著者
齋藤 慈子 篠塚 一貴
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.187-197, 2009 (Released:2010-01-22)
参考文献数
86
被引用文献数
2 1

Compared with dogs (Canis familiaris), the social cognitive abilities of cats (Felis catus) have not received much research attention, probably because cats are not considered to be as social as dogs. However, cats have in fact developed sociality in conspecifics and, needless to say, cat-human relationships after their domestication. This paper initially considers the reasons behind the underestimation of cats' social abilities, and then reviews social behavior among conspecifics and in the cat-human relationship. Several studies have provided evidence that cats possess social intelligence. Since their intelligence is considered to be expressed in different context from that of dogs, methods different from those used to study dogs are therefore needed for investigating their social abilities. Appropriate experiments or devices will undoubtedly unravel the high social intelligence of cats.
著者
澤 幸祐
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.59-67, 2012 (Released:2012-07-27)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 1

Many researchers have been interested in cognitive abilities of animals and investigated those issues by using several methods. Associative learning theory, which is mainly adopted in classical and operant conditioning literature, has been considered “simple” and sometime “appropriate” account of animal behavior from the point of view of Morgan's canon. In present article, criticism toward associative account and another reason why associative account is appropriate for animal behavior were reviewed, proposing proper usage of associative learning theory in complex animal behavior. One possible answer in present discussion is that associative learning theory is some kind of “intermediate language”, which can work as the bridge among neural mechanism, psychological faculty in animals, and anthropomorphic explanations.
著者
瀧本 彩加 堀 裕亮 藤田 和生
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.141-153, 2011 (Released:2011-12-19)
参考文献数
72
被引用文献数
5 2

Horses (Equus caballus) have lived with humans for over 5500 years. Despite this, their cognitive abilities have not received much research attention compared with those of dogs (Canis familiaris), probably because horses are not as familiar to humans as dogs and have been considered to be difficult to test. Recent studies, however, have revealed their sophisticated social cognitive abilities with regard to both conspecifics and humans. In this paper we first describe fundamental characteristics of horse perception and horse sociality. Then, we review horses' learning and cognitive abilities, especially social cognitive abilities shown among conspecifics and in the horse-human relationship. Several studies have provided evidence that horses possess sensitivity to human-given cues and attentional states. Future studies should investigate ontogeny of horses' cognition and the influence of effects including training history and the exposure to humans, and possibly test how such cognition is supported by genetics.
著者
永澤 美保 岡部 祥太 茂木 一孝 菊水 健史
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.47-63, 2013 (Released:2013-07-31)
参考文献数
129
被引用文献数
2 1

This review shows the effects of oxytocin involved in bond formation and the manner of reciprocal communication leading to mother-infant bonding in rodents. Various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups, reinforce the mother-infant bond formation in rats and mice. This suggests that the mother and infant are able to develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of each other. Although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants have not yet been clarified, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each sides of the mother-infant bonding process. The deprivation of social stimuli from the mother strongly influences the offspring’s sociality, including maternal behavior towards their own offspring, which implies the “non-genomic transmission of maternal environment.” The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.
著者
西村 剛
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.49-58, 2010 (Released:2010-06-25)
参考文献数
42

The sophisticated feature of human speech allows us to turn much information encoded by language in the brain into sounds and to communicate it with others rapidly and efficiently. Human speech shows highly sophisticated modifications of supralaryngeal vocal tract (SVT) in volume and shape, through voluntary regulation of the vocal apparatuses, which is usually regulated involuntarily in other mammals. Paleoanthropologists have continued to debate the “origin” of language, evaluating distinct morphological features, which are presumed to underlie just human speech, but such continued efforts have no consensus on the age of the origin. On the other hand, recent advances in empirical studies on the development of the SVT anatomy in nonhuman primates endorse the idea that many of the separate biological foundations of speech had evolved independently before the origin of human beings, under different selection pressures unrelated to speech. The efforts have contributed to our better understanding on the mosaic processes of the speech evolution, and could contribute greatly to exploring the long “evolutionary history” of speech.
著者
後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.49-57, 2012 (Released:2012-07-27)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
3 1

Anthropomorphim is an enduring controversy in comparative cognition. Some studies in comparative cognition search for human-like behavior as evidence for evolutionary continuity of mental processes as Darwin encouraged. Others eschew interpreting observed behaviors in terms of anthropomorphic mental processes. Even in the former cases, students of comparative cognition often use the predictions by associative learning or reinforcement learning as killjoy explanations to examine the existence of complex cognitive processes shared between humans and other species. In the present paper, I reviewed some of such challenges, including my own, to show how anthropomorphic questions can be studied scientifically. I also reviewed other studies in which the killjoy explanations were inappropriately applied. Misuses of the killjoy explanations are typically revealed by showing human adults behave differently from the experimenters anthropomorphic predictions.
著者
中尾 央 後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.45-58, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1

This paper considers methodological problems in animal metacognition studies. After summarizing a variety of experimental designs to study animal metacognition, we review recent literature that were not included in Fujita (2010)'s more comprehensive review. We then examined Carruthers (2008; Carruthers and Rithie 2012)' skeptic argument against animal metacognition. He argued that no experiments thus far successfully exclude the possibility that animals, as well as human infants, elicit "metacognitive" responses without explicitly and consciously monitoring internal representations. We argued that newly developed experimental paradigms to study explicit memory processes could be a key to reject Caruuthers' skeptic argument and thus facilitate understanding how we access to the internal representations.
著者
渡辺 茂
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.89-97, 2009 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
34

Animal study in modern psychology has started as animal model study for general theory of human behavior. I examined pigeons and songbirds as models of human visual cognition and human auditory cognition respectively. Due to difference in anatomical structures and evolutionary history between the birds and humans, research to understand human cognition by avian models has limitation. On the other hand, researches with birds, far distant animals from human beings, are crucially important to understand visual and auditory cognitive faculty in general, because these faculties are not human-specific but widely spread in animal kingdom.
著者
澤 幸祐
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.73-76, 2008 (Released:2008-06-27)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

Species comparison, whether explicit or implicit, is an essence in animal psychology but the role of species comparison differs among research paradigms. For example, associative learning and neuroscientific research examines proximal causes of behavior, and different species are compared in order to test the generality of mechanisms. Comparative cognition, on the other hand, examines what natural history influences cognition, and different species are compared in order to hypothesize ultimate causes that explain species difference found under experimental circumstances. Finding a synthesized interpretation of species difference across multiple paradigms does not facilitate better understanding what species similarities (and differences) mean. Instead, I discuss that more translation should be done between the paradigms. Translation brings critiques and novel ideas from one paradigm to the other, yet preserving ideas in each approach. It, therefore, allows us to interpret psychological phenomena from multiple perspectives, and thus provide novel insights to each other. Translations among the diverse paradigms within the discipline of animal psychology will also provide unique perspectives to research in human psychology.
著者
高岡 祥子
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.15-23, 2009 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
1 1

Recent researches have shown that dogs (Canis familiaris) possess a number of social cognitive abilities and communicate with humans in unique ways. Several researches suggest that dogs do not only use the overt features of humans (e.g., pointing, gaze) to find a hidden food in an object choice task, but also recognize the covert aspects of humans (e.g., knowledge) to predict the actions of them. This paper reviews evidence showing such excellent social cognition in dogs. Several comparisons between wolves and dogs suggest that human-like social skills by dogs have evolved as a by-product of domestication. Besides, some researchers argue the possibility of acquisition of similar social skills between dogs and humans through convergent cognitive evolution, which enabled them to communicate. The study of social cognitive skills in dogs will broaden our understanding of comparative social cognition.
著者
PEGGY MASON
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.71-78, 2015 (Released:2015-12-18)
参考文献数
28

The basis of affectively motivated helping of another in distress has long been debated by scholars in diverse disciplines. Work in rodents that took place more than 50 years ago suggested that rodents participate in affective communication. Now the author's laboratory has established an ethical and feasible test for rodent helping behavior that involves one rat freeing another from a plastic tube. The helping exhibited is consistent, reinforced, socially selective, and independent of immediate social contact. A recent modified version of the helping behavior test confirms that rats help a conspecific in need. In sum, the complex social behavior, expressed by rodents and primates including humans, validates the notion that mammals share a phylogenetic inheritance that promotes other-oriented affective behavior.
著者
菊水 健史
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.62.1.7, (Released:2012-07-04)
参考文献数
36

Dogs have been domesticated by humans for more than 15,000 years. Now, dogs are the most closely related animals to humans in the world. Behind this evolutional process, the rare ability of dog's social cognition and to read human emotions and situations have been pointed out. The superior cognitive ability of dogs have achieved a unique niche in the human society, also nowadays its cognitive and learning ability has become a valuable research topic in the research field of animal psychology. Recent studies of human and dog suggest that these two species have been developed in the convergent evolution, on the process of domestication. So our best friend “dog” is not just domesticated animals, a “companion” who live together within human society as a unique species. This paper introduces some specific social skills of dogs and its biological properties, which have been revealed by molecular biological and cognitive science approaches in recent years.
著者
藤田 和生
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.1, pp.11-21, 2016 (Released:2016-06-27)
参考文献数
37

Dogs are known to be extremely sensitive to human behavior. They use human gestures such as pointing as a cue better than great apes. A question here is whether this wonderful human companion simply reads apparent "behavior" of us, or, like humans, more deeply some sort of indirect information the behavior implies. In three separate tests, including pointing games with a non-trustworthy person, inference of the door function from human behavior toward it, and third-party affective evaluation of human interactions, we show that dogs often utilize more than superficial actions they observe. Dogs are at least somewhat "cognitivists" rather than pure "behaviorists" that learn everything by simple association with observable stimuli.
著者
佐藤 暢哉
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.105-117, 2010 (Released:2010-12-22)
参考文献数
67

Episodic memory is defined as a memory system that consciously carries out recollecting one's subjective past experience and re-experiencing it. Through these mental activities, episodic memory is thought to make mental time travel retrospectively and prospectively possible, which is sometimes considered to be unique to humans. However, after a seminal study in scrub-jays by Clayton & Dickinson (1998), animal models of episodic memory have been developing and are starting to affect the concept of human episodic memory itself. This paper will concentrate on reviewing the studies that could encourage nonhuman animals to utilize memory — the properties are consistent with current definition of human episodic memory. Additionally, a discussion on the possibility to divide the system of episodic memory into two sub-processes and to study in animals the sub-processes of episodic memory will be undertaken.
著者
上野 将敬
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.2, pp.91-107, 2016 (Released:2017-01-26)
参考文献数
118

Many researchers have investigated why and how animals benefit from each other in a group. Grooming is considered as prosocial behavior in animal societies; the groomer expends time and energy costs, while the groomee receives hygienic and physiological benefits. Based on the reciprocal altruism hypothesis (Trivers, 1971), many researchers have investigated grooming behaviors in primate species. In primates, individuals exchange grooming for grooming or other social benefits (e.g., tolerance for food, agonistic support, or infant handling). Researchers have also established and modified models of grooming reciprocity. In future researches, it would be valuable to investigate the effects of affiliative elationships, soliciting behaviors, self-rewarding, inequity aversion, and partner choice and partner switching on prosocial behaviors.