著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.184-194, 2004

"A transitional object" is the first possession that an infant places a special attachment toward, which is not part of him/herself. Typical examples are towels, blankets and teddy bears. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of appearance and disappearance of transitional objects with a special focus on the two factors of "nursing environment" and "marital stress." Two-hundred-and-eleven mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire survey through personal interviews. The main findings were as follows : (1) Transitional objects appeared in bottle-fed infants more often than breast-fed infants ; (2) Infants with younger siblings parted with their transitional objects later than those with older siblings and those without any siblings ; (3) Most transitional objects tended to appear simultaneously with the mothers' stopping breastfeeding ; (4) Transitional objects tended to appear in infants whose mothers had a stressful relationship with their husbands, relative to those who did not. Based on these findings, the "Transitional Object Acquiring Process Model" was presented.
著者
西田 公昭 黒田 文月
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.192-203, 2003
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological problems experienced after leaving destructive cults and the effects of the progress period after leaving and non-professional counseling. The study analyzed the psychological problems by using a questionnaire survey administrated to 157 former cult members from two different cults. The results of factor analysis revealed the following eleven factors for psychological problems: 1) tendencies for depression and anxiety, 2) loss of self esteem, 3) remorse and regret, 4) friendship building and socializing difficulties, 5) family relationship difficulties, 6) floating, 7) fear of sexual contact, 8) emotional instability, 9) tendency for psychosomatic disease, 10) concealment of past life, and 11) anger toward the group. The results of an analysis of variance showed that tendencies for depression and anxiety, tendency for psychosomatic disease, and concealment of past life decreased during the progress period after leaving the group and counseling, while loss of self-esteem and anger toward the group increased by counseling.
著者
田崎 勝也 二ノ宮 卓也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.75-85, 2013

The aim of this study is to identify response styles among Japanese participants. Response style research has had a methodological concern that biased responses defined by the number of counts responding to certain category options run the risk of being confounded with item contents. Thus, following the approach delineated and outlined by Billiet and McClendon (2000), this study identifies response styles with the aid of structural equation modeling. Based on the premise that stable tendencies in response behavior are related to personality traits, the impact of response styles is partialed out from item responses by modeling a "style factor." Confirmatory factor analyses on two distinctive psychological scales found a significant effect of the acquiescence response style (ARS) on item responses. On the other hand, strong evidence of the (in) extreme response style (ERS) and the mid-point response style (MRS), often mentioned as Japanese response styles, was not identified.
著者
浦 光博 南 隆男 稲葉 昭英
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.78-90, 1989
被引用文献数
3

This article contains two parts. In the first part, we review recent studies on social support and define three new trends in the area of social support research. The first trend is recent increment of studies examining the relationship between social support concepts and some other concepts in social psychology. The second trend is a series of studies re-examining social support process from the viewpoint of more general features of social interaction process. The third trend is the emphasis of roles of various ecological factors in social support processes. All of these three trends are considered to have impacts on future directions of this area of research. In the second part, we report results of the studies in which we examined the relationship between social support and family stress and individual stress in a situation of job-induced separation. This examination is considered to be related with the third trend reported in the first part. The results revealed that the social support, on the one hand, buffer negative effects of stressful life events on family and individual adaptation, but on the other hand, the buffering effects may have a limitation.
著者
湯川 進太郎 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.159-169, 1998

This study investigated the effect of the presence of other person on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior elicited by media violence. In experiment 1, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females) were first exposed to a violent video either with the same-gender person or alone. Then, subjects described what they were thinking about while watching the video, and rated their affect about the video. Heart rate and eye blink rate were recorded continuously while watching the video. Results showed that the presence of other person while exposed to media violence inhibited negative affect and facilitated positive thoughts and affect. In experiment 2, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females)were exposed to a violent video either with the samegender person who reacted positively to the video or with the one who reacted negatively. Unlike the experiment 1, aggressive behavior was measured on the Taylor (1967) paradigm. Results showed that the presence of other person who reacted positively to media violence facilitated aggressive behavior.
著者
湯川 進太郎 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.127-136, 2003

he purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the expressive and contextual characteristics of violent videos on affective reactions. Expressive characteristics are concerned with the way by which violence is represented visually, and contextual characteristics are concerned with the story in which violence happens. Fifty undergraduates (male=24, female=26) evaluated their impressions of 20 violent videos and rated their affective reactions to these videos. Two judges evaluated each contextual characteristic. Results showed that although the expressive characteristics influenced viewers' affective reactions, the contextual characteristics did not. The effects of violent videos on aggressive behavior were discussed from two perspectives, one associated with the affective effects of the expressive characteristics on hostile aggression and the other with the learning effects of the contextual characteristics on imitative aggression.
著者
出口 拓彦 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.160-169, 2005

The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationships among normative consciousness, individual traits, and the frequency of private conversations, in the form of whispering, amongst students during a college lecture. In the first study, the relationships among normative consciousness against whispering, perspective taking, social skills, and the frequency of whispering were examined through a questionnaire survey consisting of 251 respondents. The results showed that students who whispered frequently indicated high perspective taking or social skills. In the second study, the relationships among the goals of college life, normative consciousness, and the frequency of whispering were focused upon. The relationships between whispering and feelings of adjustment were also investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 369 responses were obtained. The results showed the following. (1) Despite having a high normative consciousness, students who valued the development of interpersonal relationships during college life were more likely to have conversations irrelevant to the lecture. (2) There were positive relationships between whispering and feelings of interpersonal adjustment.
著者
奥田 秀宇 沙 蓮香
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.33-41, 1990

The present study explored the effects of cooperative or competitive situations, sex differences, and the cultural differences between Japan and China on the allocation choices of a reward, and the effects of these variables on interpersonal attraction for allocators. Eighty male and fourty female undergraduate students in both countries answered the question which asked the subjects' own allocation choices and the liking for allocators, after they read the description of a game situation. The game was either group or individual task, and the allocators chose either equal or equitable allocation. The results suggested that there were differences between both countries in the subjects' own allocation choices, while there were similar tendencies between them in the liking for allocators. In both, interpersonal attraction is affected by both altruism and fairness of the allocators, and fairness judgment is affected mainly by allocation similarity.
著者
今城 周造
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.88-97, 1991

The purpose of this paper was to examine the effects of asserting obviousness of the advocated position, which had been used as threat to attitudinal freedom. Most of the subjects held an initial position, which was consistent with the advocated position. The high threat communication was sprinkled with statements such as "there is no question about it," or "I think it's obvious that ・・・." The low threat form simply omitted the threatening statements. Subjects were asked post-communication belief and were told to list all thoughts that occurred to them during the communication and to classify them. Firstly, the no-question statements were perceived as no threat to attitudinal freedom, and increased belief change toward the advocated position among the subjects who had strongly agreeded it (compliance effect). Secondly, the no-question statements were perceived as threat to freedom to question, and increased doubts and counterarguments among the subjects who had expected freedom to question (reactance effect). These results suggested that the effects of no-question statements could be different from those which reactance theory had originally predicted.
著者
広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.44-55, 1994
被引用文献数
28

The purpose of this article is to propose a tentative model of environment-conscious behavior, to review relevant researches on energy and water conservation, recycling, and detergents-using behavior on the basis of our model, and to clarify determinants of these behaviors. The decision making of environment-consicious behavior is hypothesized to consist of two phases. The first phase is to decide on a general goal intention of a pro-environmental lifestyle. The second is to decide on a specific behavior intention of environment-conscious behavior consistent with the general goal intention previously determined. The main conclusions of this review are as follows. The facilitating factors of the goal intention were the three main beliefs about the environmental problems; the perceived seriousness of environmental problems, the ascription of responsibility for environmental problems, and the belief in the effectiveness of an proenvironmental lifestyle. The main inhibiting or facilitating factors of the behavior intention were the three evaluations of this behavior; the feasibility evaluation, the costbenefit evaluation, and its social norm evaluation.
著者
田中 堅一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.13-26, 2000

The purpose of the study was to create a Japanese version of Pryor (1987) "Likelihood to Sexual Harassment scale" (LSH scale) and to assess its reliability and determinants. The scale meas ures differences among individuals regarding their likelihood of carrying out sexual harassment. Japanese male undergraduate students (N=192) completed questionnaires on the LSH scale and sexual attitudes (i.e., sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence). The results of principal component analysis and alpha coefficients showed the high reliability of the scale. Japanese male participants who had hostile attitudes to women produced high scores of the LSH scale. In addition, the LSH scores were higher in male participants who evaluated as trivial, rather than severe, behaviors that considered as sexual harassment in Japan and who anticipated sexual attraction to be women's sex role.
著者
広瀬 弘忠 Slovic Paul 石塚 智一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.114-122, 1994
被引用文献数
3

A Cross-cultural questionnaire survey on the perception of sixteen risks was carried out in Tokyo, Japan and Eugene, Oregon, USA in 1991. The sixteen risk items consisted of environmental risks, technological risks, epidemics, natural disasters, societal risks and political-economic risks. Samples were collected from male and female college students in both cities. Although both Japanese and American samples judged war and nuclear power plant accidents among the risks for which it was most urgent to avoid harm, other perceptions differed considerably between the two samples. The Japanese were most concerned with the global environmental risks such as global warming, destruction of forests and acid rain. The Americans rated risks such as AIDS and illegal drugs as the most serious risks in their country. The former risk orientation was global and the latter one was somewhat more localized. Females tended to have more confidence than did males in the effectiveness of efforts put forth to reduce these risk.
著者
山中 一英
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.93-102, 1998
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate same-sex friendship development within a small group of three male and eight female freshmen by the case study method. The subjects completed a questionnaire four times over a three-month period. The questionnaire included the following scales: (1) the rating of each of the group members on a 21-point-scale measuring liking; (2) the rating of the frequency with which the subjects interacted with each member on a 6-point-scale. In addition, the questionnaire included open-ended questions, in which the subjects were asked to describe each member's noticeable behavioral events, personality, and so on. Major findings obtained were as follows. The group structure based on "liking" found at the early stage did not prevail. That is, the number of persons whom the subjects liked increased as the time passed. On the contrary, the group structure based on "interaction frequency" continued for three months. In effect, the persons whom the subjects liked best were different from those whom they were always together with. It suggested that they had "doubled friendships".
著者
李 津〓
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.183-190, 1998
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects, and (2) to examine the moderating role of product involvement and prior brand attitude in the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects. Two kinds of printed advertisement were presented as stimuli to 91 undergraduate students. The subjects were then asked to answer a series of questions. Major findings of the study were as follows: (1) It was indicated that consumers may selectively attend to the humor and pay no more attention to the product related information presented with it. (2) Perceived humor had positive effect on advertising effects when consumer's prior brand attitude was negative, which supported distraction effect of perceived humor, and this distraction effect was stronger when product involvement was low.
著者
福島 治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.20-32, 1996

The purpose of this study was to find out image types of self which university students wished to present to familiar others and to examine relationships between their self-presentation to these targets and mental health. In the study 1, ninety male students were asked to describe their self-images that they wished to present to familiar others (father, mother, same-sex friend, opposite-sex friend, and teacher). Fifteen different types were detected among the reported self-images. Frequencies of each image type were found to strongly depend on the type of target person. In the study 2, seventy-nine male students were asked to select five types from the 15 images, which they wished best to present to the targets, and to rate the degree of their being successfully presented each image. It was also found that the selection was strongly affected by the type of target person. These findings were explained in terms of Schlenker & Weigold's (1989) self-identification theory. Though most subjects assertively presented themselves in familiar relations, these tendencies correlated with neither the level of self-esteem nor of social anxiety.
著者
金 官圭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.123-132, 1999
被引用文献数
9

The purpose of this study is to make clear shat variables influence impression formation in computer-mediated communication. The personal impressions consisted of 7 dimensions: the big five factors of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the communicator credibility (expertness, trust worthiness). All independent measures were composed of 27 variables of eight categories. A questionnaire of fj (from Japan) newsgroup's users was conducted by e-mail and responses of 150 users were valid. Regression analysis indicated that each personal impression was influenced by several important variables in categories of message quality evaluation, presentational style of message, perceived message function, and communication manner. We can see that impressions of communicator were formed from whatever meager cues are availabel in computer-mediated communication, even though nonverbal cues, relative to face-to-face interaction, are lacking.
著者
佐藤 達哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.197-208, 1993
被引用文献数
1

In Japan, not a few Japanese people may believe that blood group polymorphisms of the ABO system are related to personality differences. Blood-typing is regarded here as a lay people's personality theory. The aim of this study is to understand that how people use this theory and that what functions the theory Serves. Subjects are students of a university and those of a nursing-school. 7 hypotheses derived are bellow. 1) this theory is popular among these subjects, 2) most of subjects cannot tell whether this theory is valid or not, 3) when someone begins to talk about the topics, conversations would be maintained for a while, 4) this theory can tell about both individuals and personal relationships. and this theory is useful for both beginning conversations and self-presentation at interpersonal situations, 5) contents of this theory are made of generalizations, 6) guesses of others' blood types are influenced by both theory's criteria and impressions of others, 7) evaluations to minor blood groups (B and AB) are relatively negative. After discussing the validity of blood-typing as a personality theory, the implications of this study are discussed.
著者
五十嵐 祐
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.97-108, 2002

The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology has increased in society, and CMC is useful in making interpersonal relationships. This study investigated the effect of social skills on loneliness, based on the social network mediation model and the cognitive bias model (Levin & Stokes, 1986). The social network mediation model suggests that social skills affect loneliness through mediation by social network variables of both face-to-face (FTF) communication and CMC. The cognitive bias model states that social skills directly affect loneliness through cognitive processes. Two-hundred eleven college students (study 1) and 164 participants recruited through the Internet (study 2) completed self-report measures of loneliness and social skills in addition to instruments assessing their social networks on FTF and CMC. The results were as follows : (a) the effect of social skills on loneliness was mediated by the social network variables of FTF ; (b) CMC variables were affected by social skills, but had only weak effects on loneliness ; c social skills directly affected loneliness. The lack of nonverbal cues in CMC was discussed as a possible explanation for the weak effects of social network variables of CMC on loneliness.
著者
山岸 俊男 渡部 幹 林 直保子 高橋 伸幸 山岸 みどり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.206-216, 1996
被引用文献数
2

An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses concerning effects of social uncertainty and general trust on commitment formation, hypotheses derived from Yamagishi & Yamagishi's (1994) theory of trust. First two hypotheses were supported, while the last one was not. First, increasing social uncertainty facilitated commitment formation. Second, low general trusters formed mutually committed relations more often than did high trusters. Finally, the prediction that the effect of general trust on commitment formation would be stronger in the high uncertainty condition than in the low uncertainty condition was not supported. Theoretical implications of these findings for the theory of trust advanced by Yamagishi and his associates are discussed.