著者
細谷 瑞枝 Mizue Hosoya
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 I,人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.77-94, 2016

In diesem Aufsatz wird das Verhaltnis zur unirdischen Welt in europaischen Marchen mit dem Vergleich zwischen den Marchentypen ATU 710 "Our Lady's Child" und ATU314 "Goldner" behandelt. Die beiden Marchen haben das Motiv der ,verbotenen Kammer' und die gleiche Konstruktion; Die Hauptfigur muss ihr Elternhaus verlassen und einem ubernaturlichen Wesen wie der Gottesmutter oder dem Damon dienen. Sie ubertritt dessen Verbot, in eine Kammer einzutreten, und muss deshalb diese unirdiesche Welt verlassen. In der irdischen realen Welt beweist sie im Schloss bei eimen Konig ihre Fahigkeit, besteht eine Probe und lebt als Konig(in) glucklich.Trotz dieser Gemeinsamkeit kann man das Erlebnis in der verbotenen Kammer beim Marchen ATU710 als ein numinoses Erlebnis, und das beim ATU314 als eine Initiation interpretieren. Das magische Pferd, das die Hauptfigur von ATU314 in der verbotenen Kammer gesehen hat, symbolisiert, dass sie die Probe der Initiation erfolgreich bestanden hat. Und es ist ein Merkmal der europaischen Variante von ATU314, dass das Pferd tief in der unirdischen Welt, sogar in der verbotenen Kammer eingeschlossen ist, wahrend das Pferd von der asiatischen Variante zwar magisch, aber wie gewohnlich im Stall auf der irdischen Welt ist.
著者
小山 陽平
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.171-189, 2013

"SYSTEMA" is Russian martial arts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational value of "SYSTEMA" in physical education at a Japanese university. 33 Japanese university students who had participated in SYSTEMA training in gym class once a week (total of 15 times) filled out questionnaires based on free description. The text data obtained from the questionnaire results were analyzed using KJ method.The educational values of Russian martial arts "SYSTEMA" were summarized as follows : (1)Some students had the opportunity to understand their mental and physical conditions. (2)There were new experiences that some students had never experienced. (3)SYSTEMA training could help develop some students' characters. (4)Some students learned how to cope with stress through SYSTEMA training.
著者
二瓶 恵 Nihei Megumi 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.37-57, 2010-01-01

Dix-sept reformes de l'orthographe franciase ont ete procedees entre 1650 et 1835. Cette renovation orthographique a purifie la langue francaise de l'epoque des debris du latin. Grace a elle, les bases du francais moderne ont ete batis par degres. A trevers des divers evenements importants, comme l'ordonnance de Villers-Cotterets, l'invention de l'impression typographique, la fondation de l'Academie francaise et l'enseignement public a titre gratuit, la langue francaise s'est repandue graduellement dans toutes les couches sociales de la France comme une seule langue commune et officielle. Notre but dans cet article est parcourir cette evolution et montrer comment l'orthographe francaise a ete modernisee.
著者
平塚 謙一 Kenichi Hiratsuka
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 2, 社会・自然科学 (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.201-214, 2014

The social constructionism opened a new ground level about needs understanding.However, the problem of the needs which are not expressed on the other hand was radicalized further.In this paper, in order to build the logic for satisfying the needs which are not expressed,theoretical consideration was performed.
著者
長島 正浩 Masahiro NAGASHIMA
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.209-221, 2015

The publication of the gift certificate with the premium by each local government is prosperous recently.This paper reports various legal problems about the resale of the gift certificate.It is very important to local government that I inspect whether it violates a law to resell a giftcertificate.The gift certificate with the premium isprepaid paymentinstruments.However,the Payment Services Act is not applied to the gift certificate.Therefore,they should protect the person using some kind of methods if a gift certificate publisher prohibits the resale of the person who purchased it.
著者
青木 茂男 Sigeo Aoki
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 II,社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.171-189, 2014

The DCF is the primary valuation method applied for the tender offers, followed by the relative valuation method. Rarely used are replacement value method, relative trading method,DDM, and discounted earnings method. The DDM is applied only for financial institutions. The results of the valuation are shown by a monetary value within a certain range, and multiple results are shown instead of one that is a result of integrating various results. It differs from the judicial precedents that indicate an exact monetary amount by integrating several valuation results. The residual income model (RIM), considered crucial in finance theory, is not applied to the tender offers. The tender offer price often exceeds the upper limit of the range indicated by the relative valuation method or stock market price method, on the other hand, 90% of the amount ranges of the DCF are within the tender offer price. Influencing factors that enlarge the amount range for the DCF include discount rate and terminal values, among others. This enlarged range leads to decreased reliability of the valuation method
著者
青木 茂男 Sigeo Aoki
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian College. I, Humanities, II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.143-151, 2013

ROA and ROE of Japanese companies are lower when compared to those in England, France,Germany and the US. When ROA is analyzed separately by operating profit/sales and sales/total assets, the latter is at a similar level of companies in these countries, however, the former is lower. It is due to both the low sales price and high products cost in Japan. Low priced merchandises are led by the wide availability of similar products among various competitors and little product differentiation among them. Low productivity leades to the high product cost, and it is partially due to the delayed application of ICT. The root cause is, however, considered to be the the company culture of Japan that accepts the low profitability even with the marginal profit,and due to lack of pressure for the management by the institutional investors.
著者
小山 陽平 Youhei Koyama
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian College. I, Humanities, II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.171-189, 2013

"SYSTEMA" is Russian martial arts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational value of "SYSTEMA" in physical education at a Japanese university. 33 Japanese university students who had participated in SYSTEMA training in gym class once a week (total of 15 times) filled out questionnaires based on free description. The text data obtained from the questionnaire results were analyzed using KJ method.The educational values of Russian martial arts "SYSTEMA" were summarized as follows : (1)Some students had the opportunity to understand their mental and physical conditions. (2)There were new experiences that some students had never experienced. (3)SYSTEMA training could help develop some students' characters. (4)Some students learned how to cope with stress through SYSTEMA training.
著者
平田 正吾 奥住 秀之 国分 充
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
若手研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2014-04-01

自閉症スペクトラム障害(ASD)児における不器用すなわち運動スキル障害の特徴について、国際的によく知られた運動アセスメントであるMABC2を用いて評価すると共に、その成績の個人差に関わる要因について探索的に検討した。重篤な知的障害のないASD児を対象とした一連の測定の結果、ASD児における運動スキル障害の個人差は、彼らの自閉症特性や内部モデルの機能水準などと関連することが明らかとなった。また、ASD児の運動課題遂行の様相を分析したところ、運動要素間の移行がスムーズでない可能性が示唆された。更に年齢縦断的に見ると、ASD児におけるMABC2の低成績は改善する場合もあることが明らかとなった。
著者
立木 徹 伏見 陽児 Tatsuki Toru Fushimi Yohji 茨城キリスト教大学生活科学部 千葉大学教育学部
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.269-285, 2008-01-01

Nankichi Niimi's literary masterpiece, Gongitsune, serves as standard educational material for teaching Japanese in many Japanese primary schools. The protagonist is a little fox named Gon who lives on the outskirts of a village and plays pranks on the villagers. One day Gon releases fish from a net set by Hyoju, a villager, and steals Hyoju's, eels. After Hyoju's mother passes away, Gon realizes Hyoju caught the eels for his ailing mother and regrets stealing the eels. He then returns under cover to Hyoju's house with chestnuts and mushrooms in order to atone for his misdeed. When Gon sneaks into Hyoju's house, Hyoju misunderstands Gon's intent and shoots him. Finding the chestnutssoon after, Hyoju realizes Gon's gifts were for him. The narrative closes with Hyoju exclaiming "Gon, was it you who always brought chestnuts for me?" Some readers think that Hyoju understands Gon's intention of compensation for depriving Hyoju's mother of the eels. Read properly, Hyoju clearly does not understand Gon's intention and feelings and the misunderstanding occurs. Tatsuki & Fushimi (2003, 2004) conducted three experiments to reconfirm the erroneous interpretation of university students and attempt to correct the misinterpretation. Results suggested, however, that the subject's erroneous interpretation of Gongitsune did not improve and was not corrected. The purpose of this study was to attempt again to correct the misinterpretation, and the authors conducted three experiments. In Experiments 1, the student subjects presented and discussed their opinions. In Experiment 2, the authors explained that Hyoju's perspective differed from that of Gon. In Experiment 3, the investigators interviewed the subjects in a semi-structured method. The results suggested that the subjects still thought that Hyoju understood Gon's compensatory intention. The subjects' erroneous interpretation of Gongitsune did not improve and was not corrected. The authors determined the subjects' misreading of the text was result of reader's intuitive, sentimental reading and confusing the facts with their inferences.
著者
掛川 富康 Tomiyasu KAKEGAWA
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
no.51, pp.73-87, 2017

民主的なワイマール体制も30年代からその問題を露呈させてくる。ロマニスト,E. R. Curtiusは,警告の書「危機に立つドイツ精神」(32年)において,伝統的教養に対する時代の憎悪に警告を発し,その救済の視線をラテン中世に注ぎ始める。文学者Thomas Mannは,「戦闘的フマニスムス」を唱える。古典学者W. Jaegerは,パイデイアとキリスト教思想の統合を図る。フランスの歴史家H.-I.Marrouは,ホメロス以来のヒューマニズムと中世キリスト教思想のなかに,戦後の文化形成の可能性を祈念する。E. Gilsonは,そのトミズム理解を基礎に,人間のラチオナールな思惟能力のうちに人間性の基礎を求める。ボン大学のロマニスト,Curtiusは,ホメロスの叙事詩のなかに人間性の再生の原点を見ようとする。渡辺一夫は,16世紀フランスのラブレーの文学に専心し,新教と旧教の対立に見られる宗教的狂気に抗してユマニスムに視線を注ぐ。戦後に現れたヒューマニズムへの回帰は,多くの場合,ホメロスの叙事詩の中にフマニスムスと文学性の根源的連関を確認しているが,このような時代の中で,ロマニストE. Auerbachは,創世記とホメロスの叙事詩を嚆矢とする西洋の(通時的)文学史を,キケロの三文体論とキリスト教による並行的文体及び謙抑体との交錯という視点から考察する(「ミメーシス」47年)。ヘブライ・キリスト教思想の中に宿る,日常性と悲劇とを統一して理解する文体の可能性をとらえ,旧約聖書・創世記や新約聖書の日常ギリシャ語(所謂のコイネー)の中に,三文体論では見られなかった新しい現実描写の可能性を認知する(様式混合Stilmischung)。この様式混合は,後年19世紀フランス文学のリアリズム(スタンダール,バルザック,フローベール)の中で再生したとされる。10年後の「中世の読者と言語」(58年)においては,古代の教養を受領したロマンス語圏と異なってドイツ文学とその地におけるフマニスムスの不毛性が指摘される。俗ラテン語(Gregor von Tour)も未成長にとどまったとされ,カール大帝によって招来されたラテン語文化の復興も,神学・典礼・法学を担う社会上層部に限定され,文学言語としての生命力を秘めた俗ラテン語や民族語には無縁であったと判断される。18世紀後半いらいのドイツ特有の歴史主義によって,GoetheやSchillerにおいて新しい文学的覚醒が見られたが,新しい社会の現実には,無力であり,その無力さは,Ciceroの文体による(閉鎖的な)現実理解の突破を可能とした様式混合が見られない事実と対応するとされる。戦後のドイツ・ロマニストの業績の一つは,ゲルマンの地においては,文学性とフマニスムスが歴史的に未成熟であることを指摘したことであろう。
著者
青木 茂男 Aoki Sigeo 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. II, 社会・自然科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.199-210, 2011-01-01

As stock valuation methods became diverse and multiple, cases of disputes in court increased. This paper aims to deepen the valuation theory by reviewing various judicial precedents in Japan through the following key questions: Which valuation methods are supported in disputes? How have such supports changed over the years? What is the level of acceptance of the DCF method in cases of disputes? What are the differences in dealing with stock valuation between listed and non listed stocks? How are stocks valued in recent judicial precedents? What are the issues concerning taxation? The paper also contributes to an area of accounting and finance which lacks researches of the valuation methods in judicial precedents in Japan.
著者
銭谷 秋生 Akio Zeniya
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. I, 人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.89-106, 2006-01-01

Thomas Nagel argues in The Possibility of Altruism that just as there are rational requirements on thought, there are rational requirements on action, of which altruism is one. According to Nagel, the altruism, that is a willingness to act in consideration of the interests of other persons without needing ulterior motives, is not to be confused with general affection for humanity. Altruism is not a feeling, but a rational requirement on desire and action, which one can't refuse in so far as one can recognize the reality of other persons and have the capacity to regard oneself as merely one individual among many. Can this claim be justified rationally? This article summarizes and examines the arguments for Nagel's claim. There are ethical views denying the rationality of altruism. The typical views are, according to Nagel, egoism and practical solipsism. He discusses these ethical views and tries to refute them. This article also examines his rebuttal, thereby clarifying the foundation of his own ethical theory.
著者
藤島 稔弘 黒澤 泰 櫻井 由美子 Toshihiro Fujishima Tai Kurosawa Yumiko Sakurai
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要 I,人文科学 = Journal of Ibaraki Christian University I, Humanities (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.57-71, 2017

Attempts to develop active learning of “the practice psychological welfare” is described.Firstly, we have briefly introduced characteristics and issues in a class on “Guidance to Practice of Psychological Welfare.” Secondly, we have discussed the definition and concepts of active learning. Goal clarification, active discussion, and reflection are important for promoting active learning. Thirdly, we have introduced detailed contents of the class, which is based on the concept of active learning. Fourthly, we have discussed the limitations and future development of this endeavor.
著者
青木 茂男
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 2, 社会・自然科学 (ISSN:13426370)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.187-197, 2012

Although the values of DCF, DDM, and RIM should be theoretically equal under a perfect market and clean surplus accounting, differences are observed in their actual values and stock relevance. This paper discusses DGM, which is a developed model of DDM, by using the MM theory, and compared the values and stock relevance of DCF, DGM, and DDM. It concluded that the values were greatest in order of DCF, DGM, and DDM, and that of stock relevance were DDM, DCF, and DGM.
著者
加藤 悠 中島 美那子 Kato Haruka Nakajima Minako 日本労働者協同組合連合会センター事業団 特定非営利活動法人ワーカーズコープ 茨城キリスト教大学
出版者
茨城キリスト教大学
雑誌
茨城キリスト教大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 (ISSN:13426362)
巻号頁・発行日
no.45, pp.119-129, 2011

This study attempted to illuminate the relationship to levels of self-esteem and parenting attitudes in mothers with infants. Mothers (N=81) completed the self-esteem scale (10 items) and the parenting attitudes scale (30 items). As a part of the results, the higher group of self-esteem indicated the higher level of parenting attitudes. Other results were that homemaker mothers tended toward lower degree of self-esteem and also indicated lower level of parenting attitudes in comparison with mothers working full-time. Single mothers have lower degree of self-esteem than married mothers with a significant difference. It is well known that children's self-esteem is influenced by mothers' self-esteem. For the purpose of improving mothers' self-esteem and children's self-esteem as well, it is necessary for mothers (especially for homemaker mothers and single mothers) that the burden of childcare is lightened.