著者
多和田 友美 伊香賀 俊治 村上 周三 内田 匠子 上田 悠
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.648, pp.213-219, 2010-02-28 (Released:2010-06-07)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
4 4

Various researches highlight that indoor air quality affects performance of workers in offices. Although good indoor air quality improves work performance, it also increases energy consumption. In this study, we achieved a field survey in a real office in order to investigate the relationship between thermal environment, productivity, and energy consumption. In addition to the monitoring of indoor environmental quality and energy consumption, subjective experiments were conducted. In order to evaluate subjective performance, workers and students responded to questionnaires, and to evaluate objective performance, students simulated three types of office works. By calculating room temperature and worker's subjective performance, we demonstrate the correlation between room temperature and worker's performance (R2=0.22, p
著者
森山 修治 長谷見 雄二 小川 純子 佐野 友紀 神 忠久 蛇石 貴宏
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.637, pp.233-240, 2009-03-30 (Released:2009-11-24)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
4 3

In view of the rapid large scale development of underground in the central big cities, especially around terminal stations, evacuation experiments have been conducted with 79 subjects using an underground shopping mall near Tokyo Station actually in service after business hours. Four groups of 20 subjects started from different locations and time to “escape” from any of emergency exits was measured for each subject. 12 out of the 79 subjects wore elderly simulator to compare evacuation behavior of elderly and that of younger people. The evacuation behavior was also monitored by video cameras and escape route of each subject was reproduced afterwards. Five experiments were conducted using the lighting conditions and layout of emergency exits as parameters. The starting point was changed from experiment to experiment, not making any subject repeat similar selection of escape route. The shopping mall is composed of grid of passages, and is installed with escape route sign lights on every passage according to Fire Service Law. In every experiment, it was observed that considerable portion of subjects did not select right passage toward nearest exit at intersection nor passed over right exits. These are not compliant with widely accepted assumption for deterministic modeling of evacuation in mall-like facility. Factors dictating the probability to select right passage at intersections and that to recognize emergency exit are analyzed from the experimental data.
著者
小林 茂雄 津田 智史
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.615, pp.65-71, 2007

This research examined the interpersonal distances from others desired by couples sitting on a hill by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess their feelings were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. 1) The closest distance the couples could allow others to approach was 2 to 3 meters in all directions, and the distance at which couples were not annoyed by others was about 5 meters in all directions, 2) When the distances with others were within about 5 meters, the time a couple stayed in their spot was affected by others. The effects were stronger when the others were in front of a couple or behind them in the nighttime. 3) When the distances from others were within 5 to 6 meters, the couple's intimate contact was affected by others. The distances were a little larger in the early evening than in the nighttime, and women preferred larger distances than men.
著者
岩下 剛 得永 尚樹
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.672, pp.65-70, 2012-02-29 (Released:2012-03-07)
参考文献数
16

For determining VOCs emitted from bioeffluents, the indoor air collected in the classrooms of the elementary schools and a college were analyzed. As representative VOCs from bioeffluents, 2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol (2E1H), Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, and Dodecane were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 2E1H, Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, Dodecane in occupied classrooms were higher than those in unoccupied classrooms. There was a higher correlation between the concentration of 2E1H and the reciprocal of the ventilation rate per person under the occupied conditions. While the higher correlation was also obtained between the concentration of 2E1H and the in-door CO2 concentration in the classrooms, the concentrations of Nonanal, Decanal, Nonane, Undecane, and Dodecane did not correlate with the ventilation rate nor CO2. The 2E1H concentration could be an useful index of the air pollution by human bioeffluents.
著者
鈴木 宏昌 藤浪 健二 金 政秀 田辺 新一
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.645, pp.1253-1259, 2009-11-30 (Released:2010-04-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 1

Air-conditioners are going to be set up in public elementary schools. The installation rate reached 64% in Tokyo 23 wards in 2007. The increase of energy consumption is a concern as air-conditioner use spreads all over the country. In this study, the forecast of energy consumption until 2030 is illustrated. This is calculated by forecasting the number of classes in which air-conditioners have been installed and the air-conditioning load in each 47 prefectures. In addition, the energy-saving measures such as natural ventilation and Low-e glass are accounted. It is possible to reduce energy consumption to the level of 1990 by 2030, when all the measures and improvement in COP of air-conditioner are taken.
著者
シュバイカ マーセル 宿谷 昌則
出版者
一般社団法人日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.633, pp.1275-1282, 2008-11-30
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

1.はじめに建物外皮や暖冷房設備のようなハードウェアだけではなく、住まい手の行動のようなソフトウェアも、建築環境システムのエクセルギー消費に大きな影響を及ぼす。エクセルギーはシステム内外で起きる消費を明示する概念である。ハードウェアについては多くの研究があるが、ソフトウェアについては研究事例がまだ少ない。これらの事例では、放射温度・気温・湿度の他に住まい手にかかわる情報として快適さの度合いや着衣・代謝・体重などが調査されている。実際には、室内熱環境の快適条件を達成するための行動の選択が住まい手にはある。例えば、冷房のスイッチを入れるか、あるいは通風のために窓を開けるのかは、建築環境システムのエクセルギー消費パターンに大きな影響を及ぼす。そこで、本研究では、住まい手の選択に影響を及ぼす要因を見い出すことを試みた。行動選択の要因が明らかになれば、快適さを犠牲にせず、しかも小さなエクセルギー消費ですごせるように住まい手を導くことができると考えられる。2.熱環境の測定方法と調査対象者のプロフィル本研究における熱環境物理量の測定と熱環境調整行動の調査は、2007年夏に東京都内にある320部屋をもつ国際留学生会館で行なった。各部屋の床面積は15m^2で、通路側にドアが一つそして反対側に窓が一つある。各部屋には冷暖房装置が一台ずつ設置されている。今回の測定と調査に加わることを同意した39人の学生の出身は27ヶ国に及び、彼らは3か月から20か月前に日本に来ている。最初に、現在の行動とその背景・好み・知識について英語で書かれた35の質問から成る質問紙調査を行なった。次に、温湿度センサー1台と窓の開閉が記録できるセンサー1台を受け取ることに同意した学生に対して、部屋を快適に保つための夏における行動についてのインタビューを行なった。さらに、この39人の居住する部屋内の温湿度データを6月末から8,月上旬まで6週間にわたって2分間隔で記録収集し、屋外の温湿度・風速・日射量も同様にして測定した。図2に、測定期間における外気温と学生室の室内空気温を示す。Nicolらが示した適応的快適さ範囲も描き込んでみたところ、たとえば、学生Aは適応的快適さ範囲に室内空気温が入っていてもいなくても、冷房を使用せず、学生Bは頻繁に使用していることが分かった。表1は、各階や各方位によって室内温湿度の平均・最高・最低\分散を示す。室内の温度は平均値で、室外より5℃程度高かった。3.エアコン冷房の使用パターンエアコン冷房の使用パターンを明らかにするために、まず最初に各学生が冷房をいつつけるか、そしてどのぐらいの間つけ続けるかを分析した。Nicolが示した方法にしたがって、外気温と関係づけて冷房の使用パターンを分析することにした。図3は、冷房システムをつけている人々の割合と外気温の関係、図4は、冷房システムをつけている時間割合と外気温の関係を示す。これらの関係を、1日24時間、0:00〜8:00、8:00〜18:00、18:00〜0:00の4っの時間帯ごとにロジット曲線で表したところ、その時間帯の平均外気温が27℃で75%の人たちが60%の時間割合で冷房を使用していることが分かった。寮という建物用途から、0時〜8時の時間帯における人数割合と使用時間割合が8時〜18時や18時〜0時の時間帯より大きいことが分かった。図5に示す通り、個々の学生についてロジット曲線を求めると、大きな相違が現れる。これらの相違が何に起因しているのかを見い出すために、学生を四つのグループN・E・L・Aに分類して考察した。Nは暑くても決して冷房を使用せず、暑すぎるようなら、場所を移動するような行動パターンの人たち。Eは、扇風機などでは効果がないときだけ冷房を使用する人たち。Lは、冷房を使用したくないが、他の策を試みる前にそれを使用する人たち。Aは、冷房が必要ではないような条件でも冷房をつける人たちである。図6には、グループN・E・L・Aのロジット曲線はグループ毎の特徴をある程度を表す。例えば、Aは同じ外気温度に対してL・E・Nに比べて冷房を使用する可能性が40%〜60%大きいことが分かる。4.エアコン冷房の使用パターンを決定する要因の考察3.の結果に基づいて、質問紙調査から得られた答えがグループN・E・L・Aの行動パターンにどのように関連しているかを分析した。要因として6つを取り上げた。夜間のエアコン冷房の好き嫌い、エアコン冷房の効果、窓開けの効果、窓閉めの効果、出身地の気候、環境調整のパッシブ手法、性別の7つである。これらの要因ごとに統計的検定を行なって、取り上げた要因が有意かどうかを調べた。図7-aを見ると、エアコン冷房の好き嫌いは、冷房を頻繁につけるかどうかに重要な影響があること、図7-bからdを見ると、LとAは、冷房によって得られる快適さを十分に信頼しており、窓開けのような行為をあまり信頼していないこと、その一方で、NとEは、その反対を信頼していることが分かる。このような結果となったのは、冷房を使用している人は窓開けによる通風の経験がほとんどないからかもしれない。気候については、Koeppenの気候地図17)にしたがって学生を分類した。図7-eにより、暑熱湿潤気候で育った学生は、実測期間中に現われた条件になじみがあり、その多くがグループAに属していることがわかった。その理由は、出身地においてエアコン冷房が一般によく使用されているからと思われる。熱く乾燥した国から来ている学生は、グループNとEに属していることが多かった。それらの国では伝統的な生活様式がかなり残っており、そのことが大きく影響した可能性が高い。寒冷な気候で育った学生はグループLに入っていることが多かった。彼らは実測期間に現われた暑熱湿潤の環境条件に適応するようなパッシブ手法による環境調整の方法を学ぶことがなかったため、エアコン冷房をつけるのが一番簡単な方法とみなしてすぐに使用することにしたのかもしれない。図7-fに示すように、蒸発冷却・自然換気・日よけのようなパッシブ方法の知識と実際の行動とには関連性は見ることができなかった。図7-gにより、性による行動の違いがない。5.まとめ東京における夏の条件で、ある留学生会館に住む40人ほどの学生を対象にして、居室内の熱環境測定と環境調整行動の質問紙調査を行ない、その結果を分析したところ、ロジット曲線のモデルが冷房使用パターンの記述に利用できそうなことが分かった。エアコン冷房の使用パターンに影響すると考えられる要因を7つ取り上げ分析したところ、エアコン冷房の好みや出身地の気候、出身地におけるエアコン冷房の普及の程度などでがエアコン冷房の使用パターンに強く影響するらしいことが読み取れた。今後の課題は建築環境調整のためのエクセルギー消費を減らすために住まい手の行動を変えることは可能であるかどうかを調査することである。
著者
津田 智史 小林 茂雄
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.609, pp.85-91, 2006
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of interpersonal distance from others on the emotions and behavior of couples staying along by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess the opinions of the couples were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. ・ Couples tended to stay together longer and more closely when the distance from others was large. This tendency appeared more strongly in the nighttime than in the early evening. Couples expected to maintain a private space of at least 2 to 3 meters on both sides. ・ Women tended to notice the proximity of others more in the early evening. This tendency was stronger when the others were groups of men rather than mixed male-female groups. ・ Generally in the evening, couples' behavior was not affected by the attributes of others. In some cases, couples moved even closer together when another couple approached than when no-one was near.
著者
久保田 徹 アーマッド スピアン
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.608, pp.81-87, 2006
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 4

This paper presents the findings of a questionnaire survey on usage of air-conditioners and windows among selected households in terraced house areas in Johor Bahru City, Malaysia. The results showed 62% of respondents owned an average of 2.3 air-conditioners. It was suggested that the reduction of both numbers and use of air-conditioners would be one of particularly important means for energy-saving among households in terraced house areas. Although approximately 80% of respondents opened their windows during the daytime, only around 10% did so during the nighttime. It is important to encourage occupants to open their windows especially during the nighttime for utilizing the night ventilation.
著者
小林 茂雄 小口 尚子
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.605, pp.119-125, 2006
被引用文献数
4 3 4

The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of brightness and loudness of the background music on interpersonal communications in a cafe. An investigation to observe the conversational behavior of subjects, and an experiment to estimate suitability of lighting and sound environments for various behaviors were carried out under four different conditions. The principle results are summarized as follows. 1. Women tended to have more frequent eye contact than men under every condition. 2. Men tended to talk considerably under low illumination, and women tended to talk more under conditions of low sound volume. 3. Men tended to bend forward under high illumination, and women tended to bend forward under low illumination. 4. There were combined effects of illumination and music loudness on the evaluation of usage behaviors. For example, studying was appropriate in bright and quiet condition.
著者
山中 俊夫 甲谷 寿史 松尾 真臣
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.623, pp.47-52, 2008-01-30 (Released:2008-10-31)
参考文献数
8

“Smellscape” is a new point of view in evaluating the living environment. This aim of this study is to investigate the smellscape described by residents to evaluate the living environment in respect of odor. In this paper, questionnaire survey on the odor experience and visitor-panel test on perceived odors were conducted in four districts in Hanshin area, and the smell maps were tried to be drawn for each odor kind. As a result, the characteristics of various kind of odors were made clear and the difference between residents' evaluation and visitors' evaluation were shown.
著者
横山 広樹 大岡 龍三 菊本 英紀
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.738, pp.767-777, 2017 (Released:2017-08-30)
参考文献数
31

Urban environmental issues related to heat and aerial pollutants have become increasingly more serious. Atmospheric properties, such as air temperature, wind velocity, and pollutant concentrations, are typically measured at meteorological observation stations. However, due to the low spatial resolution of the station networks, we cannot observe local issues occurring on the scale of people's daily lives. Thus, mobile measurement is an effective method for addressing the insufficient measurement points in urban areas. However, the extent of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement errors are unclear and results of mobile measurements are uncertain. Therefore, this paper discusses the applicability of mobile measurements to high-density urban areas. After investigating the range of GPS errors, we consider the following three aspects: (1) spatial distribution of air temperature at a high spatial resolution of 10 m; (2) the range of uncertainties in mobile measurement results; and (3) the impact of spatial resolution (10 m or 100 m) on the measured spatial distribution of air temperature. In this study, we used bicycles as mobile measurement platforms to investigate the spatial distribution of air temperature. Two measurement sites in Tokyo were selected: Shinjuku, a commercial area (August 25th to 28th, 2015) and Shibuya, a residential area (January 20th to 29th and February 16th to 19th, 2016). We equipped bicycles with platinum resistance thermometers (a high responsivity rate of 2.2 s), a data logger, and a GPS logger to measure air temperature and spatial position during the sequential travel of the bicycles. Measurements in Shinjuku were conducted on cloudy days. To ensure that the measurement conditions were consistent, measurements in Shibuya were conducted from 16:00 to 18:00, when solar radiation, and thus its influence, was very low. From the results, we draw the following conclusions. Firstly, GPS data collected in urban areas tend to include positioning errors of 14 m on average due to the reflective properties of building surfaces according to adapting our developing correction method. Secondly, spatial distribution of air temperature variation was almost ±0.65 °C (min to max). Thirdly, the average of uncertainty of air temperature variation was 0.03 °C. It was much smaller than the range of air temperature variation (min to max). Lastly, we can find a similar distribution of air temperature between a mesh size of 10 m and 100 m. However, a spatial resolution of less than 100 m was necessary in order to observe locations where the air temperature is locally higher than near street intersections. However, we have to consider GPS errors are 14 m on average, which is larger than a mesh size of 10 m. From the above, we obtained a characteristic spatial distribution of air temperature by correcting position data. Suppose that we reduce uncertainty to less than 0.1 °C in the case that the max value of standard deviation of air temperature at each cell is 0.4 °C, 16 samples at each cell must be corrected in one hour. Therefore, we found mobile measurement is an effective method for investigating environmental conditions in high-density urban areas for high spatial resolution.
著者
横井 梓 齋藤 美穂
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.683, pp.1-7, 2013-01-30 (Released:2013-05-30)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to show the peculiarity of mood and impression evaluation in the VR system for the simulation of a residential environment using a large screen. We conducted a psychological evaluation for a virtual space and real room using the SD method and found that the VR space brought a pleasant mood, but the first experience of a virtual space caused a nervous condition. Moreover, it was difficult for them to acquire a fresh feeling as well as a sense of width and depth in a virtual space, in contrast to a real space. Furthermore, it was easier to express beauty, simplicity and youthfulness, but more difficult to express warmth and individuality in a virtual space.
著者
小林 茂雄 津田 智史
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.615, pp.65-71, 2007-05-30 (Released:2017-02-25)
参考文献数
15

This research examined the interpersonal distances from others desired by couples sitting on a hill by the sea. An investigation to observe the behavior of actual couples, and an experiment to assess their feelings were carried out in the early evening and the nighttime. In the results, the following points were demonstrated. 1) The closest distance the couples could allow others to approach was 2 to 3 meters in all directions, and the distance at which couples were not annoyed by others was about 5 meters in all directions, 2) When the distances with others were within about 5 meters, the time a couple stayed in their spot was affected by others. The effects were stronger when the others were in front of a couple or behind them in the nighttime. 3) When the distances from others were within 5 to 6 meters, the couple's intimate contact was affected by others. The distances were a little larger in the early evening than in the nighttime, and women preferred larger distances than men.
著者
小林 茂雄
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.585, pp.7-12, 2004
被引用文献数
5 1

In this research, an experiment was conducted to evaluate lighting environments in a commercial street in different time zones when the shops were open and after they had closed. In the results, the evaluation of the lighting environment while shops were open was very high for shopping behavior etc., but the evaluation after the shops were closed was low for all usage behaviors. The evaluations of shopping behavior, feeling of security, and nuisances, etc. tended to be determined chiefly by the average luminance level of the street. Moreover, color and height of street lights, and strength and color of shops' internal illuminations were found to have a strong effect on relaxing scenery and atmospheric behaviors.
著者
宗方 淳 田中 知世
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.695, pp.19-25, 2014-01-30 (Released:2014-07-10)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
5 1

A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to study the environmental and social factors which effect office workers' motivation as well as other comprehensive evaluation that are also supposed to influence workers' workplace productivity. As a result, places and behaviors which maintain and/or improve workers' motivation were extracted and compared with the factors of other comprehensive evaluations. It can be explained with larger coefficient of determination that motivation is one of the causal factors of the satisfaction of office environment. It was also found that some environmental factors influenced workers' motivation with the same weight as social factors. Finally the influence of difference of type of the worker was also studied.
著者
立松 宏一 廣田 誠一 高倉 政寛 月館 司 鈴木 大隆 羽山 広文
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.707, pp.67-77, 2015-01-30 (Released:2015-03-30)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

The thermal performance and equipment type specified for a newly built house were investigated as benchmarks to enable the selection of appropriate insulation and equipment specifications. The prevalence of electric heater installations for space heating and hot water supply decreased in 2012, compared to 2011. However, it is estimated that the primary energy consumption is high in particularly cold areas of Hokkaido, because this type of equipment remains common in these areas. Because there is an initiative to contractors when the equipment type is determined, it is important to provide appropriate information to these contractors.
著者
望月 悦子 木村 洋
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.647, pp.35-41, 2010-01-30 (Released:2010-04-02)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
2 2 1

The purpose of this study is to identify the visual effects of the difference of spectral power distribution of luminaires in office space. Subjective experiment was conducted in two experimental chambers with different kind of ceiling luminaires - LEDs and fluorescent lamps. Visual fatigue of the subjects was evaluated by three methods, ART (Accommodation Response Time) and CFF (Critical Fusion of Flicker) as objective test and questionnaires for evaluation of subjective symptoms of fatigue as subjective test. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the variation rate in ART and that in CFF caused by VDT works within one hour under LEDs and those under fluorescent lamps. Also the subjective evaluation on fatigue was not significantly different among different kinds of the light source.
著者
有馬 雄祐 大岡 龍三 菊本 英紀
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.729, pp.1047-1054, 2016 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
21

The outputs of weather and climate models have been used in various application fields. For example, future weather data for the building energy simulation (BES) can be provided based on a climate model prediction. However, as the model output has systematical errors (called the bias), some type of bias correction is necessary in order to use the model output for an application field. For temperature or humidity, we often assume normal distribution and correct bias using statistical parameters, such as the average and the standard deviation. However, for solar radiation, a bias correction method (BCM) that uses only the average and standard deviation is insufficient and can result in negative values after bias correction. Consequently, the solar radiation bias is often corrected using only its average. In general, climate models can accurately predict the daily maximum amount of solar radiation on clear days at a given site because solar radiation depends mainly on its geolocation (latitude, longitude, and elevation) and the season (solar altitude). However, it is difficult to model cloud physics processes accurately to establish the weaker amounts of solar radiation on cloudy days. As a result, when we correct the solar radiation bias using only the average value, the daily maximum value deviates from the observed results instead of correcting the average. In this paper, we present a method called quantile mapping (QM) for the bias correction of solar radiation to provide the bias corrected weather data for the BES. The QM has been developed mainly for the correction of precipitation or temperature biases, although there are few studies that apply QM to the correction of solar radiation. In previous studies, QM was applied to the daily or monthly average. However, for the BES, the daily maximum value is also as important as the daily or monthly average, because the peak energy load depends mainly on the daily maximum. In this study, we also applied QM to obtain the daily maximum amount of solar radiation. In addition, we conducted BESs using the bias corrected weather data and evaluated the efficiency of each BCM. From the simulation results, the average energy consumption did not differ according to the difference in the BCM. However, the simulation that used the weather data corrected by only the monthly average could not predict the maximum cooling load; it was underestimated by 12%. Conversely, the simulation with the data corrected by QM, which used either the daily cumulative or the maximum amount of solar radiation, could predict the maximum cooling loads, which were under estimated by only 6% and 2%, respectively.
著者
清水 明子 浅野 良晴
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.612, pp.105-110, 2007-02-28 (Released:2017-02-25)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1 1

The objective of this paper is to be clear the indispensable factors in the toilets primary and secondary schools through the children's way. The authors investigated the usage of fixtures in the toilets and carried out a questionnaire to the school children, who spent a few minutes in a toilet for many purposes. The following proposals have been presented. 1) To create an alcove in a toilet to promote the communication. 2) To provide a space where the children play in order to change the modes by themselves. 3) To offer a place where the children wait for their friends using fixtures. 4) To supply a shelf on which the belonging of the children are left in order to use fixtures.
著者
川西 利昌 大塚 文和
出版者
Architectural Institute of Japan
雑誌
日本建築学会環境系論文集 (ISSN:13480685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.696, pp.201-207, 2014

Ultraviolet radiation may be cause the skin damage. In order to determine the shade to protect of the skin against ultraviolet radiation, it is necessary to know the radiance distribution of the sky ultraviolet radiation. Conventionally, the sensor of the sky radiance distribution has been generally swept using mechanical method. The mechanical sweeping method has the problems that sky conditions change during several minutes. Electronically sweep-type measurement equipment for sky erythema ultraviolet radiation equipped with 145 area of erythema ultraviolet sensors was developed, and it has become possible to measure the all sky in only three seconds. This research aims to measure the erythema ultraviolet radiance distribution for low latitude area using this measurement equipment. A regression equation of radiance distribution was made from measurement results. Architectural Sun Protection Factor of shade was calculated using the equation.