著者
柏木 仁
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.35-46, 2009 (Released:2011-09-16)
参考文献数
26

The purpose of this paper is to deepen our understanding of value systems of business leaders and changes of value structures as managers develop as leaders. The author adopted a qualitative approach and structured the research framework using the universal value theory of Schwartz. Among managers working for Japanese small-to-medium sized manufacturing firms operating globally, middle managers and senior managers who can objectively be considered developing as leaders were selected as samples of the study, and then primary data obtained through multiple interviews to middle and senior managers as well as their responses to the Value Questionnaire of Schwartz were analyzed. Findings of the study suggest that leaders have a tendency to give priority to the values of benevolence, achievement and security; and that leaders' value structures are changing in a way to develop sublated values such as "altruistic selfishness" and "innovative conservation." Implications include presence of a relation between the prioritized values of middle managers and their attitudes and behaviors toward their senior managers, and events triggering changes in value systems of middle managers. Future research is also discussed.
著者
北岡 和代 増田 真也 森河 裕子 中川 秀昭
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.53-63, 2015 (Released:2015-12-25)
参考文献数
37

The Center for Organizational Research & Development, Acadia University, Canada developed a new measure, Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS) that measures six areas in the work environment. The objective of the present study is to translate the AWS into Japanese and evaluate factorial validity and examine criterion-related validity as well as reliability. The Japanese AWS was prepared and administered to a sample of employees at one IT enterprise. A total of 1,214 valid data was obtained. The AWS consists of 29 items that produce distinct scores for each of the six areas of worklife: workload, control, reward, community, fairness, and values. The exploratory factor analysis replicated the same six-factor structure as the original. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a six-factor model. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all six subscales were .66-.88. The AWS had significant correlations with three subscales of the MBI-GS but not for workload-professional efficacy. In all, the examination found support for the validity as well as reliability of the Japanese AWS although a couple of issues to be resolved in the near future remain.
著者
佐藤 佑樹
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.13-34, 2014 (Released:2014-08-11)
参考文献数
75
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the theoretical foundation, antecedents, consequences, and measurement of perceived organizational support (POS). The study of POS has recently received considerable attention in the Organizational Behavior and Human resource Management literature. This paper proceeds as follows. First, the concept and scale of POS is described. Second, Organizational Support Theory that provides a theoretical base for POS is overviewed. Third, various factors affecting POS are identified: Fairness, Organizational Politics, Human Resources practices (HR practices), Supervisor Support, and so on. Last, the future directions of studies on POS are discussed.
著者
David E. Jio
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.13-22, 1992-06-10 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
15

The purpose of this paper is to explain the current issues associated with an ever growing controversy in the United States: Whether Japanese companies in the United States discriminate against U. S. citizens, in favor of their own expatriates. The first half of the paper will discuss some theories on why Japanese companies are singled out more so than other foreign or U. S. companies when employment discrimination is alleged. The second half of the paper will discuss the current U. S. discrimination laws that are applicable to foreign companies operating in the United States. The major issue surrounding these laws is the vagueness and uncertainty they have on the issue of whether a Japanese company can legally discriminate and hire a Japanese expatriate over a U. S. citizen. A conflict exists between Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits discrimination and the U. S.-Japan Friendly Cooperation and Navigation treaty which permits Japanese companies to discriminate for certain executive and specialist positions. Unfortunately the U. S. courts have not resolve this conflict. The Japanese companies do not know what constitutes discrimination and what is legally allowed. As long as the discrimination laws that are applicable to Japanese companies are not clarified, these companies will be exposed to the risk of possibly violating U. S. discrimination laws. The consequences of these uncertainty can only result in more litigation cost for the Japanese companies and more importantly, an increase in anti-Japanese sentiments. Thus, it is important for the Japanese companies to avoid employment discrimination allegations. Unfortunately, the U. S. courts have not helped to further clarify what type of discrimination practice is acceptable.
著者
佐野 守 若林 満
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.23-35, 1987-04-15 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
20

Relationship between the stated corporate philosophy and characteristics of the organiza-tional climate of the corporation was examined based on the 5 manufacturing corporations in Aichi Prefecture. Clmate data were collected by using a Semantic Differential format from three different hierarchical levels: subordinate, leader, and superior levels in each corporation. Factor analyses on the climate data produced two orthogonal factors, effectiveness in goal achievement and warmth of the organizational environment. Results of the analysis indicated that in general, especially among less progressive corporations, the effectiveness dimension tended to be rated high at lower levels, while the warmth dimension high at high hierarchical levels. This indicated a lack of communication and insufficient penetration of corporate philosophy across hierachical levels. But, it was found that in some progressive corporations, both dimensions were rated high by all constituent groups. Implications of the findings were disscussed regarding consistency involving a stated philosophy, implementing managerial practices, and an organizational climate perceived by the people in the organization.
著者
林 洋一郎 高橋 潔
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.15-24, 2002-07-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
16

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between several personnel practices that were employed for implementing the merit basedtreatment and the perception of fairness in performance evaluation. This study shed light on three personnel practices: performance appraisals, Management by Objectives (MBO), and the annual “salary system.” Because all three were, in part, utilized in the attempt of realizing the idea of merit treatment in work settings, their effects on the perception of fair treatment were subject to scientific investigation. Hence, the study examined empirically whether three personnel practices improve perceived fairness of performance evaluation. Survey results of the data collected from 1, 823 Japanese employees showed that only the annual “salary plan” was positively related to perceived fairness. In addition, the study investigated if the competitive climates moderate the relationships between three practices and employees' perception of fairness. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationships between these practices and employees' perception of fairness varied by the degree of competitiveness in the workplace. Implications of the study findings were discussed.
著者
若林 満 星野 靖雄
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.77-108, 2006-03-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
2
著者
杉本 和夫
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.65-73, 2007-01-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
9

The purpose of this research is to estimate how many career consultants should be required in Japan. The so-called career consultants generally shall consult with working people who face a turning point of their career process such as job incompetence, internal replacement or promotion. They also shall encourage both students and unemployed people to get jobs with psychological and technical support. In 2002 the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) declared that 50, 000 consultants should be created in Japan within next five years. Organizations as schools, companies, public employment bureau and private human business seem to require career consultants. However, up to now the MHLW has not reported such definite number required for each organization.This report is the first research to estimate the career consultants' number required in Japan. The required number shall be altogether 85, 000, a far larger number than MHLW announced.
著者
正木 郁太郎 村本 由紀子
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.133-149, 2018 (Released:2018-07-31)
参考文献数
41

This research aimed to examine whether workplace gender diversity moderates the psychological effects of job characteristics (i.e., task interdependence and role ambiguity) on employees in Japanese organizations. We conducted two employee surveys, Study 1 in two service industry companies, and Study 2 in a HR service company. As a result, the negative interaction effects of task interdependence and workplace gender diversity on affective commitment were found both in Study 1 and 2. Specifically, task interdependence increased affective commitment of employees only when gender diversity was relatively low. A multilevel analysis performed in Study 2 also revealed that individual level role ambiguity had the same interaction effect. These results indicate that workplace gender diversity needs to be treated as an important contextual factor in job characteristics research.
著者
Ken'ichiro Tanaka Atsuko Kobayashi
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.213-232, 2016 (Released:2016-08-31)
参考文献数
52

The effect of gender harassment in the workplace on job-related behaviors of working Japanese women, including organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational withdrawal behavior (OWB) was investigated through an on-line survey. Japanese women working in Japanese corporations (N = 500) participated in the study by responding to the survey. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis linking the frequency of experiencing gender harassment to job-related behaviors indicated that in working Japanese women (a) experiencing more frequent gender harassment at the workplace was associated with more frequent OWB and OCB; (b) higher evaluation of interactional justice at the workplace was associated with more frequent OCB; and (c) lower interactional justice at the workplace was associated with more frequent OWB under the commission model. Based on these findings in this study, we discuss the effect of gender harassment on job-related behaviors of Japanese women and future implications.
著者
高橋 弘司
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.1-22, 1993-06-20 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
154
被引用文献数
12 1

Since the term “socialization”was defined, numerous researchers have studied its content and function in many fields of research: i. e., sociology, socia psychology, etc. Socialization is, in this sense, an interdisciplinary topic which contains subnotions that are peculiar to each field of study.In the field of organizational behavior, that is called “organizational socialization.”The purpose of this study is to review the theories of organizational socialization critically and reconsider the characteristics of organizational socialization theoretically. The areas covered by this review are:(1) the comprehensive concept of socialization with organizational socialization as a subnotion, (2) a critical review of past research, and (3) the two major perspectives adopted in past research. This research has two major conclusions about (a) the difference in the perspectives of organizational socialization between the career development field and organizational behavior field, and (b) the insufficiency of empirical research approaches that focus on the “stage-model” and individual mechanisms which facilitate attitude change.
著者
小暮 真弘 岩坪 友義
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.141-151, 2008-08-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1 1

An analysis of corporate brands and consumer evaluations of quality was performed to characterize the market positioning of the five main companies in the cup noodle market. Among the five main companies, Nisshin Food Products Co., Ltd.with the highest consumer evaluation of 3.8 points (with 5 being the perfect score) has had many hot sellers, and is categorized as a “multi-brand type.”With second-place ranking by consumers, and products considered to represent a “Japanese style, ”Toyo Suisan Kaisha, Ltd.is categorized as a“Japanese-style specialization type.”The consumer evaluation of quality of products of Myojo Foods Co., Ltd., took third place, while consumers indicated satisfaction with value for price. It is considered a “price satisfaction type.”The consumer evaluation of Sanyo Shokuhin Co., Ltd.put it in fourth place.It is categorized as a “mono-brand type”because it raised company brand value by adding the “Sapporo Ichiban”brand to all products.The consumer evaluation of Ace Cook Co., Ltd.was the lowest of the five companies, but it received a good evaluation.Large-size cup noodles were marketed on the package design, and it is categorized as a “package design specialization type”because quantity was emphasized over quality.
著者
都澤 真智子 二村 英幸 今城 志保 内藤 淳
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.21-30, 2005-01-30 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
2 2

This study reports the results of two meta-analyses of validation studies of a personality test using performance appraisals as criteria. The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly we seek out the general levels of personality validity coefficients with Japanese samples and their generalizability across situations such as different jobs or organizations.Secondly we address issues of aggregating studies with different criteria, study purposes, and study periods.Five out of seventeen scales showedcorrected validity coefficients higher than. 10 in absolute value, with the highest coefficient of. 21 on “Vitality”. The results were similar with those of the previous meta-analyses on U. S. and European samples. Our second metaanalysis included only the studies that met the all three conditions of being conducted within a certain periods of time, using the same criterion, and being confined to researchpurposes. As a result, the validity coefficients became higher and more generalizable compared to the initial analysis. It is argued that the differences among studies that were often not dealtwith in preceding meta-analyses have a significant effect.
著者
柏木 仁
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.209-224, 2014

Calling in the context of career research and practice has recently been rediscovered and efforts are being made to delineate the definition and characteristics of the construct of the calling mainly among researchers abroad. To contribute to such movement and to clarify the characteristics of the construct of the calling in the Japanese context, a survey was conducted on a sample of 275 undergraduates in Japan. Based on literature survey, some of the relations of the calling and career-related variables were tested using hypotheses, while others were explored. As a result, the hypotheses regarding career self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were supported, and through the exploratory approach, several findings were obtained about relations between work values/ vocational interests and the calling. A cluster analysis was then conducted to identify the types of those who reported a stronger sense of calling, and three types showing varying combinations of career-related valuables were identified. The author also discusses future research.
著者
梅村 祐子 金井 篤子
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.151-162, 2006-03-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate following four hypotheses.(1) Students who do career decision-making have ideal self-concept in vocational context, and they aim at actualizing the ideal self-concept.(2) While making career decisions, they recognize the gap between either ideal self-concept and actual self-concept, or ideal self-concept and social context or both ideal self-concept and actual self-concept, and ideal self-concept and social context. After recognizing them, they cope with those gaps.(3) While making career decisions, they think over their ideal self-concept, actual self-concept, and social context.(4) Through career decision-making, their ideal self-concept in vocational context gets clarified. Twenty-nine senior university students were interviewed, and the results were as follows. Hypothesis (1) and hypothesis (4) weresupPorted, and hypothesis (2) and hypothesis (3) were partly supported. Finally, these four analyses were unified, and a hypothetical model of integrating ideal self-concept and actual self-concept, ideal self-concept and social context was proposed.
著者
西田 豊昭
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.137-158, 2000-03-31 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2

This study tested a model of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational justice, organizational citizenshipbehavior, and work group performance. Most research on the nature ofrelationships between job performance has not yielded convincing evidence thatsuch a relationship exists to the degree most managers believe. One reason forthis might lie in the way in which job performance is measured. Numerousstudies have reported that using organizational citizenship behavior to supplantmore traditional measures of job performance may result in more robustrelationship between job satisfaction and job performance. In this study 2076employees who provided self-report answers designed to examine the relationshipbetween job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizationaljustice, organizational citizenship behavior, and work group performance.Results from Study supported the hypothesized model but also suggested thatalternative models fit the data well.
著者
柏木 仁
出版者
The Japanese Association of Administrative Science
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.209-224, 2014 (Released:2015-04-23)
参考文献数
34

Calling in the context of career research and practice has recently been rediscovered and efforts are being made to delineate the definition and characteristics of the construct of the calling mainly among researchers abroad. To contribute to such movement and to clarify the characteristics of the construct of the calling in the Japanese context, a survey was conducted on a sample of 275 undergraduates in Japan. Based on literature survey, some of the relations of the calling and career-related variables were tested using hypotheses, while others were explored. As a result, the hypotheses regarding career self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were supported, and through the exploratory approach, several findings were obtained about relations between work values/ vocational interests and the calling. A cluster analysis was then conducted to identify the types of those who reported a stronger sense of calling, and three types showing varying combinations of career-related valuables were identified. The author also discusses future research.
著者
永井 裕久 椿 広計
出版者
経営行動科学学会
雑誌
経営行動科学 (ISSN:09145206)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.145-153, 2005-03-30 (Released:2011-01-27)
参考文献数
1