- 財団法人 日本国際政治学会
- 国際政治 (ISSN:04542215)
- vol.2007, no.149, pp.93-110,L12, 2007-11-28 (Released:2010-09-01)
This article examines the relationship between citizenship and the public recognition of Islam in France. Secularization is a cultural norm in Western Europe. In this circumstance, the settlement of the Muslim population with the claim for the public recognition of Islam has often been regarded as a threat against the idea of citizenship. In particular, ‘French citizenship’ appears antagonistic towards the public recognition of religious belonging. This is due to the fact that religion as a matter in the private space should be separated from the public space according to the model of republicanism deeply embedded in the French political culture based on the principle of separation of the public space from the private, or more specifically, the principle of laïcité (separation of religion from politics). This citizenship appreciates the public space as the space of universal values, in which the citizens discuss issues they have in common. In this framework, all individuals are entitled to have citizenship regardless of their origins or social backgrounds.But in reality the majority of French Muslims, who are mainly of Maghrebin origin, are discriminated against and excluded socially and economically. The social right, which is part of citizenship, in particular, is not effectively assured for them. Given this, the social and economic conditions on which Muslims could participate in the public space are not fully developed, and hence citizenship for those people lacks substance. Since the 1990's, the number of the new generation of Maghrebin immigrants who have started to claim for the public recognition of Islam has increased. These Muslims organize and run associations whose purposes are to encourage and educate young French Muslims in order to restore their dignity, the dignity eroded by the experience of being the target of racism. These associations are normally open to anybody, and are based on universal values such as social justice rather than ethnic origins.In 1996, some of these associations organized a network called “Collectif des associations Musulmanes du Grand Lyon”, in the east suburb of Lyon. CAMGL is considered as representative of the trend of these associations. CAMGL regards Tariq RAMADAN whose grandfather is Hassan Al Banna, a founding member of the Muslim brotherhood in Egypt, as the ideologue of the network. Since it teaches Islamic faith as a basis of ‘citizenship’, CAMGL is perceived as a threat against the republican model of citizenship.In this article, the author argue that the recent trend observed in CAMGL offers some potential to propose the new form of republican model of citizenship based on universal values, but constructed through a different sense of belongings.