- 一般社団法人 日本オリエント学会
- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.11, no.3-4, pp.121-160,198, 1968 (Released:2010-03-12)
It is well known that the study of Arabic was carried on concurrently in Basra and Kufa, towns founded immediately after the Islamic conquest of Iraq.The development of these two cities was quite different. Basra, situated on the right bank of the Satt Al-crab, became one of the centers of world trade and has maintained its important position to the present. Kufa, on the other hand, played a major role in state adminstration at first, but lost its importance after the foundantion of Baghdad.The study of the Arabic flourished first in Basra, then in Kufa. Because of the controversy between the two towns the rules of the language were made from different viewpoints.The auther's intention is to examine the literary works of some of the famous scholars, thereby elucidating the differences between the Basra and Kufa schools. He concludes that the Basrans thought more logically and critically than the Kufans, establishing rigid rules which did not make exceptions for individual peculiarities. They used the so-called “qiyas” (analogy) system more strictly than did the Kufans.Although the Kufans began their studies with the “shuyukh” (masters) of Basra, they were soon expounding veiws which, more archaic and more natural, approved the individual exceptional styls (“shudhudh”) as a basis (“usul”) for further analogies. They were, so to speak, anomalists, while the Basrans were analogists.When Baghdad become the new intellectual center the controversy between the Basra and Kufa schools become more and more attenuated, finally disappearing in the 10th century. The residents of Baghdad chose between the rival doctrines by using both of them indiscriminately, thus representing electicism in the history of Arabic studies.