著者
中尾 央 後藤 和宏
出版者
THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.65.1.1, (Released:2015-02-07)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1 1

This paper considers methodological problems in animal metacognition studies. After summarizing a variety of experimental designs to study animal metacognition, we review recent literature that were not included in Fujita (2010)'s more comprehensive review. We then examined Carruthers (2008; Carruthers and Rithie 2012)' skeptic argument against animal metacognition. He argued that no experiments thus far successfully exclude the possibility that animals, as well as human infants, elicit "metacognitive" responses without explicitly and consciously monitoring internal representations. We argued that newly developed experimental paradigms to study explicit memory processes could be a key to reject Caruuthers' skeptic argument and thus facilitate understanding how we access to the internal representations.
著者
中尾 央 後藤 和宏
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.45-58, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1

This paper considers methodological problems in animal metacognition studies. After summarizing a variety of experimental designs to study animal metacognition, we review recent literature that were not included in Fujita (2010)'s more comprehensive review. We then examined Carruthers (2008; Carruthers and Rithie 2012)' skeptic argument against animal metacognition. He argued that no experiments thus far successfully exclude the possibility that animals, as well as human infants, elicit "metacognitive" responses without explicitly and consciously monitoring internal representations. We argued that newly developed experimental paradigms to study explicit memory processes could be a key to reject Caruuthers' skeptic argument and thus facilitate understanding how we access to the internal representations.
著者
標葉 隆馬 飯田 香穂里 中尾 央 菊池 好行 見上 公一 伊藤 憲二 平田 光司 長谷川 眞理子
出版者
研究・イノベーション学会
雑誌
研究 技術 計画 (ISSN:09147020)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.90-105, 2014

知識経済とグローバル化に対応するための方策として,科学技術政策を始めとする種々の政策において高度知識人材の育成が議論されるようになって久しい。その間,大学-大学院レベルの教育において,高度な専門性に加えて,異分野との協働,コミュニケーション,そして説明・応答責任に関する能力の育成が求められるようになってきた。これらの高度知識人材に必要とされる汎用的能力の育成に関して論じられている事柄は,国内外の「科学と社会」教育が試みてきた「幅広い視野」の育成とも重なる議論である。しかしながら,とりわけ日本において大学院重点化が進められてきた状況を意識しつつ国内外の状況に目を向けるならば,大学院レベルにおける高度教養科目としての「科学と社会」教育プログラムの実施は,内外を問わず試行錯誤が重ねられているのが現状である。本稿ではこの状況を俯瞰しつつ,「総合研究大学院大学(総研大)」の事例を中心に,その現状を記述・検討する。総研大では,研究者の「幅広い視野」涵養を目的として,これまでに必修科目も含めた「科学と社会」教育の取り組みを行ってきた経緯がある。この作業を通じて,今後の「科学と社会」教育の可能性と解決すべき課題について考察する。
著者
田中 泉吏 中尾 央
出版者
京都大学文学部科学哲学科学史研究室
雑誌
科学哲学科学史研究 (ISSN:18839177)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.1-19, 2009-02-28

The aim of this paper is to critically examine the theory of linguistic analogy of morality by Mikhail, Harman, Hauser, and Dwyer through a comparison with emotional theory of morality by Haidt, Greene, and Prinz. The theory of linguistic analogy argues that moral judgments come from our unconscious moral grammar. Dual process theory by Greene, on the other hand, argues that moral judgments are based on our unconscious emotional response and conscious reasoning. We argue that the action analysis model in the theory of linguistic analogy may be able to reveal an important aspect of moral judgment, but that the theory of linguistic analogy should not underestimate the role of emotion in moral judgment.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.1-16, 2012 (Released:2016-01-13)
参考文献数
31

For the last two decades, since Barkow et al. (1992), evolutionary psychology has been fiercely criticized by many philosophers of science and other scientists. This article aims to rebut these criticisms and defend the research program of evolutionary psychology. I mainly focus on three criticisms: (1) we have not evolved as many modules in the changing environments as evolutionary psychologists have assumed, (2) massive modularity hypothesis fails, and (3) it is difficult to infer the present from the past. Through rebutting them, I conclude that evolutionary psychology is methodologically valid, and also empirically promising to some degree.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.236-248, 2015 (Released:2018-06-19)
著者
中尾 央
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.1-8, 2012
参考文献数
46

This paper analyzes modularity in biological and cultural evolution. Evolutionarily modularized or quasi-independent biological traits can vary relatively independently from other traits and have higher variability, and developmentally modularized biological traits have robust developmental processes and higher variability and heritability. First, I point out that these two concepts should not be confused. Second, by focusing on the concept of evolutionary modularity, I argue that it can increase (and actually have increased at least in some cases) evolvability also in the context of cultural evolution if cultures are modularized through looking at some specific examples of cultural evolution.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
京都大学文学部科学哲学科学史研究室
雑誌
科学哲学科学史研究 (ISSN:18839177)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.21-38, 2009-02-28

This paper will focus on and analyze the recent arguments on mental modularity. Although the Massive Modularity Hypothesis (MMH) has been criticized by many philosophers and psychologists, Barrett, Sperber, and Carruthers argue that these criticisms have misunderstood the meaning of the concept of "module" in MMH; they argue that this concept differs from Fodorian module and should be investigated in terms of functional specialization. Through clarifying the concept of module in these arguments and the reasons why MMH based on such mental modules can be supported, the author will consider the relationships between MMH and culture. In particular, the author will argue that MMH can explain social learning because some biases in the Dual Inheritance Theory can be also regarded as modules. It follows that MMH can be compatible with the Dual Inheritance Theory to a significant degree.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.1-8, 2012-09-30 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
46

This paper analyzes modularity in biological and cultural evolution. Evolutionarily modularized or quasi-independent biological traits can vary relatively independently from other traits and have higher variability, and developmentally modularized biological traits have robust developmental processes and higher variability and heritability. First, I point out that these two concepts should not be confused. Second, by focusing on the concept of evolutionary modularity, I argue that it can increase (and actually have increased at least in some cases) evolvability also in the context of cultural evolution if cultures are modularized through looking at some specific examples of cultural evolution.
著者
中尾 央 野下 浩司 金田 明大 田村 光平
出版者
南山大学
雑誌
新学術領域研究(研究領域提案型)
巻号頁・発行日
2019-06-28

本領域が対象とする出ユーラシア地域のモニュメント,遺物,民族誌データ、認知的データ、自然人類学的データ等を空間的・時間的位置を基準とするフレームワークに位置づけて相互参照・検索可能な形とする.SfM・三次元スキャナーやLiDAR 測量など三次元計測によって取得されたデータともリンクすることで,楕円フーリエ解析などの幾何学的形態測定の手法を用いた定量的な解析・比較を行う.また総括班との密接な連携の下,異分野統合のハブとしての役割を果たし,領域全体の一貫性・統合性を確実なものとする.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
京都大学文学部科学哲学科学史研究室
雑誌
科学哲学科学史研究 (ISSN:18839177)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.75-86, 2008-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of Trivers's reciprocal altruism model in the evolutionary study of human behavior. Human behavioral ecologists use the reciprocal altruism model to predict and explain human behaviors. In evolutionary psychology, on the other hand, Cosmides and Tooby use this model not to explain human behaviors but to predict a module for detecting cheaters. I will argue these different applications of the model reflect different construals of the model.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
京都大学文学部科学哲学科学史研究室
雑誌
科学哲学科学史研究 (ISSN:18839177)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.27-48, 2013-02-28

For the last three decades, the gene-centrism have been criticized not only in philosophy of biology but also in some other scientific fields. Evolutionary developmental biology, ecological developmental biology, and medicine have emphasized "epigenetics" (i.e., researches on epigenetic interactions) to explain novelties or variations of traits, and some argue that epigenetic researches are a kind of "revolution" against the gene-centrism. A stronger criticism can be found in developmental systems theory: Some advocators argue that we cannot determine the specific causes of trait formation, and that the gene-centrism is cleary wrong. This article focuses on researches on genomic information especially in medicine and argues that we should distinguish between empirical and methodological gene-centrism, and the latter can be still defended. Actually there have been discovered many statistically relevant genes for some specific diseases especially in genome-wide association studies, and they promote further epigenetic or developmental studies, suggesting that methodological gene-centrism is useful in these cases.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
京都大学文学部科学哲学科学史研究室
雑誌
科学哲学科学史研究 (ISSN:18839177)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.27-48, 2013-02-28

For the last three decades, the gene-centrism have been criticized not only in philosophy of biology but also in some other scientific fields. Evolutionary developmental biology, ecological developmental biology, and medicine have emphasized "epigenetics" (i.e., researches on epigenetic interactions) to explain novelties or variations of traits, and some argue that epigenetic researches are a kind of "revolution" against the gene-centrism. A stronger criticism can be found in developmental systems theory: Some advocators argue that we cannot determine the specific causes of trait formation, and that the gene-centrism is cleary wrong. This article focuses on researches on genomic information especially in medicine and argues that we should distinguish between empirical and methodological gene-centrism, and the latter can be still defended. Actually there have been discovered many statistically relevant genes for some specific diseases especially in genome-wide association studies, and they promote further epigenetic or developmental studies, suggesting that methodological gene-centrism is useful in these cases.