著者
本田 義輝 中野 眞汎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.219-224, 1997-06-10 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
8 11

The adsorption characteristics of various adsorbates by spherical charcoal (Kremezin ®) were studied in vitro and then compared with those of powdered medical charcoal. Medical charcoal adsorbs substances with molecular weights ranging from several hundred daltons to several thousand daltons. Kremezin, however, adsorbs only low molecular weight substances with molecular weights of up to several hundred daltons. Therefore, the adsorption selectivity of Kremezin, which is related to the molecular weight of adsorbate, seemed to contribute to the specific pharmacological action of this drug under clinical conditions. In batch adsorption tests for various amines, amino acids and organic acids with molecular weightsof from 45 to 251, both adsorbents showed similar behaviors. An increase in the size of the adsorbate molecule enhanced the degree of adsorption, especially in compounds that are analogs. The molecular structure also seemed to be an important factor in the adsorption phenomena; an aromatic ring tended to increase the adsobability while the amino group, carboxyl group and hydroxyl group all showed a decrease in adsorbability.
著者
山岡 桂子 近森 温子 阿部 由明 所 安夫
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.111-116, 1976 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
2
被引用文献数
1

The number of glass particles arising in parenteral solution upon cutting of ampules was determined with use of 5-ml transparent and brown ampules. Cutting by “cracking” produced most satisfactory results of all methods devised. It was found as a result of the investigation by X-ray fluoroscopy that the solution contained in the ampules was almost completely free from particles from a file used for cutting. Mice injected intravenously into the tail with large amount of glass particles from ampule died of shock due to multiple pulmonary thrombosis. Tubercles caused by glass particles were observed in mice which survived the experiment without acute symptoms.
著者
嶋崎 幸也 細谷 和良 田子 兼重 瀬尾 元一郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.4, pp.295-302, 1993-08-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
2 2

The sensitivity to drugs, the pH in the medium of extract from intestinal content (MEIC) and the utilization of carbohydrates in the strain isolated from multi-drug-resistant Enterococcus preparations (RP) were compared with those in the strain isolated from conventional Enterococcus prepations (CP). The RP showed higher resistance to penicillin and macrolide antibiotics than the CP, but less resistance to quinolone antibiotics. In the MEIC, the CP decreased the pH more markedly than the RP. Regarding utilization of carbohydrates, both the RP and CP had the similar patterns to the catabolisms of Enterococcus faecium, but different catabolisms were observed between RP and CP.
著者
八木 元広 斉藤 幹央 阿部 学 宇野 勝次
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.6, pp.570-577, 1997-12-10 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
16

We interviewed 539 patients (268 males, 271 females) treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to survey the incidence of dry cough caused by ACE inhibitors. In addition, we identified the latent patients with dry cough induced by ACE inhibitors and surveyed the incidence of discontinuance or change in the ACE inhibitors after the interview.The incidence of dry cough induced by the ACE inhibitors was 18.9%, and a serious dry cough was found in 4.9%. After the interview, the incidence of discontinuance or change in the ACE inhibitor administration was 20.6% in all patients with dry cough, 68.0% in the patients with a serious dry cough and 5.2% in the patients with a slight dry cough. All patients who either discontinued or changed the ACE inhibitors soon stopped soffering from dry cough. These results indicate that dry cough caused by the ACE inhibitors may be a clinically severe problem. Moreover, the detection and suitable treatment of latent patients with dry cough induced by ACE inhibitors is also important in order to perform proper drug therapy.
著者
牧大 節子 相良 悦郎 中川 冨士雄
出版者
Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.3, pp.130-131, 1978

The study was made on prescribed doses of 317 drug products for oral use which appeared frequently in 6, 594 inpatient prescriptions filled at the University of Tokyo Hospital in 28 days purposively selected from a period of 4 months from March to June 1976. The prescribed doses were compared with usual doses stated in the Pharmacopoeia of Japan and package inserts. The drug products prescribed within usual dose range composed 19.6% of the total products used, the drugs within and above usual dose range 24.3%, within and below 30.5%, within and above and below 20.2%, and out of usual dose range 5.4%. The percentage distribution agreed with a conjecture of pharmacists in practice.
著者
青山 敏信 樋口 駿 堀岡 正義
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.74-82, 1978 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
10

Fourteen lots of tablets, capsules and granules of commercial lysozyme chloride preparations, manufactured by six differerent companies, were evaluated for their pharmaceutical qualities. Significant difference of in vitro dissolution rate was noted between these products, when tested with 1st and 2nd fluids in the disintegration test of J. P. IX as dissolution media in the rotation method of U. S. P. XIX. The dissolution rate may have relationship with clinical effect of the products. By disc electrophoresis, impure protein was found to be contained in the preparations of all but one manufacturer. New quantitative analytical method by means of the area of bacteriolysis on gel-plate was developed in this study. The new method proved to produce results same as those obtained by the conventional method on the basis of the change in turbidity depending on bacteriolysis.
著者
宇佐美 英治 水野 政義 瀬山 義幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.173-178, 1998 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 1

The superoxide anion scavenging activity of traditional Chinese medicines (Kampo) was estimated by the nitrate and nitrobluetetrazolium methods. No.15 and 34 revealed a strong superoxide anion scavenging activity and No.1, 7, 19, 25 and 45 revealed a relatively strong superoxide anion scavenging activity by nitrate method. On the other hand the nitrobluetetrazolium method revealed a relatively strong activity in No.1, 15, 25, 45 and 96. In particular, both methods denoted a relatively strong superoxide anion scavenging activity in No.1, 15, 25 and 45. These results suggest that the superoxide anion scavenging activity of each component accumulatively contribute to those Kampo medicines and might play an anti-inflamatory effect and “Ku-Oketsu” (improved blood circulation) effect in these medicines.
著者
奥村 学 瀬尾 量 長沼 広子 日高 慎二 児玉 裕文 前田 共秀 橋本 強 鶴岡 道雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.3, pp.162-166, 1991-06-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
4

A new computerized system for making of drug envelope has been developed in Miyazaki Medical College Hospital Department of Pharmacy.Although such system has been already developed, most of system were not sufficient for labor-saving.This developed system has no need to put label on drug envelope, and to separate drug envelope.And the time to produce prescription and drug envelope was half as much as that of writing by hand.Hence We can use free time that we got by our system for other work.At all points, our system make a great contribution to labor-saving at hospital pharmacy.
著者
伊東 明彦 小林 由美子 杉原 正泰
出版者
日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.5-10, 1989-02-20
被引用文献数
1

The significance of depth of score, the kinds of binders and granules for compression on dividing of scored tablets was investigated. Scored tablets with the rate of depth of score per thickness varying with 10, 20 and 30% were prepared using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), potato starch, acacia and gelatin as binder and sieved granules in three particle sizes and no sieved granules as granules for compression. Dividing strength of the scored tablets decreased with an increase in depth of score and was affected by the kinds of binders. Weight variation of the divided tablets was the smallest on the tablet of 30% depth of score prepared from sieved granules irrespective of the kinds of binders and physical characteristics of granules. However, when the rate of depth was lower than 20%, the weight variation of the divided tablets was affected by the kinds of binders and physical characteristics of the granules. With 20% depth of score, tablets using potato starch and gelatin as binder showed little weight variation. In case of the 10%, tablets using potato starch and granules of 16-32 mesh showed better results. Tablets prepared with non-sieved granules showed effect of particle size distribution of granules on weight variation of divided tablets even in the case of the 30% depth.
著者
五土嵐 正博 黒岩 朝子 林 昌洋 灰田 美知子 峯村 信嘉 高木 英爾 西山 信一郎 百村 伸一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.207-211, 2000 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
3 3

We experienced a serious interaction between miconazole gel and warfarin. The patient had just undergone an aortic and mitral value replacement and thus was medicated with warfarin at a dosage according to the International Normalized Ratio (INR) of about 2.0-2.5. He was prescribed miconazole gel 400 mg/day for thrush induced by steroid for asthma. About two weeks later, he showed bleeding in the mouth and underwent a medical examination. His INR was higher than the upper of measurement limit and so he was immediately hospitalized. Vitamin K was given, miconazole gel and warfarin ware stopped. Two weeks later, his INR was less than 3.0 and thus the warfarin was restarted. But his warfarin dose was less than one third of dosethat had been given before hospitalization.The interaction between miconazole gel and warfarin that we experienced by our patient while was as serious as the reports from abroad.
著者
森山 祐輔 有森 和彦 中野 眞汎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.245-251, 1992-06-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
11

The statistics indicates that the constitution of children, which includes height and body weight, has developed during the last 40 years.Therefore, we investigated that body surface area of children at present for every age which was calculated with Fujimoto's formula was greater than that in 1948.So we reexamined pediatric dose obtained from Augsberger's I, Augsberger's II, Young's, and Fujimoto's formula.The pediatric dose ratio based on body surface area in 1948 much more corresponded with the dose ratio obtained from the Augsberger's II formula.On the other hand, the pediatric dose ratio based on body surface area for every age in 1987 was shifted to higher dose ratio compared with that obtained from the Augsberger's II formula. The pediatric dose ratios obtained from three formulas except Fujimoto's formula indicated lower dose ratio than that obtained from Fujimoto's formula.Furthermore, under the age of five, pediatric dose ratio calculated from Fujimoto's formula was higher than that calculated from Du Bois's formula.The difference between the two dose ratios was larger as the age of children was lower.Consequently, considering big change in the constitution of children during the last 40 years, there may be a possibility to estimate lower pediatric dose than the dose which was required in the present children, if the pediatric dose was eviluated with Augsberger's II formula.
著者
松原 絵里子 小杉 裕一郎 加納 公子 松本 有右 下平 秀夫 内田 寛 湯浅 宏 金谷 芳雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.129-135, 1993-03-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
16

Accuracy of dividing weight of 11 drugs (5 powders, 3 fine glanules and 3 glanules) were tested on a automatic pre-packing machine, TOSHO BL-4W. The mean coefficient of variation (C. V.) was 3.9% for 30 subpacks of 1g in theoretical weight and sufficient accuracy of dividing weight was obtained. However, fine lactose, corn starch, and precipitated calcium carbonate showed relatively large C. V. values. The mean C. V. of 3 drugs (Gastropylore, heavy magnesium oxide and Marzulene S) were 3.0 and 5.5% obtained on 0.3 and 0.6g in theoretical weight, respectively, and these mean C.V. were regarded as sufficient. However, on 0.3g in theoretical weight, Gastropylore gave relatively large C. V., 8.5%. Gastropylore also gave relatively large C. V. on total weight of 30 subpacks. Angles of fall were highly correlated to C. V. values. It is suggested that angles of fall are especially useful for predict accuracy of dividing weight on a pre-packing machine.
著者
清水 孝子 西原 カズヨ 澤田 康文 伊賀 立二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.6, pp.534-541, 1993 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1 1

Food ingestion does not affect the bioavailability of the nifedipine capsule, a calcium channel antagonist, but delays its absorption rate in healthy subjects. On the other hand, in two different sustained-release preparations of nifedipine, both the bioavailability and anti-hypertensive efficacy in one of them increases, whereas the other is not so much affected by meals. Furthermore, the food induces a reduction in the bioavailability of nicardipine sustained-release preparation, while those of nisordipine, benidipine and manidipine increase conversely.Such a change in the bioavailability based on food intake may influence the anti-hypertensive efficacy after the initial dosing of the medicine but not so after multiple dosing.In each medicine or dosage form, there are some differences in the change in the blood level and anti-hypertensive efficacy brought on by food ingestion among the drugs. In general, however, in order to improve patient compliance, we recommend that calcium channel antagonists should be taken after meals following the directions given for this medication.
著者
本田 義輝 中野 眞汎
出版者
日本病院薬剤師会
雑誌
病院薬学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.265-272, 1994
被引用文献数
4

Adsorption characteristics of creatinine by activated carbon beads consisting of about 67% activated carbon powder in ager were studied in vitro and compared with those of Kremezin^<[◯!R]> from the standpoint of usefulness for sequestering uremic wastes and uremic toxins exsorbed into the intestine. The extent and rate of creatinine adsorption on carbon in the beads were almost equal to those of the naked powder, and the preparation also demonstrated a similar adsorption behavior for creatinine as compared with Kremezin under the conditions of the presence of various ionic and nonionic additives. Furthermore, uremic peaks 2a and 2b on HPLC specific to chronic renal failure were readiy eliminated by the treatment of the beads in the uremic plasma. On the other hand, although the adsorption capacities of Kremezin for drugs were generally equal to those of medical carbon, the adsorption rate by Kremezin was smaller, but inferiority was not so serious as to make Kremezin useless as an oral antidote in acute intoxications brought on by drugs.
著者
林 弘祐 笠野 俊彦 須原 清治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.108-117, 1981 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
6

Pharmaceutical preparations such as sodium bicarbonate, lactose and potato starch show 2 different physical properties depending on their crystal diameters and moisture contents. Light anhydrous silicic acid (LASA) was added in several levels to 2 forms of the above preparations in order to investigate how these amounts of addition cause differences in their physical properties. Results are as follows:1) The angle of repose was minimized when LASA was added to powdered sodium bicarbonate in a proportion ranging from 0.1 to 0.25% and became greater in proportions exceeding 0.25%. Both the angle of repose and apparent specific volume of crystalline sodium bicarbonate were minimized by addition of LASA 0.01% and became greater in proportions exceeding 0.5%.2) In the case of powdered lactose, addition of LASA 0.01%resulted in negligible improvement in the physical properties. The effect was maximum in the proportion of 0.25%. In the case of crystalline lactose, addition of LASA even in 0.01% improved the physical properties. The effect was slightly enhanced by addition of LASA up to 0.1%. However, the addition of LASA in the proportion ranging from 0.25 to 0.5% deteriorated the effect.3) The degree of improvement in the physical properties of wet and dry potato starch reached maximum by addition of LASA 0.25 and 0.05%, respectively. The effect on wet stacrch by addition of LASA was greater.4) Scanning electron microscopy for observing the mixed conditions revealed that larger number of LASA particles attached to particles of the preparations when the physical properties were improved to a greater extent, and further increased proportions of addition resulted in the tendency to deteriorate physical properties by generation of aggregated particles of LASA attached particles of the preparations.
著者
藤山 悳正 仙田 隆一 遠山 裕子 菊地 加代子 瀧沢 武雄 城武 昇一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.22-28, 1995-02-10 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
8

Intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) treatment has been used in Japan since 1970, many hospitals applying this treatment to patients and receiving good results. Since the introduction of IVH treatment, its prescription and technique of this treatment have improved as a result of the many experiments and clinical reasearch conducted.In this study on the pharmacist's safety while adjusting IVH, it was forcused mainly on the amount and the size of the scattering glass fragments and the distance they traveled when an ampoule is opened.The results of the experiment were follows.(1) The number of glass fragments for those larger than 30μm only Scattered was from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 33. The largest glass fragment found in each of the three samples used was 182.7μm, 238.3μm, and 126.1μm for Ohtsuka MV® Sohvita®, and distilled water, respectively.(2) Many fragment were from 30μm to 40μm in size, with fragments of this size were contained in each sample as follows: 53.50%, 46.30%, and 57.95% in Ohtsuka MV®, SohvitaR, and distilled water, respectively.(3) It was found that glass fragments could scatter up to 80cm in distance away from the ampoule.
著者
青山 隆夫 松元 美香 中山 紀美子 中島 克佳 渋谷 文則 小滝 一 澤田 康文 伊賀 立二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.108-114, 1997-04-10 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

The pyrogenic activity of 10% inulin injections prepared at a hospital pharmacy was measured using the Pyrogen test in Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP), while the endotoxin concentration in the injections was determined by the, Limulus test, which were JP Endotoxin test and a turbidmetric kinetic assay. After the intravenous administration of 30 ml of inulin injections to a rabbit, the rectal temperature rose to 1.5° compared with that before administration. As a result, the endotoxin was found in all lots of the inulin injections tested, and their values were markedly beyond the limit of Water For Injections prescribed in JP (0.25 EU/ml). In addition, the endotoxin content varied between the various lots of inulin powder, and also between the manufacturers. The endotoxin in inulin injection was removed (less than the quantitative limit of 0.031 EU/ml) by adding activated carbon black to the injection or the filtration using a Posidyne® Nylon 66 filter. No pyrogenic activity was observed in the inulin injections after the removal of endotoxin.Based on these results, the adverse effects induced by inulin injections may thus be caused by endotoxin derived from inulin. This method using either adsorption or filtration is thus considered to be useful for the removal of endotoxin when preparing inulin injections.
著者
中村 裕義 木村 真春 山形 眞一 中村 均 大森 栄 北田 光一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.5, pp.437-444, 1997-10-10 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
3

In the present study, we examined the effects of light, temperature and humidity on the residual rate of alfacalcidol in four commercially available preparations of alfacalcidol (Alfarol® capsules, Alfarol® powder, Warkmin® capsules and Onealfa® tablets). The tests were performed for up to 10 weeks with PTP seals, or without PTP seals. The changes in residual rate of alfacalcidol in Alfarol® powder packaged with cellophane-laminate paper, and Onealfa® tablets packaged with cellophane-laminate paper after crushing were also examined.The residual rate of alfacalcidol decreased in Alfarol® capsules packaged with PTP seals under fluorescent lighting (1000 lux) and in Alfarol® powder without an aluminum seal under all conditions. There were no changes in the contents of alfacalcidol in Alfarol® capsules with PTP seals and Alfarol® powder packaged by aluminum seal. A slight decrease in the residual rate of alfacalcidol in Warkmin® capsules was found under fluorescent lighting. The residual rate of alfacalcidol decreased in Onealfa® tablets under high temperature and/or high humidity. Alfarol® powder packaged with cellophane-laminate paper and Onealfa® tablets packaged with cellophane-laminete paper after crushing were found to be unstable, indicating that long-term storage should be avoided when these formulations are prepared.
著者
山岡 桂子 山岡 尚世 高柳 ともえ 松井 正輝 沖永 真奈恵
出版者
日本医療薬学会
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.5, pp.428-433, 1995-10-10

We compared a 7% lidocaine cream (Preparation C) prepared at our hospital using a commercially available 5% dental xylocaine ointment (Preparation K) for application as a lacal anesthesia for skin patients when employing a laser beam for stability and anesthetic performance. Both preparations did not show any water separation or color change at 5℃, 25℃, 40℃ at RH 75℃ with a 95℃ or more residual rate. Furthermore, water evaporation in both preparations was not observed and was within the limit of measurement error. Significant change was not recognized in the expansibility of the preparation. The results of the viable cell count study according to Standard Plate-Counting Method and Specific Plate-Counting Method under the four conditions were negative (10 bacteria or less/g) with no observation of bacterial colonies. The anesthetic effect lasted 120 min for Preparation C with the 60-min application, while Preparation K only showed diminution of pain for 30 min.
著者
山岡 桂子 山岡 尚世 高柳 ともえ 松井 正輝 沖永 真奈恵
出版者
Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
雑誌
病院薬学 (ISSN:03899098)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.5, pp.428-433, 1995

We compared a 7% lidocaine cream (Preparation C) prepared at our hospital using a commercially available 5% dental xylocaine ointment (Preparation K) for application as a lacal anesthesia for skin patients when employing a laser beam for stability and anesthetic performance. Both preparations did not show any water separation or color change at 5°C, 25°C, 40°C at RH 75% with a 95% or more residual rate. Furthermore, water evaporation in both preparations was not observed and was within the limit of measurement error. Significant change was not recognized in the expansibility of the preparation. The results of the viable cell count study according to Standard Plate-Counting Method and Specific Plate-Counting Method under the four conditions were negative (10 bacteria or less/g) with no observation of bacterial colonies. The anesthetic effect lasted 120 min for Preparation C with the 60-min application, while Preparation K only showed diminution of pain for 30 min.