著者
細谷 瑞枝 Mizue Hosoya
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 I,人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.77-94, 2016

In diesem Aufsatz wird das Verhaltnis zur unirdischen Welt in europaischen Marchen mit dem Vergleich zwischen den Marchentypen ATU 710 "Our Lady's Child" und ATU314 "Goldner" behandelt. Die beiden Marchen haben das Motiv der ,verbotenen Kammer' und die gleiche Konstruktion; Die Hauptfigur muss ihr Elternhaus verlassen und einem ubernaturlichen Wesen wie der Gottesmutter oder dem Damon dienen. Sie ubertritt dessen Verbot, in eine Kammer einzutreten, und muss deshalb diese unirdiesche Welt verlassen. In der irdischen realen Welt beweist sie im Schloss bei eimen Konig ihre Fahigkeit, besteht eine Probe und lebt als Konig(in) glucklich.Trotz dieser Gemeinsamkeit kann man das Erlebnis in der verbotenen Kammer beim Marchen ATU710 als ein numinoses Erlebnis, und das beim ATU314 als eine Initiation interpretieren. Das magische Pferd, das die Hauptfigur von ATU314 in der verbotenen Kammer gesehen hat, symbolisiert, dass sie die Probe der Initiation erfolgreich bestanden hat. Und es ist ein Merkmal der europaischen Variante von ATU314, dass das Pferd tief in der unirdischen Welt, sogar in der verbotenen Kammer eingeschlossen ist, wahrend das Pferd von der asiatischen Variante zwar magisch, aber wie gewohnlich im Stall auf der irdischen Welt ist.
著者
小山 陽平
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.171-189, 2013

"SYSTEMA" is Russian martial arts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational value of "SYSTEMA" in physical education at a Japanese university. 33 Japanese university students who had participated in SYSTEMA training in gym class once a week (total of 15 times) filled out questionnaires based on free description. The text data obtained from the questionnaire results were analyzed using KJ method.The educational values of Russian martial arts "SYSTEMA" were summarized as follows : (1)Some students had the opportunity to understand their mental and physical conditions. (2)There were new experiences that some students had never experienced. (3)SYSTEMA training could help develop some students' characters. (4)Some students learned how to cope with stress through SYSTEMA training.
著者
二瓶 恵 Nihei Megumi 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.37-57, 2010-01-01

Dix-sept reformes de l'orthographe franciase ont ete procedees entre 1650 et 1835. Cette renovation orthographique a purifie la langue francaise de l'epoque des debris du latin. Grace a elle, les bases du francais moderne ont ete batis par degres. A trevers des divers evenements importants, comme l'ordonnance de Villers-Cotterets, l'invention de l'impression typographique, la fondation de l'Academie francaise et l'enseignement public a titre gratuit, la langue francaise s'est repandue graduellement dans toutes les couches sociales de la France comme une seule langue commune et officielle. Notre but dans cet article est parcourir cette evolution et montrer comment l'orthographe francaise a ete modernisee.
著者
平塚 謙一 Kenichi Hiratsuka
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 2, 社会・自然科学 (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.201-214, 2014

The social constructionism opened a new ground level about needs understanding.However, the problem of the needs which are not expressed on the other hand was radicalized further.In this paper, in order to build the logic for satisfying the needs which are not expressed,theoretical consideration was performed.
著者
青木 茂男 Sigeo Aoki
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 II,社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.171-189, 2014

The DCF is the primary valuation method applied for the tender offers, followed by the relative valuation method. Rarely used are replacement value method, relative trading method,DDM, and discounted earnings method. The DDM is applied only for financial institutions. The results of the valuation are shown by a monetary value within a certain range, and multiple results are shown instead of one that is a result of integrating various results. It differs from the judicial precedents that indicate an exact monetary amount by integrating several valuation results. The residual income model (RIM), considered crucial in finance theory, is not applied to the tender offers. The tender offer price often exceeds the upper limit of the range indicated by the relative valuation method or stock market price method, on the other hand, 90% of the amount ranges of the DCF are within the tender offer price. Influencing factors that enlarge the amount range for the DCF include discount rate and terminal values, among others. This enlarged range leads to decreased reliability of the valuation method
著者
長島 正浩 Masahiro NAGASHIMA
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.209-221, 2015

The publication of the gift certificate with the premium by each local government is prosperous recently.This paper reports various legal problems about the resale of the gift certificate.It is very important to local government that I inspect whether it violates a law to resell a giftcertificate.The gift certificate with the premium isprepaid paymentinstruments.However,the Payment Services Act is not applied to the gift certificate.Therefore,they should protect the person using some kind of methods if a gift certificate publisher prohibits the resale of the person who purchased it.
著者
立木 徹 伏見 陽児 Tatsuki Toru Fushimi Yohji 茨城キリスト教大学生活科学部 千葉大学教育学部
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.269-285, 2008-01-01

Nankichi Niimi's literary masterpiece, Gongitsune, serves as standard educational material for teaching Japanese in many Japanese primary schools. The protagonist is a little fox named Gon who lives on the outskirts of a village and plays pranks on the villagers. One day Gon releases fish from a net set by Hyoju, a villager, and steals Hyoju's, eels. After Hyoju's mother passes away, Gon realizes Hyoju caught the eels for his ailing mother and regrets stealing the eels. He then returns under cover to Hyoju's house with chestnuts and mushrooms in order to atone for his misdeed. When Gon sneaks into Hyoju's house, Hyoju misunderstands Gon's intent and shoots him. Finding the chestnutssoon after, Hyoju realizes Gon's gifts were for him. The narrative closes with Hyoju exclaiming "Gon, was it you who always brought chestnuts for me?" Some readers think that Hyoju understands Gon's intention of compensation for depriving Hyoju's mother of the eels. Read properly, Hyoju clearly does not understand Gon's intention and feelings and the misunderstanding occurs. Tatsuki & Fushimi (2003, 2004) conducted three experiments to reconfirm the erroneous interpretation of university students and attempt to correct the misinterpretation. Results suggested, however, that the subject's erroneous interpretation of Gongitsune did not improve and was not corrected. The purpose of this study was to attempt again to correct the misinterpretation, and the authors conducted three experiments. In Experiments 1, the student subjects presented and discussed their opinions. In Experiment 2, the authors explained that Hyoju's perspective differed from that of Gon. In Experiment 3, the investigators interviewed the subjects in a semi-structured method. The results suggested that the subjects still thought that Hyoju understood Gon's compensatory intention. The subjects' erroneous interpretation of Gongitsune did not improve and was not corrected. The authors determined the subjects' misreading of the text was result of reader's intuitive, sentimental reading and confusing the facts with their inferences.
著者
掛川 富康 Tomiyasu KAKEGAWA
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
no.51, pp.73-87, 2017

民主的なワイマール体制も30年代からその問題を露呈させてくる。ロマニスト,E. R. Curtiusは,警告の書「危機に立つドイツ精神」(32年)において,伝統的教養に対する時代の憎悪に警告を発し,その救済の視線をラテン中世に注ぎ始める。文学者Thomas Mannは,「戦闘的フマニスムス」を唱える。古典学者W. Jaegerは,パイデイアとキリスト教思想の統合を図る。フランスの歴史家H.-I.Marrouは,ホメロス以来のヒューマニズムと中世キリスト教思想のなかに,戦後の文化形成の可能性を祈念する。E. Gilsonは,そのトミズム理解を基礎に,人間のラチオナールな思惟能力のうちに人間性の基礎を求める。ボン大学のロマニスト,Curtiusは,ホメロスの叙事詩のなかに人間性の再生の原点を見ようとする。渡辺一夫は,16世紀フランスのラブレーの文学に専心し,新教と旧教の対立に見られる宗教的狂気に抗してユマニスムに視線を注ぐ。戦後に現れたヒューマニズムへの回帰は,多くの場合,ホメロスの叙事詩の中にフマニスムスと文学性の根源的連関を確認しているが,このような時代の中で,ロマニストE. Auerbachは,創世記とホメロスの叙事詩を嚆矢とする西洋の(通時的)文学史を,キケロの三文体論とキリスト教による並行的文体及び謙抑体との交錯という視点から考察する(「ミメーシス」47年)。ヘブライ・キリスト教思想の中に宿る,日常性と悲劇とを統一して理解する文体の可能性をとらえ,旧約聖書・創世記や新約聖書の日常ギリシャ語(所謂のコイネー)の中に,三文体論では見られなかった新しい現実描写の可能性を認知する(様式混合Stilmischung)。この様式混合は,後年19世紀フランス文学のリアリズム(スタンダール,バルザック,フローベール)の中で再生したとされる。10年後の「中世の読者と言語」(58年)においては,古代の教養を受領したロマンス語圏と異なってドイツ文学とその地におけるフマニスムスの不毛性が指摘される。俗ラテン語(Gregor von Tour)も未成長にとどまったとされ,カール大帝によって招来されたラテン語文化の復興も,神学・典礼・法学を担う社会上層部に限定され,文学言語としての生命力を秘めた俗ラテン語や民族語には無縁であったと判断される。18世紀後半いらいのドイツ特有の歴史主義によって,GoetheやSchillerにおいて新しい文学的覚醒が見られたが,新しい社会の現実には,無力であり,その無力さは,Ciceroの文体による(閉鎖的な)現実理解の突破を可能とした様式混合が見られない事実と対応するとされる。戦後のドイツ・ロマニストの業績の一つは,ゲルマンの地においては,文学性とフマニスムスが歴史的に未成熟であることを指摘したことであろう。
著者
青木 茂男 Aoki Sigeo 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.199-210, 2011-01-01

As stock valuation methods became diverse and multiple, cases of disputes in court increased. This paper aims to deepen the valuation theory by reviewing various judicial precedents in Japan through the following key questions: Which valuation methods are supported in disputes? How have such supports changed over the years? What is the level of acceptance of the DCF method in cases of disputes? What are the differences in dealing with stock valuation between listed and non listed stocks? How are stocks valued in recent judicial precedents? What are the issues concerning taxation? The paper also contributes to an area of accounting and finance which lacks researches of the valuation methods in judicial precedents in Japan.
著者
銭谷 秋生 Akio Zeniya
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.89-106, 2006-01-01

Thomas Nagel argues in The Possibility of Altruism that just as there are rational requirements on thought, there are rational requirements on action, of which altruism is one. According to Nagel, the altruism, that is a willingness to act in consideration of the interests of other persons without needing ulterior motives, is not to be confused with general affection for humanity. Altruism is not a feeling, but a rational requirement on desire and action, which one can't refuse in so far as one can recognize the reality of other persons and have the capacity to regard oneself as merely one individual among many. Can this claim be justified rationally? This article summarizes and examines the arguments for Nagel's claim. There are ethical views denying the rationality of altruism. The typical views are, according to Nagel, egoism and practical solipsism. He discusses these ethical views and tries to refute them. This article also examines his rebuttal, thereby clarifying the foundation of his own ethical theory.
著者
加藤 悠 中島 美那子 Kato Haruka Nakajima Minako 日本労働者協同組合連合会センター事業団 特定非営利活動法人ワーカーズコープ 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
no.45, pp.119-129, 2011

This study attempted to illuminate the relationship to levels of self-esteem and parenting attitudes in mothers with infants. Mothers (N=81) completed the self-esteem scale (10 items) and the parenting attitudes scale (30 items). As a part of the results, the higher group of self-esteem indicated the higher level of parenting attitudes. Other results were that homemaker mothers tended toward lower degree of self-esteem and also indicated lower level of parenting attitudes in comparison with mothers working full-time. Single mothers have lower degree of self-esteem than married mothers with a significant difference. It is well known that children's self-esteem is influenced by mothers' self-esteem. For the purpose of improving mothers' self-esteem and children's self-esteem as well, it is necessary for mothers (especially for homemaker mothers and single mothers) that the burden of childcare is lightened.
著者
富樫 ひとみ Hitomi TOGASHI
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.187-198, 2015

This study is to discuss contemporary significance of youth volunteer activities and new roles of volunteer coordination institution,using examples from a volunteer coordination institution in Germany.From the results of the survey,it revealed that volunteer activities have two significances,one is an educational function and the other is acquisition and enhancement of social capital.From these significances,I think it is our right to do volunteer activity.And I think that volunteer coordination institution have four roles.The first role is to coordinate.The second role is to promote securing fairness for opportunities to participate in volunteer activities.The third role is to promote of educational function.The fourth role is to increase the volunteer actors for the promotion of symbiosis society.
著者
上野 尚美 バスキン ローリー スティーブンス パトリック Naomi Ueno Rory Baskin Patrick Stephens
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.65-91, 2004-12-25

本稿は2つの目的を持って書かれている。第1の目的は、2004年4月にスタートした茨城キリスト教大学文学部新学科(現代英語学科)における新科目(Activities)と、小学校における『総合的な学習の時間』(2004年4月スタート)内に実施される"英語活動"の効果的な方法について、本学学生にとっての教育的効果と小学校における教育的効果とを併せて考察することである。
著者
野口 誠
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.47-59, 2001

How to cope with terrorism is said to be one of the greatest problems in this century. Through many experiences in the past we cannot help admitting that even the strongest military power cannot be relied upon for the prevention or eradication of terrorist acts. So this problem is a hot issue discussed from different angles through mass media every day. This essay aims to give some views on the same subject on the basis of what the Bible says. The Bible tells us two ways to prevent and to solve the problem of terrorism. As for the prevention: if we find that someone has something against us, first of all we should go and be reconciled with him with every humility and meekness (Cf. Matt. 5:23-25). As for the solution we should not retaliate for what our enemy has done against us (Rom. 12:19). Not to retaliate is an excellent virtue. But the Bible exhorts us to do more than that. This "more than that" means the characteristic of love which the Bible teaches. There are two very famous sayings in the world. One is Jesus' teaching: "Do to others as you would be done by", which is called "The Golden Rule"(Matt. 7:12). The other is Confucius' teaching: "Do not do to others as you would not be done by", which is called "The Golden Mean". At first sight these two sayings seem quite similar, but on reflection we find that the two are quite different. The former is positive, while the latter is negative. Jesus says, "And if any one forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles."(Matt. 5:41). If any one forces us to go one mile, to go with him one mile is the golden mean or the principle of nonresistance. This is not what Jesus wants us to do. What Jesus exhorts us to do is to love the other as much as to make one mile become two miles. The Apostle Paul exhorts us to overcome evil with good (Rom. 12:21). During the Second World War two American missionaries, man and wife, were murdered on the groundless suspicion as spies by the Japanese army deep in the mountain on one of the Philippine Islands. The missionary couple asked for thirty minutes before the execution. They read the Bible and prayed and submitted to the sword. In time their young daughter in the States got the news and was greatly depressed at first. But when she thought of her parents' prayer before they were killed, she forgave the Japanese army who had murdered her parents. She decided to tell the gospel of the forgiveness of sins through the crucifiction of Jesus Christ to the Japanese armies. So she served devotedly the Japanese soldiers in the concentration camp in America. She gave her forgiveness to the Japanese unit who had murdered her parents. In addition her love in Christ made her do to their fellow soldiers more than merely forgive. This true story led Mitsuo Fujita, the supreme commander of the Japanese unit which made a terroristic surprise airraid on the Pearl Harbor (Dec. 8, 1941), to Christ Jesus. He did a very good job as a preacher not only in Japan but in the States also. After all if the anti-terrorism policy is not based upon the spirit of Jesus's teaching "Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you."(Matt. 5:44), all is vain.
著者
藤山 修 Osamu Fujiyama
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
no.51, pp.109-125, 2017

There are interesting academic discussions in "Dochaku to Haikyo" (1967 Shinkyo Publishing) and "Seito to Itan no Aida" (1976 Tokyo University Publishing) by Kiyoko Takeda regarding acceptance of Christianity among Japanese people. Kiyoko Takada argues that both idiosyncrasy and adequacy exit in how Christianity is viewed in Japan and she label those as "Between Orthodoxy and Heresy." In Japan, there are people who touch Christianity during their youth and whether or not it has impacts on their lives or the way of their thinking, many of them decide to leave away from Church and act as they have renounced their faith. As a result, those who become eminent figures in various fields could influence others to accept Christianity whether or not they are aware of the fact that their interpretations on how they see the world around them or their philosophies are based on Christianity. Even though they might not realize they are Christians, they do possess Christian-like perspectives and live their lives base on the values they have learnt from the religion, therefore we could still see hope for Christianity to take root in Japan. Kiyoko Takeda discusses "Between Orthodoxy and Heresy" type of people will lead and procreate a platform for Christianity and Japanese indigenous culture to connect and cross over their boundary, and positively sow the good seed. The thesis of this article is to argue and prove Mado Michio himself is "Between Orthodoxy and Heresy" by studying his interactions with Christianity and deep insights of his poets and nursery songs, and also suggest his works would positively contribute people in Japan to accept Christianity.
著者
岩﨑 眞和 五十嵐 透子 Masakazu Iwasaki Toko Igarashi
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 II,社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.211-224, 2016

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors related to the development of Japanese appreciation/gratitude research, through a review of psychological research abroad and in Japan.Research on appreciation/gratitude has been expanding since 2000 in Western countries whereas gradually cumulating data in Japan. Suggestions for the future study were necessity of the empirical research to clarify the mechanism by which appreciation/gratitude improve well-being and mental health, and to understand the development of appreciation/gratitude as a life-span process in Japan.
著者
竹内 桂 Takeuchi Kei 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.173-186, 2010-01-01

In 1974, Shiina Etsusaburo, who was the vice-president of the Liberal Democratic Party(LDP), decided to nominate Miki Takeo for the president of the LDP. There are four reasons why Miki was nominated. First, Shiina expected that Miki could modernize LDP. Second, Miki had a long career as a member of the House of Representatives. Third, there was the only situation where Miki could be nominated. And forth, Shiina prevented Miki from making a new party.After Miki became a prime minister of Japan, he set out to form a cabinet. When Miki chose the ministers, he considered balance of factions of LDP, the number of times person was elected, and a member of the House of Councillors. As a result, Miki's organization of cabinet became much different form his first design.This organization suggests that Miki suffered from conducting the government.