著者
菊水 健史 茂木 一孝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬理学会
雑誌
日本薬理学雑誌 (ISSN:00155691)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.149, no.2, pp.66-71, 2017 (Released:2017-02-01)
参考文献数
30

動物,特にヒトを含む哺乳類における子の発達で最も特徴的な点は,発生初期を母親の胎内で過ごし,出生後においても哺乳行動を中心とした母子間のつながりが強いことである.この期間に子が母親から受ける様々な刺激は,身体発達に多大なる影響を与え,個体の内分泌系や行動様式に長期的な変化を引き起こす.ゆえに,哺乳類の発達期の社会環境は,個体の獲得するエピジェネティックな変化の解明において,最も重要な要素だといえる.このような発達期の社会的要素の一つとして,離乳が挙げられる.これまで離乳の早期化が,仔マウスの成長後の不安行動の増加,情動反応を変化させること,また早期に離乳された雌マウスでは,自分が母親になった際にも通常に離乳された雌マウスに比べ,排泄を促すためや母乳を飲むよう促すための仔をなめる行動の時間が短くなることが明らかとなった.そこで本稿では,早期離乳による情動行動の変化に加え,その神経機能の変化に関し,特に前頭葉に注目した最近の知見を紹介する.C57BL/6マウスを用い,生後15日で親から離乳する早期離乳を施し,成長後に高架式十字迷路試験による不安行動評価,恐怖条件付け試験による恐怖記憶の消去抵抗性評価を行った.そして,前頭葉における脳由来神経栄養因子(BDNF)タンパク質発現測定,各プロモーター由来BDNF mRNA発現量測定を行い,その背景となる分子メカニズム同定を試みた.その結果,恐怖条件付けを受けた早期離乳マウスでは消去学習過程における消去の抵抗性が増加し,前頭葉のBDNF III mRNA及びBDNFタンパク質が低下した.さらに,これらの間には負の相関もみられたことから,早期離乳による恐怖記憶の消去抵抗性には,前頭葉におけるBDNF III mRNAの発現低下を介したBDNF作用の減弱が関わっていることが予想された.これらの知見は,幼少期の早期の母子分離が永続的な前頭葉のBDNFを介した機能不全を導くことを示唆し,早期離乳マウスがヒトにおける前頭葉の機能不全のモデルとなる可能性を示した.
著者
菊水 健史
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.67.1.1, (Released:2017-04-25)
参考文献数
22

During domestication/evolution process of dogs, dogs have acquired human-like nonverbal communication skills, such as gaze and pointing following by humans, and gaze alternative behavior toward the owners. These skills, especially using eye gaze, are believed to promote the co-habituation of dogs in human society. Not only the communicative function of dog's eye-gaze with humans, it works as to form bonding between them. Eye-gaze from dogs to their owners increased urinary oxytocin, and the owner showed affiliative interactions with their dogs, which in turn, stimulate oxytocin release in dogs. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulate maternal behavior as well as social interactions. Therefore, human and dogs can form a biological bonding via oxytocin positive loop in both sides. This type of positive loop was not observed in wolves, suggesting that dogs have acquired this function in their domestication process. Future behavioral genetic research will reveal the critical genes responsible for human-dog interaction, which would shed a light on the critical questions; "why", "how" and "when" dogs become a Man's best friend.
著者
武内 ゆかり 森 裕司 菊水 健史
巻号頁・発行日
2005 (Released:2005-04-01)

同一犬種内における気質の個体差の遺伝的背景を探る目的で,日本古来の柴犬と使役犬としても名高いラブラドールレトリバー種(盲導犬候補個体)に着目し,柴犬では飼い主による気質評価アンケートと,ラブラドールレトリバー種では訓練士による訓練評価記録と,主に申請者らが同定した気質関連遺伝子の多型との関係を解析した。その結果,柴犬では,他人に対する攻撃性とsolute carrier family 1, member 2遺伝子の一塩基多型が,ラブラドールレトリバー種では,活動性と同多型およびcatecholamine-O-methyltransferase遺伝子の一塩基多型が有意に関連していることが明らかとなった。
著者
菊水 健史
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.19-27, 2017

<p>During domestication/evolution process of dogs, dogs have acquired human-like nonverbal communication skills, such as gaze and pointing following by humans, and gaze alternative behavior toward the owners. These skills, especially using eye gaze, are believed to promote the co-habituation of dogs in human society. Not only the communicative function of dog's eye-gaze with humans, it works as to form bonding between them. Eye-gaze from dogs to their owners increased urinary oxytocin, and the owner showed affiliative interactions with their dogs, which in turn, stimulate oxytocin release in dogs. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulate maternal behavior as well as social interactions. Therefore, human and dogs can form a biological bonding via oxytocin positive loop in both sides. This type of positive loop was not observed in wolves, suggesting that dogs have acquired this function in their domestication process. Future behavioral genetic research will reveal the critical genes responsible for human-dog interaction, which would shed a light on the critical questions; "why", "how" and "when" dogs become a Man's best friend.</p>
著者
菊水 健史
出版者
THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.68.1.5, (Released:2018-04-12)
参考文献数
40

Group living mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed 'social buffering', has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates, and also in humans. This phenomenon is well-observed in bonded dyad; the mother-infant or pair-bonded dyads. Social contact, including allogrooming, appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. These relationships depend on the neuroendocrine system, especially oxytocin. Oxytocin is released by affiliative social contact in dyads and can ameliorate stress and anxiety in both sides. This review overviews the classic finding of social buffering in animals and describe the recent findings of neuroendocrinological mechanisms for social buffering.
著者
菊水 健史
出版者
日本動物心理学会
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.101-110, 2012 (Released:2012-07-27)
参考文献数
36

Dogs have been domesticated by humans for more than 15,000 years. Now, dogs are the most closely related animals to humans in the world. Behind this evolutional process, the rare ability of dog's social cognition and to read human emotions and situations have been pointed out. The superior cognitive ability of dogs have achieved a unique niche in the human society, also nowadays its cognitive and learning ability has become a valuable research topic in the research field of animal psychology. Recent studies of human and dog suggest that these two species have been developed in the convergent evolution, on the process of domestication. So our best friend “dog” is not just domesticated animals, a “companion” who live together within human society as a unique species. This paper introduces some specific social skills of dogs and its biological properties, which have been revealed by molecular biological and cognitive science approaches in recent years.