著者
ナカル エルダド
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.117, pp.89-123, 2007-03

特集記憶の社会学投稿論文はじめに2. 第二次世界大戦を題材とする日本のマンガ 2.1. 1950年代後半から1960年代後半まで 2.1.1. 英雄的な戦闘 : 羅憲的語り 2.1.2 プロットの構成に見られる類似点 2.1.3. 単純なプロット,可愛らしい登場人物,歴史的リアリズム 2.1.4. 悲惨な戦争 : 拒絶された語り 2.2. 1960年代後半から1970年代後半まで 2.2.1. 悲惨な戦争 : 羅憲的語り 2.2.2 プロットの構成の類似点 2.2.3. 個人の証言と女性の記憶 2.2.4. 英雄的な戦闘 : 薄れゆく語り3. 自己を映す鏡 3.1. 1945年~1954年 : 時間の隔たり 3.2. 1950年代後半から1960年代後半まで : 肯定的な過去のイメージの出現 3.3. 1960年代後半から1970年代後半まで : 忌まわしい過去の記憶4. マンガの社会的枠組As the literature on collective memory acknowledges, when individuals recall their past, their memory is a collaborative product, influenced by society, and modeled by the collective frame of the day. Collective memory, scholars agree, is substantiated through multiple forms of communication. To infer on how a certain society remembers its past, scholars, thus, take on the task of investigating various mediums and different cultural productions. In Japan, it seems, however, that scholars failed to include manga into the above comprehension. As if manga is not a medium of communication that abide by the collective memory frame of the day, whenever the issue of collective memories of World War II in Japan has been addressed-and there were ample investigations on the issue so far-only few scholars looked at Japanese manga. Responding to the above tendency, in my paper, I choose to concern myself solely with the fictional representation of WW II over the manga. I seek to put manga tales of WW II against the social environment from which I argue they draw their ideas and worldview. I apt to demonstrate that manga narration of WW II is also a reflection of the different times in which it was produced.
著者
沢田 允茂
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.121-139, 1958-11

伝統的論理学では論理学の最高原則又は原理として同一律、矛盾律、排中律等を挙げていることは衆知の事実である。しかし同時に現代の数学的論理学に於いてはこのような原理は唯一の公理の組ではなくて、せいぜい他の多くの論理規則の中の二三のものとして加えられるに止まり、従って論理学の原理とか原則などと云う概念そのものさえ余り用いられていないことも明かなことである。しかし過去の多くの哲学体系の中には明瞭に同一律、矛盾律、排中律等の論理学の原理が哲学の出発点となっている場合が多いし(例えば肯定的な意味ではフィヒテ、否定的な意味ではヘーゲルを挙げることが出来るであろう)、又論理学と対象界との関係が問題になる場合にはある意味に於いて右の原則の解釈が中心的な地置を占める場合が多い。従って右の原則は論理学プロパーの問題に属すると云うよりはむしろ認識論的な議論に属すると見ることが出来る。しかし従来それらがいはゆる論理学の原理と考えられていた所に実は論理学と認識論との、はっきりと区別し難い哲学的問題が指摘され得ることも見逃すことは出来ない。この小論文では(1)これらの原則の論理学内に於ける表現の仕方自身がすでにある哲学的、認識論的立場を先取していること、(2)これらの原則のある特定の解釈から生じている哲学的立場の批判、及び哲学的、認識論的問題として如何にこの問題を解決すべきかについての或る意見を述べることとする。
著者
三上 真理子
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.114, pp.223-258, 2005-03

特集都市・公共・身体の歴史社会学-都市社会学誕生100年記念-B編 身体と公共の歴史社会学論文1. はじめに 兵役忌避者のイメージ2. 大正・昭和の『読売新聞』にみる兵役忌避報道 2-1. 大正・昭和の『読売新聞』 2-2. 報道件数の推移と報道内容の特徴3. 兵役忌避者の肖像 : 大正・昭和の『読売新聞』報道から 3-1. 兵役の不平等 : 国民と兵役をめぐる議論 (1) 兵役という"貧乏くじ" (2) 兵役は「名誉」か「苦痛」か 3-2. 二つの忌避者像 : 大正の忌避者たち (1) 減らない兵役忌避 (2) 学生への猶予問題再び (3) 都市のインテリに忌避の傾向 (4) 児戯に類した嘘をつく 3-3. 兵役法の公布から総動員体制へ : 昭和の忌避者たち (1) 物語の復活 : 転落のストーリー (2) 姿を消す忌避者たち4. おわりに イメージの力・イメージする力The purpose of this paper is to describe the portraits of draftdodgers in Japan and through them to think about the relationship between the government and their people and the role of newspaper as the agent between them. Since the conscription was introduced in 1872, there were many draft-dodgers in Japan. To escape from conscription, they used various legal and illegal means, but they proposed the same question. That is, could the government force their people to kill or to be killed against their will? In this meaning, the draftdodgers represent the tensions between the government and their people. In this paper, I tried to describe the portraits of draft-dodgers from the articles of YOMIURIin Taisho and Showa era. YOMIURI is one of the most popular newspapers in Taisho and Showa era in Japan. I found 107 articles about draft-dodgers in it. I have already analyzed the changes of their portraits in Meiji era. Through Meiji era, their portraits changed from the men of darkness to HIKOKUMIN as coward and the cunning intelligentsia. In Taisho era, YOMIURI presented two typical portraits of draft-dodgers. They were as cunning intelligentsia and men of darkness and ignorance. However, the conscription was also criticized because of its unfairness and inequality. In Showa era, the experiences of continuous wars changed their portraits to as wrongdoer and offender. They were criticized as obstacles to accomplishment of wars. After the breakout of war against China, the articles about draft-dodgers in Japan faded out from YOMIURI. Instead of them, the articles of draft-dodgers in America, China, England-the portraits of enemies-appeared. The portraits of draft-dodgers reflected the changes of political, social and military situations. They represented the worst category of Japanese at that time. YOMIURI kept showing people the image of "good" Japanese by showing them the portraits of "bad" Japanese, the draft-dodgers.
著者
田中 克佳
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.109, pp.135-147, 2003-03

投稿論文はじめに一. 三田村鳶魚の「江戸っ子」ニ. 西山松之助の「江戸ッ子」結び"Edokko (江戸っ子)" is the unique human image which a newly-established city Edo produced in Tokugawa Japan. Then what is the human image? And what are the social background which produced that image and the concrete substance corresponding to the image? These are questions which should be grappled in advance to research the education in the city Edo in Tokugawa Japan.
著者
大貫 挙学
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.106, pp.183-229, 2001-03

特集変容する社会と家族投稿論文1. はじめに2. ジェンダー概念の言語論的転回とジュディス・バトラー 2-1. 反本質主義のジェンダー概念 2-2. ジェンダーのパフォーマティヴィティ 2-3. 法の産出機能と異性愛のマトリクス3. マルクス主義フェミニズム理論の再考 3-1. マルクス主義フェミニズムと「家父長制」 3-2. 近代における公私の二重構造 3-3. マルクス主義フェミニズムの意義と課題4. 近代家族と異性愛主義 4-1. セクシュアリティの発明と「同性愛者」の誕生 4-2. セクシュアリティのジェンダー化 4-3. 有性生殖と再生産5. ジェンダー/セクシュアリティ/主体 5-1. ゲイ・アイデンティティの成立 5-2. レズビアンの不可視性と「女」という主体 5-3. 主体と(非)主体6. おわりにThe purpose of this study is to consider the subjection of gender/sexuality in modern society from the viewpoint of antiessentialism (social constructionism). My special concern here is to describe how gender category and sexual identity (or gendernization of sexuality) have been constructed, and how that has made modern society experienced. Though modernity appears very pluralistic and complicated, in this paper I focus my attention on the public/private dichotomy in terms of the modern family. Referring mainly to Marxist Feminism and Judith Butler's theory on performativity of gender, I tried to define the subjection of gender/sexuality in relation to a social structure or a social institution. I would like to make it clear how the subjection of gender/sexuality is acted out between public and private spheres, production and reproduction processes, and the subject and the (un) subject.
著者
浦野 茂
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.117, pp.245-266, 2007-03

特集記憶の社会学投稿論文1. はじめに2. 記憶-政治学3. 記憶という実定性4. 多重人格者と想起の実践5. ループ効果6. 過去の不確定性7. 歴史的存在論The purpose of this paper is to understand Ian Hacking's arguments on sciences of memory. Exploring the development of the modern multiple personality movement, Hacking found its roots in the sciences of memory that emerged in the late 19th century. The focus of his arguments is on process in which multiple personalities, the new kind of people, emerged through "looping effect", that is, interaction between sciences of memory and people. Through following his arguments on this looping effect, this paper is to consider the way to describe the relation between human experiences and human sciences.
著者
佐藤 方哉
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.100, pp.275-299, 1996-03

100集記念号Currently there are two distinctively different camps in psychology or the science of "mind". One is cognitive science and the other is behavior analysis. Behavior analysts have established their own verbal community in which mentalistic statements are seldom reinforced, while cognitive scientists still remain in the laymen's mentalistic verbal community. So, scientifically productive communication between cognitive scientists and behavior analysts is rare. The author argues that the only promising way to increase the communication between cognitive scientists and behavior analysts is to expose cognitive scientists to the contingencies of reinforcement in the behavior analytic verbal community.
著者
佐々木 掌子
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, pp.159-184[含 英語文要旨], 2010-03

特集 : 教育学の射程投稿論文The purposes of this paper are to look back on arguments whether DSM (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) should include Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children and adolescents or not, and to review the research outcomes on how treatments and interventions have been implemented and have produced effect. First, this paper discusses whether gender nonconforming children should be diagnosed as having a mental disorder or not and where an underlying problem of the disorder lies; in a society, a family, or child oneself. Depending upon where clinicians stand, treatments and interventions differ. Approaches to therapy can be placed into 4 categories: 1) therapy for aiming at changing cross-gender identity, 2) therapy that exhibits a nonjudgmental attitude to cross-gender identity, 3) therapy that affrmatively accepts cross-gender identity, 4) physical interventions for sex reassignment. Because no controlled comparison study has been conducted, we do not have any evidence for different outcomes by selected approaches. Finally, referring to researches in Western countries, the paper discusses support for children and adolescents with GID in Japan. For children, because of the possibility of gender identity change, we should provide a family a choice of the approaches 1), 2), or 3) as previously indicated. On the other hands, for adolescents, a family should be presented a choice of the approaches 2), 3), or 4). However, in Japan, as use of pubertal delaying hormones in GID treatment has never been discussed, we can not present the approach 4). Further discussion on physical interventions for adolescents is necessary.
著者
西脇 与作 藁谷 敏晴
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, pp.23-49, 1977-01

1. logical valueの論理 : 存在論的価値 1.1. 文、真理値、存在の相互関係 1.2. 真理値と2値性 1.3. 結合子としての同一性記号2. W-言語と理論3. SCIの諸性質 3.1. SCIの基本的定理 3.2. 論理評価と指示 3.3. 論理評価の種類4. SCIの拡張 4.1. 中間的諸システム 4.2. 拡張の過程In this paper, " non-Fregean logics " proposed by R. Suszko are studied ; 1. from a philosophical point of view concerning the necessity of introducing the identity-connective, and 2. from technical point of view concerning logical structure of non-Fregean logics. Analysing the Frege's ambiguity in treating the logical constants 1,0 (in Frege), we were led to the conclusion ; 1) A distinction between valuational two valuedness and ontological (referential) two-valuedness should be made, 2) keeping the valuational two-valuedness (the principle of bivalence), the abolition of ontological one is possible (ontological many-valuedness), 3) in order to express logical systems based on valuational two-valuedness and ontological many-valuedness, the introduction of identity-connective is unavoidable. Such logics have been studied among others by R. Suszko as theories of kind W, and its sentential part is called SCI (sentential calculus with identity). In this paper, our interest was directed esp. on 1) logical relations between SCI, SC (sentential calculus) and there intermediate variaties, 2) A possibility of introducing some meta-notions into object languages, 3) some valuations of non-Fregean languages.
著者
柏原 勤
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.128, pp.207-234, 2012-03

特集 : 社会学 社会心理学 文化人類学投稿論文The purpose of this investigation is to regard "2 -channel thread editing blog" as a new form of news communication, to identify the characteristics and processes of the news communication, and to present the possibility that these blogs can be examined from the perspective of several mass communication theories. "2-channel thread editing blog" is a famous blog genre for many Japanese Internet users. It contains articles whose recourses are selected from threads on "2-channel", the most popular anonymous bulletin board in Japan.This study classifies these blogs and its articles into two groups, "news" and "non-news", and considers the former a new form of news communication. This type of blogs functions as a news media by mediating news articles reported by traditional media, or reporting social events particularly occurring on the Internet.As a novel type of news media, "2-channel thread editing blog" presents some potentialities to be studied from the point of and by methods of mass communication theories or news communication researches, such as double geetkeeping, media effect theories, and so on.
著者
美山 良夫
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, pp.175-189, 1991-04

文学部創設百周年記念論文集II序1. ツァルリーノの旋法論とフランス2. フランスの旋法性格論とツァルリーノ結D'apres D.P. Walker, le sujet de l'Academie de Poesie et de musique n'etait pas la creation de la musique mesuree, mais la revivification de l'ethos de la musique de l'Antiquite. Les moyens que l'on a concu sont: i) Unification de la mesure de poesie et de rythme de la musique. ii) Utilisation de genera. iii) Caracteristique des modes. Cependant, l'effort de l'Academie, les essais sont en vain. Parceque la theorie de Zarline concernant les modes et ses caracteristique sont confus entres les noms et les numeros des modes. En plus, "modurum dux" de la polyphonie cause des probleme. Donc l'effort de Le Jeune et de Mersenne etait limite dans quelque ouvrage theorique du temps.
著者
美山 良夫
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.55-73, 1977-09

La musique mesuree de Claude Lejeune (1600), l'un des representants de l'humanisme musical en France, a ete imprimee dans trois recueils publies successivement en 1594, en 1603 et en 1608. Ayant compare les recueils, nous reconaissons des changements du texte et de la notation musicale dans les editions posthumes. 1 Texte : les vers mesures et non rimes de l'edition de 1594 sont devenus les vers mesures et rimes, et naturellement, on a perdu l'etroite correspondance entre la quantite d'une syllabe et celle d'une note. 2 Notations musicales : l'usage de la note coloree (dit "color") et du "tacet" est uniformise sans aucun but reel. La notion moderne des signes de mesure qui semblait montrer par notre compositeur se rend nul apres sa mort. La diversite de la notation musicale ainsi que les solutions tres variees qui tiennent compte de l'execution des oeuvres est perdue dans les recueils posthumes. La nouvelle vogue des vers mesures et rimes autour de N. Rapin et ses amis protestants nous releve que ces poetes semblent remanier des oeuvres de Claude Lejeune. Par consequent, on peut considerer les " Airs" (1594) comme la source la plus significative et qui nous transmit l'idee originale du compositeur.
著者
永井 均
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.75-95, 1984

In seiner "Transzendentalen Asthetik" beabsichtigte Immanuel Kant, die Aprioritat von Zeit und Raum zu beweisen. Ob es ihm aber gelungen ist, sie als eine Begriindung von objektiver Gultigkeit der Erkenntnis geltend zu machen, scheint mir einigermaBen fragwurdig. Um die Begrundung zu berechtigen, muBte auch der ProzeB des Zustandekommens von der Zeit-und Raumvorstellung als apriorisch angesehen, vielmehr bewiesen werden. Meines Erachtens konnte jedoch die Zeit-und Raumvorstellung nur a posteriori entstehen als Bedingung fur Existenz. Dabei taucht eine Frage auf : Wie kommt man zur Erkenntnis, daB Zeit und Raum notwendige Bedingungen fur Existenz seien? Erfahrung allein konnte diese Frage nicht uberzeugend auflosen. Das ist der Grund, warum ich hies Notwendigkeit in zwei Arten kategorisiere : ,,absolute und relative Notwendigkeit,,. Dieser DenkprozeB wird uns unvermeidlich zum SchluB fuhren, daB Zeit und Raum wirklich die notwendigen Bedingungen fur Existenz sind. Alles in allem : die Selbstverstandlichkeit der Existenz hebt die relative Notwendigkeit zur absoluten auf.
著者
永井 均
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
no.69, pp.p23-42, 1979-03

La plupart de la presente etude s'occupe de commenter la critique de Husserl par J. Derrida selon son livre La Voix et Le Phenomene qui porte sur Logische Untersuchungen. J'y suis a peu pres d'accord avec lui, cependant, il me semble que, au sens contraire de Husserl, son point de vue est aussi transcendantal, et que, en effet, la voix qui est une de ses figures critiques eventuellement passe par le monde, comme chez Merleau-Ponty. Je ne serai pas d'accord avec lui aux dernieres pages de cette etude parce que je pense que l'ego transcendantal a ete mort avant de se faire tuer par la signification; celui-ci ne me semble pas constituer le sens et la validite du monde, mais il en est la matiere ou la substance. La conception du sujet constituant chez Husserl, qui a pris modele sur le sujet mondain, est par essence metaphorique. Si l'on voulait faire une distinction entre l'ego mondain et le trancendantal, il faudrait considerer celui-ci comme ce qui n'est pas vivant; alors, on pourait dire: je suis mort done je suis.
著者
Gergely Mohacsi 森田 敦郎
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.125, pp.263-284, 2011-03

特集 : 人間科学投稿論文科学技術が日常生活にますます浸透しつつある現代世界において, 多様な見方を同時に生きることは, 当たり前だといえる. その結果民族学の基本的な手法とされてきた. 「比較」は, 客観性を思考する人類学者が俯瞰的に対象を眺める視点に属するのではなく, 移動し, 差異を認め, そこから知識を生み出そうとする人々が行う実践の中の一要素となってきた. 本稿が焦点を当てるのは, こうしたグローバル化する科学技術に従う比較の氾濫である. 一方, 日常的に生きられる比較のあり方を, 多様な事例研究を踏まえて描き出すことで, いわゆるポストプルーラルの世界を把握しようとする. さらにこれを, エンジニアリングと医療という「日々の通約」の二つの事例をとおして, 人類学者のフィ ルドワークにおける比較と併置し 存在論的な展開を図るための方法論を提案する. Anthropologists, in the field, work to recognize differences through continuously contrasting their findings with the cultural and other kinds of knowledge they bring from home or elsewhere. They keep comparing in order to make sense of the links between the particular and the general. On the other hand and this has been studied less thoroughly so far , such comparative work is also part and parcel of the very practices under study in anthropology. It is this implicit interplay between different scales of comparison that we want to reflect upon in this article. Through two short case studies of engineering in Thai and medical technologies in general we argue that the increasing mobility of scientific ideas and technological innovations is generated by practices that accumulate comparisons and contrasts on many levels. This will lead us to challenge ethnographic methodology from the vantage point of a post-plural understanding of the world.
著者
シュミットハウゼン ランバート 齋藤 直樹
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.108, pp.67-99, 2002-02

投稿論文訳者まえがきはじめに1. 自発的な施しとしての他者救済(利他)の活動2. 同情とその精神的根源3. すぐれた振るまいにおける同情4. 四つの,心情のかぎりない解放(四無量心)5. 同情の効力6. 無頓着と憐憫とのあいだの緊張
著者
シュミットハウゼン ランバート 齋藤 直樹
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.109, pp.71-100, 2003-03

投稿論文1. 救済(利)の終極としての仏性にむかう契機としての憐憫2. 自己救済(自利)と他者救済(利他)3. 「無量」の再解釈4. 精神性の相補的な両極としての憐憫と空性とのあいだの緊張5. 有情ぬきの憐憫6. 空性知の発露としての憐憫7. 仏陀の本質という教理における,救済活動と解脱との統合
著者
永井 均
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
哲學 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.27-54, 1977-09

L'intention de la presente etude est double : renvoyer la discussion sur la metaphore a son origine : l'ecriture; et ramener les interpretations de l'ecriture a son origine : la metaphore. C'est par cette voie que nous aurons la possibilite a la fois d'eclaircir la signification de la metaphore et d'expliquer le concept de l'ecritnre. C'est la d'ailleurs que sera montree l'invalidite des analyses structurales et phenomenologiques de la metaphore. Nous commencerons par mettre en question la theorie structuraliste de la metaphore : celle de Roman Jakobson. Nous examinerons dans la suit la critique du structuralisme par Paul Ricoeur afin d'elaborer notre conception de decalage. Nous etudierons enfin l'analyse de Max Black pour reconstituer sa theorie d'interaction de la metaphore. Les resultats de ces examens nous permettront de mettre en lumiere la metaphore de l'ecriture chez Jacques Derrida. Cet eclaircissement ouvrira sans doute pour la premiere fois la discussion fructueuse sur la metaphore. Parce que la metaphore de l'ecriture est fondee sur l'ecriture de la metaphore.
著者
三浦 直子
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.125, pp.235-262, 2011-03

特集 : 人間科学投稿論文It is important that the experience of quantitative researches influenced Bourdieu's sociology. In this paper, I examine Bourdieu's practice and theory of cultural sociology in the 1960s and find out two phases of the influence of quantitative researches. First, he located the statistical data (results of quantitative analyses) as the methods of controlling his practice in researches, so as to reflect it in epistemology. Therefore, by introducing the statistical approach, he aimed at objective research practice, excluding researcher's spontaneous conviction and common sense. Secondarily, by introducing it, he constructed original concepts and formed his unique sociological theory. Especially, his concept of "habitus" enabled to mediate subjective experiences and objective regularities, by involving the dualism of the statistical probability (the gap between the subjective probability and the objective probability).