著者
Sakae INOUYE Yoshibumi SUGIHARA
出版者
The Phonetic Society of Japan
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.43-49, 2015-12-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

We created a device for measuring the strength of puffs near the mouth which are generated during speaking, and then compared the strength among Japanese, English and Chinese languages. Subjects were 14 or 15 male university-students for each group of the three languages. They read aloud texts (about 3-minute length) from a Murakami Haruki's novel in their native languages with a funnel held by hand before the mouth. The wind pressure (stagnation pressure) produced at the bottom of the funnel, which reflects the initial velocity of the puff, was transformed to electrical signals through a differential pressure transducer. The signals converted from analogue to digital data at 10-millisecond intervals were recorded on a personal computer. Then all of the pressure data with 15 pascals or higher were summed up for each reading, and the sum was designated as "Strong Puff Total, SPT". It was found that there was no significant difference in the SPT medians between English and Chinese groups, but the medians of the two groups were more than 3 times greater than that of the Japanese group; it quantitatively confirmed that the strength of puffs from the mouth in Japanese speaking is weak.
著者
Hideki Kawahara
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.63-73, 2017-12-30 (Released:2018-04-27)
参考文献数
20

This paper introduces a new fine-grained voice source analysis method and its application to filled pause analysis in the CSJ (Corpus of Spontaneous Japanese). The new source analysis procedure is designed to provide annotation with reliable and precise descriptions of objective characteristics to items in large speech corpora. This design target made the new analysis method provide far more accurate descriptions than existing methods. The new method provides the fundamental frequency estimate and the band-wise aperiodicity information simultaneously. It also provides an information-rich representation of a probability map of the fundamental component. This paper presents several analysis examples and discussions.
著者
郡 史郎
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.59-78, 2012-12-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

In the Keihan-type accent system, which includes the Osaka dialect, the lexically specified pitch patterns (i.e., accents) of words are classified into the following two categories: high-beginning and low-beginning. During the pronunciation of isolated words, the low-beginning type has two characteristics, which are an initial low pitch, and a gradual pitch rise from the beginning to the accent nucleus. A number of researchers claim that the latter characteristic is more consistent and therefore more pertinent. This paper provides a detailed phonetic description of the behavior of this type of accent in various sentence conditions and argues the relative importance of the two characteristics. An acoustic analysis performed on 15 sets of sentences uttered by a total of 26 speakers revealed the following: An initial low pitch is a firm characteristic that does not easily disappear in a sentence context; A gradual rise may be acoustically flat or even slightly descendent in some conditions, but it is also a firm characteristic that distinguishes low-beginning words from high-beginning words. These results suggest that it is not legitimate to conclude that one of the two characteristics is more important.
著者
櫻庭 京子 今泉 敏 筧 一彦
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.77-84, 2004-04-30
被引用文献数
1

A primary purpose of this study was to examine the difference in identification by Japanese and English listeners of vocally-expressed emotions (happy, sad, angry, and neutral) on the utterance "pikachuu" as generated by Japanese and American children. Both sets of listeners identified the emotions uttered by Japanese children better than those by American children, but the difference was not significant. A second purpose of the study was to examine the acoustic differences between the Japanese and American English children's productions of 'pikachuu.' The results showed that in expression of emotions, the dynamic range of F0 was similar in the two languages; however, the length of syllables varied, reflecting language-specific characteristics.
著者
新田 哲夫
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.6-15, 2011-04-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

A special geminate like ff in maffa "pillow", which does not exist in the Standard Japanese (SJ), is found in the Antoh dialect in Fukui Prefecture. This paper deals with the synchronic and diachronic phenomena concerning the ff geminate in addition to bb and ss. This paper has the following purposes: (1) to illustrate the correspondence of geminates between the Antoh dialect and SJ, (2) to investigate the historical development of the geminates in the Antoh dialect, (3) to point out that the manifestation of the geminates in the Antoh dialect is similar to that of the Miyakojima dialect in the Ryukyuan language, and (4) to propose that the explanation for the process of the geminate in this dialect gives a suggestive source to the discussion on the processes of sound changes in the Ryukyuan language.
著者
手島 良
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.31-43, 2011-04-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

This article examines the following three aspects of teaching English pronunciation at secondary schools in Japan: 1)which features of pronunciation are actually taught and which are not; 2) which problems are caused by this; and 3)which measures can or should be taken to solve the problems. In each aspect above, single sounds, word/phrase/sentence stresses and intonation are taken into account. Very little time is devoted to teaching pronunciation, and sadly awareness of the importance of pronunciation among pupils/students is quite low. In order to improve the situation, remedies, such as phonics-based instruction, are proposed.
著者
遠藤 光暁
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.40-51, 2011-08-30

In this paper, a panoramic view is given on the relationship between three different laryngeal features found in Eastern Asian languages. The features under investigation consist of manner of articulation of the consonant, phonation type and pitch, all of which are controlled by larynx. Close correlation between these features is observed, especially among tone languages distributed across the center of the East Asian region. Moreover, examples from surrounding languages (i.e. Japanese and Korean, as well as Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages) are also surveyed.
著者
梶 茂樹
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.8-10, 2001-04-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

Tone is one of the common features of the world's languages. It is found not only in East and Southeast Asian languages, but in many languages of the world: native American, New Guinean, African, etc. If we add to this category pitch-accent languages, an overwhelming number of the world's languages can be seen to exploit this particular phonetic feature in varying degrees. Four languages and language groups are chosen in this issue to exemplify various tone types; namely, Chinese, Korean, Haida (North American) and Bantu (Africa). Although typology is considered in the analysis of these languages, we mainly intend to show different tone and/or pitch-accent languages, no unification being attempted as to the usage of the terms tone and pitch-accent.
著者
遠藤 光暁
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.40-51, 2011-08-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

In this paper, a panoramic view is given on the relationship between three different laryngeal features found in Eastern Asian languages. The features under investigation consist of manner of articulation of the consonant, phonation type and pitch, all of which are controlled by larynx. Close correlation between these features is observed, especially among tone languages distributed across the center of the East Asian region. Moreover, examples from surrounding languages (i.e. Japanese and Korean, as well as Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages) are also surveyed.
著者
中井 幸比古
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.47-58, 2012-12-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

This paper is a descriptive study of the accent of two-mora + two-mora native Japanese compound nouns in the Kyoto dialect. Some characteristics of the accent are the same as those of long compound nouns, such as three-mora + two-mora words, while the others are different from them. These similarities and differences show the continuity and discontinuity between the accents of short compound nouns and long compound nouns.
著者
髙橋 康徳
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.98-110, 2019-08-31 (Released:2019-08-31)
参考文献数
23

上海語では複数音節からなる語句で変調が起きる。この変調のドメイン(変調域)は1980年代から理論的アプローチや中国語方言学的記述の枠組みで考察されており,最近では実験音韻論的研究が変調域の適格性に関する聴覚音声学的データを提供した。本稿では上海語の変調域に関する従来の研究をまとめた上で,会話教材を用いて変調域の産出データを分析する。観察された変調域の基本的な特徴は先行研究の分析で説明可能であるが,未報告の変調形成パタンも観察された。
著者
戸田 貴子
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.70-83, 2003-08-30
被引用文献数
2

In this paper, I first introduce some previous acoustical studies concerning Japanese special morae. Following this, I seek to review previous studies on the acquisition of special morae by Japanese language learners. The reviews are conducted from the viewpoint of both perception and production. Finally, I suggest research areas pertaining to second language speech perception and production as directions for future study.
著者
屋名池 誠
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.46-57, 2004-08-31 (Released:2017-08-31)

In this paper, I describe the accent on predicates in the Kyoto dialect in the Heian era. This paper focuses on verbs with affixes which have not been discussed comprehensively in previous studies. By including them, I attempt to describe all the pitch patterns of predicates. The accent on predicates in this era are not very useful for distinguishing between predicate forms. They have mainly a delimitative function.
著者
氏平 明
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.4-20, 2013

This paper attempts to make certain qualitative differences between stutterers and non-stutterers clear by means of acoustic analysis. Previous studies have highlighted three areas of relevance to this study. The first is that breath control while speaking is difficult for stutterers. Secondly, the beginning of words are particularly challenging for stutterers. Finally, even without treatment, stutterers have on average an 80% chance of naturally recovering. The author collected data from 61 stutterers and the same number of non-stutterers, by recording their voices and analyzing them acoustically, such as for shimmer parameters. The conclusions are as follows. Preschool children (two to six years) and adults (twenty years or above) who stutter registered a statistically significant increase in score for Amplitude Perturbation Quotient (APQ) and Shimmer Parameter (SP) than non-stutterers of the same age range. This data suggests that stutterers have something wrong with their respiratory controls. On the other hand, for children of 7〜9 years old, APQ and SP scores were not statistically different between stutterers and non-stutterers. This suggests that the second stage of laryngeal development is correlated to the process of natural recovery. Also stutterers' problem of disfluency would appear to originate in the motor speech center in the brain.
著者
窪薗 晴夫
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.5-15, 1998-04-30 (Released:2017-08-31)

Trubetzkoy (1958/69) proposed that natural languages fall into two groups, mora-counting and syllable-counting languages, according to the smallest prosodic unit used in that language. Japanese has been classified as a mora language, whereas English is labeled a syllable language. This proposal has been taken for granted over the decades and has been interpreted as suggesting that the mora and the syllable are mutually exclusive within a single prosodic system. This paper challenges this interpretation by demonstrating that at least one major role which the mora plays in Japanese is observed in syllable-based languages as well and, moreover, that the syllable plays a pivotal role in a wide range of linguistic phenomena in the putatively mora-based system of (Tokyo) Japanese.
著者
上野 善道
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.44-62, 2012-04-30 (Released:2017-08-31)
被引用文献数
6

After defining an N-pattern accent as a system where only N oppositions exist irrespective of the length of the accentual unit, I examine four characteristics cross-dialectically and argue that: (1) The accentual unit is a bunsetsu, which is found pandialectally; (2) Serialization basically holds true for the system, but not, when a noun has an accent kernel specified from the end of the word; (3) Both the compound accent rule to the effect that the accent of a compound inherits the accent of its first member, and accent pattern congruity in conjugation have many exceptions. Both depend on how the dialect underwent historical changes, at least in Mainland Japanese. Finally, the histories of two-pattern accent systems in Kyushu and three-pattern accents in Oki-no-shima are considered.
著者
宇都木 昭
出版者
日本音声学会
雑誌
音声研究 (ISSN:13428675)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.106-115, 2017-08-30 (Released:2018-02-28)
参考文献数
59

This study reviews the two types of tonal change recently found in contemporary Seoul Korean. The first is the emergence of tones according to the onset at the initial syllable of the accentual phrase. This phenomenon synchronizes the overlapping process of Voice Onset Time (VOT) distribution between lax and aspirated obstruents. Several previous studies have indicated that this dialect is in the middle stage of tonogenesis. The second type of tonal change is the emergence of the H tone in the word il, meaning “one.” The present study examines the possibility of interpreting the two phenomena as lexical diffusion.