著者
川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集 第68回(2017) (ISSN:24241946)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.37_2, 2017 (Released:2018-02-15)

トップアスリートや舞踊家、音楽家など、様々なジャンルで活躍するエリート達は、いずれも人間の身体能力を極めて高いレベルで達成している「達人」であるといえる。人々を驚嘆、感動させるこうした達人たちの動きに関して精力的に研究・実践活動を進めている4名の専門家を演者としてお招きし、本シンポジウムを企画した。「達人技」の域に達する動作の機序、音楽・リズムとの絶妙な協調を成し遂げる情報処理能力や身体制御方略、そして人々の感動を呼ぶ達人の動きのポイントなどについて、各氏より最新の研究成果をご披露いただく。会場では「達人技を科学する」というテーマのもと、各演者の話題を中心に議論を行い、領域横断的な考察を深めることを目指す。シンポジウムに割り当てられる合計時間の関係から、パネルディスカッションは最小限とし、各演者のご発表と質疑応答にできる限りの時間を充てる予定である。バイオメカニクス研究領域はもちろん、ご興味をもたれる様々な研究領域の皆様のご参加と、積極的な意見交換をお願いする次第である。芸術の域にまで高められた人間の究極の動きに迫り、身体能力の多様な可能性を探りたい。
著者
宮本 直和 川上 泰雄 若原 卓
出版者
鹿屋体育大学
雑誌
挑戦的萌芽研究
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01

二関節筋である大腿直筋は、解剖学的に遠位と近位の二箇所で大腿神経の支配を受けているが、この二箇所が随意収縮中に別々に制御されているのか否か、また、別々に制御されている場合、それは二関節筋特有のものであるのかについては不明である。本研究で、膝関節伸展および股関節屈曲筋力発揮中に外側広筋・内側広筋・大腿直筋の複数箇所から筋電図信号を導出したところ、膝関節伸展筋力発揮時にはいずれの筋でも筋内で均一に、股関節屈曲筋力発揮時には大腿直筋の筋活動は遠位と近位で別々に制御されていることが明らかとなった。この結果は、二関節筋である大腿直筋内に機能的コンパートメントが存在することを示唆している。
著者
平山 邦明 杉崎 範英 加藤 えみか 金久 博昭 福永 哲夫 川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.33-43, 2010 (Released:2010-07-20)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of tendon elasticity, muscle strength and muscle activities on the amount of mechanical work enhancement associated with a counter movement. Twenty-one athletes performed a unilateral maximal jump using only the ankle joint with (CMJ) and without (no-CMJ) a counter movement on a sledge apparatus. Mechanical work done by the ankle joint was calculated from the ground reaction force and ankle joint kinematic parameters, and the difference between CMJ and no-CMJ conditions (ΔWork) was determined. During the exercise, electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded from the triceps surae muscles. The maximal isometric plantar flexion torque and Achilles tendon stiffness were also determined using a torque meter and ultrasonogram. No significant correlation was found between ΔWork and either tendon stiffness or the maximal torque. In addition, neither the difference between CMJ and no-CMJ in iEMG nor mEMG was correlated with ΔWork. On the other hand, ΔWork was significantly correlated with the integrated EMG during the braking phase (r=0.52, p<0.05) and both the integrated (r=0.55, p<0.01) and mean (r=0.53, p<0.05) EMG during the push-off phase of CMJ. These results suggest that individual differences in ΔWork are influenced not by differences in the mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit, but by the individuality of muscle activities during CMJ.
著者
久保 啓太郎 川上 泰雄 金久 博昭 福永 哲夫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.5, pp.597-605, 1999-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
4 3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in humans. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography, while subjects (N=12) performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between estimated muscle force (Ff) and tendon elongation (dL) was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the Ff-dL loop (elastic energy dissipated) to the area beneath the load portion of the curve (elastic energy input) . The resulting Ff-dL relationship was non-linear in form, as previously reported on animal and human tendons in vitro. The mean stiffness was 24.0±5.6 N/mm. However, there was a considerable inter-subject variability (15.8 to 36.8 N/mm) . The Young's modulus, i. e., the slope of the stress-strain curve, was 280 MPa, which tended to be lower than the previously reported values for human tendons. It was also found that the strain of the tendon structures was homogeneously distributed along its length. The mean hysteresis (energy dissipation) was 23.4±12.4%. However, again there was a considerable inter-subject variability (8.7 to 39.3%) . The present results indicated that the tendon structures of human MG was considerably compliant and its hysteresis was in accordance with previously reported values.
著者
設楽 佳世 緑川 泰史 太田 めぐみ 矢内 利政 金久 博昭 福永 哲夫 川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.4, pp.453-462, 2011 (Released:2011-08-30)
参考文献数
31

In this study, we examined applicability of existing equations to predicting the body surface area (BSA) of children, and newly developed prediction equations for the BSA of children. BSA of 87 children of both genders (7∼12 yr) was determined by the three-dimensional photonic image scanning (3DPS), which was used as reference. BSA predicted using existing equations yielded overestimation or underestimation and/or a systematic error with respect to the reference. BSA prediction equations for boys and girls were developed using height and body mass as independent variables for the validation group and cross-validated for another group. The standard errors of estimation of the prediction equations were 105 cm2 (0.9 %) for boys and 158 cm2(1.4 %) for girls. In the cross-validation group, there was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values without systematic errors. These findings indicate that existing equations cannot accurately predict BSA of children, and that the newly developed prediction equations are capable of predicting BSA of children with adequate accuracy.
著者
設楽 佳世 高井 洋平 太田 めぐみ 若原 卓 金久 博昭 福永 哲夫 川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.4, pp.463-474, 2009-08-01 (Released:2009-09-15)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
3 2

This study was conducted to examine the reliability of three-dimensional photonic image scanning (3DPS) for measuring body surface area (BSA), and formulate equations for predicting BSA based on 3DPS. The surface area (SA) of a cylinder with known SA and BSA of 7 males were repeatedly measured by 3DPS. BSA was determined by 3DPS for 122 subjects (25–76 yrs). BSA prediction equations for both genders were developed for the validation group (16 males and 45 females) using body height and mass as independent variables, and were cross-validated for the cross-validation group (16 males and 45 females). The standard error of measurement was 2.2cm2 (0.16%). The coefficients of variation (CV) for repeated measurements of SA were less than 0.2%. The BSA of subjects did not differ significantly on any given day nor between days, with a CV of less than 1%. The coefficient of determination and standard error of estimation of the prediction equations were 0.98 and 183cm2 (1.1%), respectively, for males and 0.98 and 204cm2 (1.3%), respectively, for females. There was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values. In the cross-validation group, there was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values without systematic errors. These findings indicate that 3DPS is reliable for measuring BSA, and the formulated equations are valid and applicable to individuals within a wide age-range.
著者
下田 学 福永 哲夫 金久 博昭 川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.87-97, 2008-06-30 (Released:2008-09-13)
参考文献数
33

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of varying inter-contraction intervals on central and peripheral muscle fatigue during intermittent contractions. Six healthy men carried out maximal unilateral isometric plantar flexions 50 times, separated with an interval of 2, 4, 10, or 30 s. Supramaximal electrical stimuli (twitches) were imposed percutaneously on the tibial nerve during and after every 10th contraction to assess the level of voluntary activation. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) and soleus (Sol) muscles. Plantar flexion torque and other parameters were maintained over contractions with 30-s intervals, while the torque as well as EMG activity of the MG, LG and Sol and the level of voluntary activation decreased significantly under conditions using 2-, 4-, and 10-s intervals. The amount of decrease in the parameters was greater for shorter intervals. With 2-s intervals, the twitch torque decreased significantly, the half-relaxation time of the twitch torque increased significantly, and the EMG mean power frequency of the MG and LG shifted significantly toward lower frequencies, whereas no significant changes were found under other conditions. These results indicate that there are differences in the contributions of central and peripheral fatigue, both of which are a function of inter-contraction interval.
著者
川上 泰雄 宮本 直和 栗原 俊之 若原 卓 岩沼 聡一朗 佐久間 淳 平山 邦明 鈴木 克彦 神田 和江
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

本研究は、2つの動作速度でカーフレイズ運動を行い、筋疲労の程度と遅発性筋肉痛(DOMS)および筋損傷マーカーの量の変化、筋の機能変化の関係ついて、運動前後および運動後7日間にわたって調査した。その結果、(1)筋疲労の程度は動作速度によって異なり、速い動作ほど疲労が少ないこと、(2)筋疲労の程度と遅発性筋肉痛・筋損傷マーカーの量が関係し、これには筋特異性が存在するが、筋疲労の程度によらず筋の機能は速やかに回復すること、(3)運動中の筋線維動態はこれらの変化と連動して変化する可能性があることが示された。