviors. Nevertheless, its evolutionary path has remained unclear despite a great deal of recent research effort. In this paper, I first review experimental studies on prosocial behaviors in nonhuman primates, by focusing on the influences of request behavior and social closeness. Then, I evaluate some factors that have been thought to play an important role in facilitating the convergent evolution of prosocial behaviors (inequity aversion, interdependence, tolerance) based on experimental data. I finally propose some possible future studies to explore the evolutionary path of prosocial behaviors, by referring to the previously discussed psychological mechanism that seems to support nonhuman primates’ prosocial behaviors (Yamamoto & Takimoto, 2012).
著者
高岡 祥子
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.15-23, 2009 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
1 1

Recent researches have shown that dogs (Canis familiaris) possess a number of social cognitive abilities and communicate with humans in unique ways. Several researches suggest that dogs do not only use the overt features of humans (e.g., pointing, gaze) to find a hidden food in an object choice task, but also recognize the covert aspects of humans (e.g., knowledge) to predict the actions of them. This paper reviews evidence showing such excellent social cognition in dogs. Several comparisons between wolves and dogs suggest that human-like social skills by dogs have evolved as a by-product of domestication. Besides, some researchers argue the possibility of acquisition of similar social skills between dogs and humans through convergent cognitive evolution, which enabled them to communicate. The study of social cognitive skills in dogs will broaden our understanding of comparative social cognition.
著者
PEGGY MASON
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.71-78, 2015 (Released:2015-12-18)
参考文献数
28

The basis of affectively motivated helping of another in distress has long been debated by scholars in diverse disciplines. Work in rodents that took place more than 50 years ago suggested that rodents participate in affective communication. Now the author's laboratory has established an ethical and feasible test for rodent helping behavior that involves one rat freeing another from a plastic tube. The helping exhibited is consistent, reinforced, socially selective, and independent of immediate social contact. A recent modified version of the helping behavior test confirms that rats help a conspecific in need. In sum, the complex social behavior, expressed by rodents and primates including humans, validates the notion that mammals share a phylogenetic inheritance that promotes other-oriented affective behavior.
著者
RALPH ADOLPHS
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.11-22, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

The science of emotion is in a crisis: despite an enormous literature studying emotion from the perspectives of psychology and neuroscience, there is little agreement on any theory of emotion. The most acute problem is that our commonsense concept of "emotion" essentially involves conscious experience, whereas the scientific concept should not. I suggest that this state of affairs is, however, no different than in any other domain of cognitive psychology or cognitive neuroscience. Numerous examples show the need for a scientific concept of emotion. Both psychological and neurological data require such a concept in order to make sense of the data. I argue that (a) we cannot dispense with a scientific concept of "emotion"; and (b) such a concept needs to be grounded in broad data across a range of species; and (c) we need to begin formulating specific criteria for its application. In this paper I begin by outlining what the problem is, give some examples from my own research, and conclude with a framework for thinking about emotions that gives them scientific purchase.
著者
実森 正子
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.7-18, 2013 (Released:2013-07-31)
参考文献数
46

The field of animal learning and behavior has a long history and continues to contribute in important ways to the understanding of cognitive processes in different animal species as compared to human beings. Animals have considerable flexibility to optimize their behaviors in solving particular problems as well as coping with ever-changing circumstances. Research on learning mechanisms from a comparative perspective may deepen our understanding of functional significance of cognitive behaviors of both human and nonhuman species. Examples are taken from studies of list memory, categorization, formation and expansion of equivalence relations among physically different stimuli, and visual search for category.
著者
佐藤 暢哉
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.105-117, 2010 (Released:2010-12-22)
参考文献数
67

Episodic memory is defined as a memory system that consciously carries out recollecting one's subjective past experience and re-experiencing it. Through these mental activities, episodic memory is thought to make mental time travel retrospectively and prospectively possible, which is sometimes considered to be unique to humans. However, after a seminal study in scrub-jays by Clayton & Dickinson (1998), animal models of episodic memory have been developing and are starting to affect the concept of human episodic memory itself. This paper will concentrate on reviewing the studies that could encourage nonhuman animals to utilize memory — the properties are consistent with current definition of human episodic memory. Additionally, a discussion on the possibility to divide the system of episodic memory into two sub-processes and to study in animals the sub-processes of episodic memory will be undertaken.
著者
上野 将敬
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.2, pp.91-107, 2016 (Released:2017-01-26)
参考文献数
118

Many researchers have investigated why and how animals benefit from each other in a group. Grooming is considered as prosocial behavior in animal societies; the groomer expends time and energy costs, while the groomee receives hygienic and physiological benefits. Based on the reciprocal altruism hypothesis (Trivers, 1971), many researchers have investigated grooming behaviors in primate species. In primates, individuals exchange grooming for grooming or other social benefits (e.g., tolerance for food, agonistic support, or infant handling). Researchers have also established and modified models of grooming reciprocity. In future researches, it would be valuable to investigate the effects of affiliative elationships, soliciting behaviors, self-rewarding, inequity aversion, and partner choice and partner switching on prosocial behaviors.
著者
高砂 美樹
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.19-38, 2010 (Released:2010-06-25)
参考文献数
104

After evaluating the history of comparative or animal psychology in Japan, a development over the past 150 years, four distinct generations of comparative psychologists can be discerned in terms of their active involvement in the field. The zero generation, spanning the second half of the 19th century, was marked by the import of Darwinian evolutionary theory, which was implemented especially through lectures by Edward S. Morse. The first generation appeared in the early 20th century, with Koreshige Masuda heralded as the foremost comparative psychologist during this time. The 1.5-generation researchers were influenced by Gestalt psychology, which had been developed in Europe. The second generation emerged after World War II with the arrival of neobehavioristic psychology. Originated in the U. S., it was studied by comparative psychologists such as C. L. Hull and B. F. Skinner, who considerably influenced Japan's post-war generation. The third generation of comparative psychologists in Japan took root in the 1980s and was characterized by studies of cognitive process. Due to space limitations, the zero and first generations are solely detailed here.