著者
多和田 友美 伊香賀 俊治 村上 周三 内田 匠子 上田 悠
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.648, pp.213-219, 2010-02-28 (Released:2010-06-07)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
6 5

Various researches highlight that indoor air quality affects performance of workers in offices. Although good indoor air quality improves work performance, it also increases energy consumption. In this study, we achieved a field survey in a real office in order to investigate the relationship between thermal environment, productivity, and energy consumption. In addition to the monitoring of indoor environmental quality and energy consumption, subjective experiments were conducted. In order to evaluate subjective performance, workers and students responded to questionnaires, and to evaluate objective performance, students simulated three types of office works. By calculating room temperature and worker's subjective performance, we demonstrate the correlation between room temperature and worker's performance (R2=0.22, p
著者
森山 修治 長谷見 雄二 小川 純子 佐野 友紀 神 忠久 蛇石 貴宏
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.637, pp.233-240, 2009-03-30 (Released:2009-11-24)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
4 4

In view of the rapid large scale development of underground in the central big cities, especially around terminal stations, evacuation experiments have been conducted with 79 subjects using an underground shopping mall near Tokyo Station actually in service after business hours. Four groups of 20 subjects started from different locations and time to “escape” from any of emergency exits was measured for each subject. 12 out of the 79 subjects wore elderly simulator to compare evacuation behavior of elderly and that of younger people. The evacuation behavior was also monitored by video cameras and escape route of each subject was reproduced afterwards. Five experiments were conducted using the lighting conditions and layout of emergency exits as parameters. The starting point was changed from experiment to experiment, not making any subject repeat similar selection of escape route. The shopping mall is composed of grid of passages, and is installed with escape route sign lights on every passage according to Fire Service Law. In every experiment, it was observed that considerable portion of subjects did not select right passage toward nearest exit at intersection nor passed over right exits. These are not compliant with widely accepted assumption for deterministic modeling of evacuation in mall-like facility. Factors dictating the probability to select right passage at intersections and that to recognize emergency exit are analyzed from the experimental data.
著者
小林 茂雄 津田 智史
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.615, pp.65-71, 2007

This research examined the interpersonal distances from others desired by couples sitting on a hill by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess their feelings were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. 1) The closest distance the couples could allow others to approach was 2 to 3 meters in all directions, and the distance at which couples were not annoyed by others was about 5 meters in all directions, 2) When the distances with others were within about 5 meters, the time a couple stayed in their spot was affected by others. The effects were stronger when the others were in front of a couple or behind them in the nighttime. 3) When the distances from others were within 5 to 6 meters, the couple's intimate contact was affected by others. The distances were a little larger in the early evening than in the nighttime, and women preferred larger distances than men.
著者
岩下 剛 得永 尚樹
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.672, pp.65-70, 2012-02-29 (Released:2012-03-07)
参考文献数
16

For determining VOCs emitted from bioeffluents, the indoor air collected in the classrooms of the elementary schools and a college were analyzed. As representative VOCs from bioeffluents, 2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol (2E1H), Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, and Dodecane were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 2E1H, Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, Dodecane in occupied classrooms were higher than those in unoccupied classrooms. There was a higher correlation between the concentration of 2E1H and the reciprocal of the ventilation rate per person under the occupied conditions. While the higher correlation was also obtained between the concentration of 2E1H and the in-door CO2 concentration in the classrooms, the concentrations of Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, and Dodecane did not correlate with the ventilation rate nor CO2. The 2E1H concentration could be an useful index of the air pollution by human bioeffluents.
著者
岩下 剛
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.704, pp.865-870, 2014-10-30 (Released:2014-10-30)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1

The air quality during winter period in elementary/secondary schools located in metropolitan district X was analyzed by using results of the environmental hygienic audit. The period of analysis was set as 3 years from 2007 to 2009. The following conclusions were obtained; 1) The average values of air temperature, the relative humidity, and CO2 concentration in classrooms of the elementary schools met the standard of school environmental hygiene. 2) The ratio of the CO2 observations exceeding the standard value of 1500 ppm in the elementary schools was 30.5 %, and that in the secondary schools was 58.5 %. 3) The clear tendency that the lower the outdoor temperature, the higher the heating usage ratio, was observed both in the elementary and the secondary schools. Under the same outdoor temperature condition, the heating usage ratio in the secondary schools was higher than that in the elementary schools. 4) Under the same outdoor temperature condition, the average room temperature in the classrooms of the secondary schools was significantly higher than that of the elementary schools. The average CO2 concentrations in the secondary schools exceeded the standard values under the all temperature classes.
著者
鈴木 宏昌 藤浪 健二 金 政秀 田辺 新一
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.645, pp.1253-1259, 2009-11-30 (Released:2010-04-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 1

Air-conditioners are going to be set up in public elementary schools. The installation rate reached 64% in Tokyo 23 wards in 2007. The increase of energy consumption is a concern as air-conditioner use spreads all over the country. In this study, the forecast of energy consumption until 2030 is illustrated. This is calculated by forecasting the number of classes in which air-conditioners have been installed and the air-conditioning load in each 47 prefectures. In addition, the energy-saving measures such as natural ventilation and Low-e glass are accounted. It is possible to reduce energy consumption to the level of 1990 by 2030, when all the measures and improvement in COP of air-conditioner are taken.
著者
山口 一 伊澤 康一 山田 容子 川上 梨沙 冨岡 一之
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.716, pp.945-952, 2015 (Released:2015-11-11)
参考文献数
27

Recently attention has been focused on countermeasures against microorganisms such as viruses and microbe, in connection with pandemics of new forms of influenza or SARS, and the occurrence of bioterrorism. Also, in pharmaceutical or food production facilities, a high standard of internal environment of the facility is required, including countermeasures against microorganisms. These countermeasures from the facility point of view include partitioning of work zones (zoning), and cleaning the air using HEPA filters. However, when workers/researchers are working within a facility, dispersion of dust or adhering microbe brought in from clothes, etc., cause pollution of the air. In this report, the sterilization performance of weak acid hypochlorous solution used as the chemical substance was verified. In addition, the sterilization performance in an actual space varied not only with the chemical substance used, but also with the condition of the room, the air conditioning system, the method of spraying, etc. Therefore, from the above sterilization performance tests using chemical substances, the raw data required for a computational fluid mechanics (CFD) model were derived. A method that enables the effect of the chemical substance to be predicted under various conditions was investigated, and the results are reported.
著者
シュバイカ マーセル 宿谷 昌則
出版者
一般社団法人日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.633, pp.1275-1282, 2008-11-30
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

1.はじめに建物外皮や暖冷房設備のようなハードウェアだけではなく、住まい手の行動のようなソフトウェアも、建築環境システムのエクセルギー消費に大きな影響を及ぼす。エクセルギーはシステム内外で起きる消費を明示する概念である。ハードウェアについては多くの研究があるが、ソフトウェアについては研究事例がまだ少ない。これらの事例では、放射温度・気温・湿度の他に住まい手にかかわる情報として快適さの度合いや着衣・代謝・体重などが調査されている。実際には、室内熱環境の快適条件を達成するための行動の選択が住まい手にはある。例えば、冷房のスイッチを入れるか、あるいは通風のために窓を開けるのかは、建築環境システムのエクセルギー消費パターンに大きな影響を及ぼす。そこで、本研究では、住まい手の選択に影響を及ぼす要因を見い出すことを試みた。行動選択の要因が明らかになれば、快適さを犠牲にせず、しかも小さなエクセルギー消費ですごせるように住まい手を導くことができると考えられる。2.熱環境の測定方法と調査対象者のプロフィル本研究における熱環境物理量の測定と熱環境調整行動の調査は、2007年夏に東京都内にある320部屋をもつ国際留学生会館で行なった。各部屋の床面積は15m^2で、通路側にドアが一つそして反対側に窓が一つある。各部屋には冷暖房装置が一台ずつ設置されている。今回の測定と調査に加わることを同意した39人の学生の出身は27ヶ国に及び、彼らは3か月から20か月前に日本に来ている。最初に、現在の行動とその背景・好み・知識について英語で書かれた35の質問から成る質問紙調査を行なった。次に、温湿度センサー1台と窓の開閉が記録できるセンサー1台を受け取ることに同意した学生に対して、部屋を快適に保つための夏における行動についてのインタビューを行なった。さらに、この39人の居住する部屋内の温湿度データを6月末から8,月上旬まで6週間にわたって2分間隔で記録収集し、屋外の温湿度・風速・日射量も同様にして測定した。図2に、測定期間における外気温と学生室の室内空気温を示す。Nicolらが示した適応的快適さ範囲も描き込んでみたところ、たとえば、学生Aは適応的快適さ範囲に室内空気温が入っていてもいなくても、冷房を使用せず、学生Bは頻繁に使用していることが分かった。表1は、各階や各方位によって室内温湿度の平均・最高・最低\分散を示す。室内の温度は平均値で、室外より5℃程度高かった。3.エアコン冷房の使用パターンエアコン冷房の使用パターンを明らかにするために、まず最初に各学生が冷房をいつつけるか、そしてどのぐらいの間つけ続けるかを分析した。Nicolが示した方法にしたがって、外気温と関係づけて冷房の使用パターンを分析することにした。図3は、冷房システムをつけている人々の割合と外気温の関係、図4は、冷房システムをつけている時間割合と外気温の関係を示す。これらの関係を、1日24時間、0:00〜8:00、8:00〜18:00、18:00〜0:00の4っの時間帯ごとにロジット曲線で表したところ、その時間帯の平均外気温が27℃で75%の人たちが60%の時間割合で冷房を使用していることが分かった。寮という建物用途から、0時〜8時の時間帯における人数割合と使用時間割合が8時〜18時や18時〜0時の時間帯より大きいことが分かった。図5に示す通り、個々の学生についてロジット曲線を求めると、大きな相違が現れる。これらの相違が何に起因しているのかを見い出すために、学生を四つのグループN・E・L・Aに分類して考察した。Nは暑くても決して冷房を使用せず、暑すぎるようなら、場所を移動するような行動パターンの人たち。Eは、扇風機などでは効果がないときだけ冷房を使用する人たち。Lは、冷房を使用したくないが、他の策を試みる前にそれを使用する人たち。Aは、冷房が必要ではないような条件でも冷房をつける人たちである。図6には、グループN・E・L・Aのロジット曲線はグループ毎の特徴をある程度を表す。例えば、Aは同じ外気温度に対してL・E・Nに比べて冷房を使用する可能性が40%〜60%大きいことが分かる。4.エアコン冷房の使用パターンを決定する要因の考察3.の結果に基づいて、質問紙調査から得られた答えがグループN・E・L・Aの行動パターンにどのように関連しているかを分析した。要因として6つを取り上げた。夜間のエアコン冷房の好き嫌い、エアコン冷房の効果、窓開けの効果、窓閉めの効果、出身地の気候、環境調整のパッシブ手法、性別の7つである。これらの要因ごとに統計的検定を行なって、取り上げた要因が有意かどうかを調べた。図7-aを見ると、エアコン冷房の好き嫌いは、冷房を頻繁につけるかどうかに重要な影響があること、図7-bからdを見ると、LとAは、冷房によって得られる快適さを十分に信頼しており、窓開けのような行為をあまり信頼していないこと、その一方で、NとEは、その反対を信頼していることが分かる。このような結果となったのは、冷房を使用している人は窓開けによる通風の経験がほとんどないからかもしれない。気候については、Koeppenの気候地図17)にしたがって学生を分類した。図7-eにより、暑熱湿潤気候で育った学生は、実測期間中に現われた条件になじみがあり、その多くがグループAに属していることがわかった。その理由は、出身地においてエアコン冷房が一般によく使用されているからと思われる。熱く乾燥した国から来ている学生は、グループNとEに属していることが多かった。それらの国では伝統的な生活様式がかなり残っており、そのことが大きく影響した可能性が高い。寒冷な気候で育った学生はグループLに入っていることが多かった。彼らは実測期間に現われた暑熱湿潤の環境条件に適応するようなパッシブ手法による環境調整の方法を学ぶことがなかったため、エアコン冷房をつけるのが一番簡単な方法とみなしてすぐに使用することにしたのかもしれない。図7-fに示すように、蒸発冷却・自然換気・日よけのようなパッシブ方法の知識と実際の行動とには関連性は見ることができなかった。図7-gにより、性による行動の違いがない。5.まとめ東京における夏の条件で、ある留学生会館に住む40人ほどの学生を対象にして、居室内の熱環境測定と環境調整行動の質問紙調査を行ない、その結果を分析したところ、ロジット曲線のモデルが冷房使用パターンの記述に利用できそうなことが分かった。エアコン冷房の使用パターンに影響すると考えられる要因を7つ取り上げ分析したところ、エアコン冷房の好みや出身地の気候、出身地におけるエアコン冷房の普及の程度などでがエアコン冷房の使用パターンに強く影響するらしいことが読み取れた。今後の課題は建築環境調整のためのエクセルギー消費を減らすために住まい手の行動を変えることは可能であるかどうかを調査することである。
著者
伊香賀 俊治 江口 里佳 村上 周三 岩前 篤 星 旦二 水石 仁 川久保 俊 奥村 公美
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.666, pp.735-740, 2011-08-30 (Released:2012-01-13)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
20 15 7

It takes many years to recover the initial investment cost for installing housing insulation through savings from energy reduction (Energy Benefit: EB), since construction cost is very high in Japan. This long payback time is the major barrier to the promotion of well-insulated houses. However, it has been found that if Non-Energy Benefits (NEB) of well insulated houses, such as improvement in personal health, reduction of medical expenses and decline in absences from work are all taken into account, the time required to recover the initial investment cost would change from 29 to 16 years. Therefore recognition of NEB is expected to encourage residents to invest in residential thermal insulation. NEB of well-insulated houses is thus evaluated regarding human health in this study.
著者
福岡 孝幸 伊藤 一秀
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.659, pp.25-33, 2011-01-30 (Released:2011-03-07)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
3

The indoor environment can play a significant role in the transmission and exposure of various contaminants. In some emerging aerial infections, such as influenza virus, tuberculosis virus, and other biological, the airborne route of transmission is thought to be important to evaluate exposure health risk. In this paper, first, we have presented the relationship between basic SIR (MK) model and Wells-Riley model, and introduced the analytical procedure of coupled analysis of CFD based prediction of unsteady contaminant concentration distribution and basic SIR model to predict exposure risk of residents in large enclosed space. The results of sensitivity analysis that changed ventilation rate and other parameters of infections showed non-uniform distribution in enclosed spaces and strong dependence on unsteady contaminant distribution.
著者
田島 昌樹 井上 貴之 大西 裕治
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.728, pp.885-892, 2016 (Released:2016-10-30)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1 2

CO2 included in exhaled breath is often used as a tracer gas when estimation of ventilation aspect in buildings with occupants is performed. In Japan, CO2 production rate written in JIS A 14061974, which revised in 1974, has been referred for the estimation. The CO2 production rate calculation formula given by ASTM D6245-12 can be referred also, however, the formula is based on westerner adult data. Hence, based on Japanese subjects' exhaled breath data obtained by using Douglas bag method with approximately total 170 points, equations for recent Japanese CO2 production rate are developed in this study. Moreover, an equation, whose variables are occupants' height & weight, gender, age and Met, is used for estimating ventilation aspects in single zone with occupants aiming at accuracy testing. Firstly, a simple equation (9) is derived with regression analysis using 23 subjects and 3 testing activities data. The equation requires AD (Japanese body surface area given by equation (6)) Met and CG (coefficient of gender as male: 1 and female: 0). Secondly, aiming at expanding the targets, equation (9) is transformed and verified by using additional testing whose conditions are shown in Table7 and 8. The obtained 20s males' exhaled breath data is used to derive the equation (10) whose coefficient of deamination is larger than the equation (9) shown in Fig. 4. Then, the equation (10) is added a variable Ca (coefficient of age given by table9) and is transformed into the equation (11) whose coefficient of deamination is larger than the equation (9) shown in Fig. 5. Also, the equation (10) is added a variable Cg (coefficient of gender male: 1.0 and female: 0.73 determined by Table9) and is transformed into equation (12) whose coefficient of deamination is larger than the equation (9) shown in Fig. 6. As a result, the equation (13) is derived and its coefficient of deamination is larger than the equation (9) shown in Fig. 7. With substituting CO2 production rate given by the equation (13), ASTM and JIS, into the equation (14), calculated CO2 concentration are compared to the measured value obtained in single zones with the conditions shown in Table11 with employing testing instruments shown in Table10. The experimental results are shown in Fig. 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. From the experimental results, calculated CO2 concentration of present work shows the closest to the measured value compared with the other standards’ value. Therefore, these results can allow estimating more correct ventilation aspects with Japanese occupants.
著者
津田 智史 小林 茂雄
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.609, pp.85-91, 2006
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of interpersonal distance from others on the emotions and behavior of couples staying along by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess the opinions of the couples were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. ・ Couples tended to stay together longer and more closely when the distance from others was large. This tendency appeared more strongly in the nighttime than in the early evening. Couples expected to maintain a private space of at least 2 to 3 meters on both sides. ・ Women tended to notice the proximity of others more in the early evening. This tendency was stronger when the others were groups of men rather than mixed male-female groups. ・ Generally in the evening, couples' behavior was not affected by the attributes of others. In some cases, couples moved even closer together when another couple approached than when no-one was near.
著者
小林 茂雄 津田 智史
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.615, pp.65-71, 2007-05-30 (Released:2017-02-25)
参考文献数
15

This research examined the interpersonal distances from others desired by couples sitting on a hill by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess their feelings were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. 1) The closest distance the couples could allow others to approach was 2 to 3 meters in all directions, and the distance at which couples were not annoyed by others was about 5 meters in all directions, 2) When the distances with others were within about 5 meters, the time a couple stayed in their spot was affected by others. The effects were stronger when the others were in front of a couple or behind them in the nighttime. 3) When the distances from others were within 5 to 6 meters, the couple's intimate contact was affected by others. The distances were a little larger in the early evening than in the nighttime, and women preferred larger distances than men.
著者
水谷 晃啓
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.723, pp.487-494, 2016 (Released:2016-05-30)
参考文献数
31

Through the analysis of the design method of Kenzo Tange Laboratory, the University of Tokyo, and the theory as its background, this study has clarified how the clear system in the urban design of Tange Laboratory has been adopted to the computer simulation and examined the significance of the method in the present context. After organizing the cases where computer is used in the early stage of Japanese architecture field, the study has clarified that the use of computer by Tange Laboratory had uniqueness in the point that the target of such use was the urban area. The study showed that this viewpoint of the use of computer by Tange Laboratory was related to the leading study in the United States at that time that was conducted by K. Lynch and C. Alexander, and discussed about its characteristics. The study indicated that the computer simulation method of Tange Laboratory could be broadly classified into the one of macro type that treats the whole nation and the one of micro type that treats human spatial cognition. The simulation of macro type is related to the simulation method of social sciences at that time, such as system dynamics or discrete simulation, which was distinctive in the point that such simulation intended to introduce the viewpoints of social sciences in addition to the rationality of civil engineering. The simulation of micro type is related to urban space analysis by K. Lynch, which was outstanding in the point that such simulation was carried out to understand how the elements of scenery image would influence the human spatial cognition, without liMITing to the issues whether the spot is visible or invisible. Through the analysis for the project of Tange Laboratory that was conducted by using these computer simulations, the study clarified that the computer simulation method of Tange Laboratory was the one that was developed from the study on the urban area of Tange Laboratory conducted before the introduction of computer simulation. In addition, it showed that the use of computer by Tange Laboratory has developed on the background of the development of computer technology in the same period of time and maintenance of social information environment, while correlating to urban design projects which had been worked on in parallel. The study clarified that the attempt of the introduction work for the use of computer by Tange Laboratory was the one that intend to develop “URTRAN” that has three subroutines as “URBOT”, “RIBOT” and “GRAPHOT”. The characteristics of “Urgorithm”, the concept of the use and development of the computer of Tange Laboratory, was that it focused on feedback circuit and human-machine system. The ideas, which attempt to produce designing plans from more diversified optimization conditions by placing the intervention of the human will on the computer processing, were the significant ones that led to the current use of computer. The study showed that the use of computer by Tange Laboratory and its concept, “Urgorithm”, was also applicable to the current computational design.
著者
小林 茂雄 小口 尚子
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.605, pp.119-125, 2006
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
4 3 4

The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of brightness and loudness of the background music on interpersonal communications in a cafe. An investigation to observe the conversational behavior of subjects, and an experiment to estimate suitability of lighting and sound environments for various behaviors were carried out under four different conditions. The principle results are summarized as follows. 1. Women tended to have more frequent eye contact than men under every condition. 2. Men tended to talk considerably under low illumination, and women tended to talk more under conditions of low sound volume. 3. Men tended to bend forward under high illumination, and women tended to bend forward under low illumination. 4. There were combined effects of illumination and music loudness on the evaluation of usage behaviors. For example, studying was appropriate in bright and quiet condition.
著者
尾方 壮行 市川 真帆 堤 仁美 有賀 隆男 堀 賢 田辺 新一
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.743, pp.57-64, 2018 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1 1

The globalization of people and things results in the short average distance of the networks and emerging infectious disease can spread immediately after the development in this world. Thus, preventive infection control measures are important. The infection risk should be evaluated to adopt effective infection control measures. In this study, the cough machine that can generate human-like cough to evaluate the infection risk in indoor environments were developed to evaluate infection risk. The cough expired volume, travel distance, velocity, total mass of droplets, and particle size distribution of the droplets of the cough machine were compared with the subject experimental data. The deposition of droplet on facial mucous membranes, such like eyes and a mouth, at various distances and horizontal surfaces at different heights were measured using the cough machine and thermal manikin. It was shown that the number of droplet deposited on the position of facial mucous membranes decrease drastically over 90 cm when the infected person and susceptible person faced each other. On horizontal surfaces, the droplet deposited most at 50-60 cm and more than 90% of the droplet deposited within 90 cm. The number of droplet deposited on the surface under 50%RH condition was larger than that under 30%RH condition. The effect of relative humidity was larger on the near surface because the propagation time is shorter than it takes to deposit on the distant far-surface. We provide experimental evidence to evaluate droplet and contact infection risk that enable to address a question of the relative importance of each infection route.
著者
池野 和之介 福田 知弘 矢吹 信喜
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.776, pp.757-765, 2020 (Released:2020-10-30)
参考文献数
38

The importance of the administrative authorities communicates information about disaster prevention is increased. When a natural disaster occurs in Japan, administrative authorities communicate this information using disaster administrative radio system. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications recommends distribution individual house receivers to all family, however, many municipalities use not individual house receivers but outdoor loudspeakers due to financial matters and limited cost-effectiveness. There is a problem that some regions don’t receive the information from outdoor loudspeakers. Municipalities need to reconsider the placement of outdoor loudspeakers, but it is difficult to confirm audibility intuitively and there are few cases that experts and non-experts such as government and citizens share and consider acoustic analytic results. High-precision outdoor acoustic analysis method is proposed. Virtual Reality (VR) and Mixed Reality (MR) System for visualizing simulation of environmental circumstances are developed. However, these simulation need many computer resources and take a long time. Therefore this study aims to develop an interactive visualization system for simulations of sound circumstance from outdoor loudspeakers using MR. By using an optical see-through Head Mounted Display (HMD) and tablet terminal, users can view the acoustic analytic results of the simulation. Sound simulation is carried out on PC. Furthermore, when users change the simulation condition such as sound source positions, users can view the results of the simulation immediately. It is necessary to create three-dimensional model of the object region and input our system preliminarily. This system uses the Ray-Tracing Method which is a type of geometric acoustic simulation method because this method can reduce calculation load. And, using the approximate of Maekawa Chart, this system can handle transmission of diffracted sound which cannot be handled in geometric acoustic simulation method. This system converts simulation results into sound pressure level (SPL) and shows heatmap and bar histogram by using MR. Our proposed system can reduce calculation load by using Sound Ray-Tracing Method. Our system is appropriate for an interactive system. However, when users view the acoustic analytic results of simulation by using HoloLens which is one of the optical see-through Head Mounted Display, this system needs time for rendering objects such as sound receiver and heatmap because of too many objects. The cause of this problem is the data transmission speed between PC and HoloLens. By reducing drawn objects and improving transmission speed, this problem is solved. We set coordinates of the sound source at the same place as the current position of one of the outdoor loudspeakers and simulated by using our system. We tested the effectiveness of our system by comparing the simulation results to more detailed simulation results and actual measurement value. The conclusions of the present study are shown below. ● Develop the groundwork of interactive visualization system for sound environment simulation using MR. ● Reduce calculation load by using Ray-Tracing Method which is a type of geometric acoustic simulation method. ● Confirm audibility intuitively by heatmap and bar histogram by using MR. The future prospect is to enable simulation in consideration of plural sound sources, wind and temperature.
著者
姜 允敬 加藤 信介 成 旻起 金 鐘訓 柳 宇 阿部 恵子 原田 光朗 柳原 隆司
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.667, pp.793-798, 2011-09-30 (Released:2012-01-13)
参考文献数
17

For possible applications in the humidifier-elements of air-conditioning systems, we investigated the germicidal effect of microwave irradiation on fungal spores, e.g. Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium solani as well as bacteria, e.g. Bacillus subtilis. For the irradiation of our samples we used a general-purpose microwave oven as well as a specially assembled microwave source that could emit microwave radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. In our first experiment, we determined the optimum condition of the two parameters of radiation output power and exposure time to achieve the desired germicidal effects. Microbes on both dry and wet filters were used as samples. The second part of the study was aimed to determine whether the germicidal effect originates directly from microwave irradiation or rather from the radiation-induced heat. Our results indicate that the degradation of microbes is affected by the type of strain, microwave output power, exposure time and sample moisture (and thus induced temperature increase). And it was identified that germicidal effect by microwave is mainly due to the thermal effect.
著者
藤原 陽三 絵内 正道 鈴木 憲三 羽山 広文
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.628, pp.767-774, 2008-06-30 (Released:2009-09-30)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
4 1

In order to search trends in further energy saving in highly insulated and airtight houses in Hokkaido, Japan, an actual-condition investigation on a central-heating system fitted in five such houses, each with different methods of construction, was performed. The results were obtained as follows.:1)The equivalent leakage area value of a steel frame construction was 3.2cm2/m2 that was less than a two-by-four construction(0.33cm2/m2) and a conventional wood construction(1.1-1.7cm2/m2) .It is important to be improved air-tightness of steel frame construction houses by various construction methods. 2) Heat loss coefficient estimated from these experimental results was 0.94 -1.59W/(m2•K). To reduce energy consumption for heating,it will become more important to improve thermal-insulation properties and air tightness.3) The heating-system efficiency obtained from these experimental results was in the range of 72 to 93%. Although the ratio of actual boiler capacity to demanded heat-source capacity extrapolated from actual measurements ranges from two to three times,the effect on system efficiency was less than 10%.However it is necessary to include this 10% in the task of planning a heating system.
著者
久保田 徹 アーマッド スピアン
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.608, pp.81-87, 2006
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 5

This paper presents the findings of a questionnaire survey on usage of air-conditioners and windows among selected households in terraced house areas in Johor Bahru City, Malaysia. The results showed 62% of respondents owned an average of 2.3 air-conditioners. It was suggested that the reduction of both numbers and use of air-conditioners would be one of particularly important means for energy-saving among households in terraced house areas. Although approximately 80% of respondents opened their windows during the daytime, only around 10% did so during the nighttime. It is important to encourage occupants to open their windows especially during the nighttime for utilizing the night ventilation.