著者
杉山 幸丸
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.215-223, 1995 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
41

Tool-using behaviors of animals have been compared with those of early-man and examined the factors which differentiated the human culture from that of animals. Many tool-using behaviors of animals which are mainly found among birds and primates, particularly in chimpanzees, are flexible to environmental change and have local differences. The reason why they are remarkable only among some separated animal taxa are to be examined through their environment, life form, feeding repertoire and technique. Chimpanzees use and make many different kinds of tools, occasionally do more than one kind of tool for a single purpose and are expected to use a tool for making another tool which needs high intelligence and capability. Examination of local differences of tool-using repertoire of chimpanzees and their environment made clear that they maintain techniques through social tradition, which can be called “culture”. However, its elaboration to man-like culture needs further development of the motor function coordinating both hands and communication method by language.
著者
山越 言 竹元 博幸 松沢 哲郎 杉山 幸丸
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.101-114, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
169
被引用文献数
4 4

This review summarizes the findings from 40 years of research on a chimpanzee group at Bossou, Guinea, conducted mainly by two research teams, one from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, and the other from Kyoto University, Japan, and reports the current conservation status of the chimpanzee group.Research in the 1960's by the Dutch team consisted of short-term, ‘testing-a-hypothesis’ type projects, which focused on the chimpanzees' agonistic behavior towards predators. They used a unique field-experiment method, with an artificial leopard, to see how the chimpanzees responded to the stimulus. The experiments revealed a variety of agonistic reactions by chimpanzees, including tool-using behavior such as throwing a branch and using a stick as a club.In 1976, the Japanese team launched a long-term project, based on recognizing each chimpanzee individually. Although diverse topics have been covered to date, a focus has been tool use. Starting with the first substantial direct observation of nut cracking by wild chimpanzees, many other types of tool use have since been described, including ant dipping, pestle pounding, and algae scooping. A series of field experiments followed that revealed many details about nut cracking by chimpanzees: hand preference, metatool, developmental process, etc. Feeding ecology is a more recent topic, and the utilization of oil palm as a ‘keystone resource' when fruit is scarce, using two types of tool, proved to have significant ecological importance. Unique social characteristics like male immigration, close between-female relationships, and females’ high reproductive performances have been brought to light and require more ecological and genetic study to understand their uniqueness comprehensively.As for the conservation status of Bossou chimpanzees, the population size has fluctuated, but has been essentially stable during the study period. The reproductive parameters appear good, but juveniles of both sexes tend to disappear for unknown reasons. The people of Bossou have a strong religious motivation for conserving small patches of forest and the chimpanzees living there, and there is good collaboration among the Bossou people, government institutions and researchers when dealing with conservation problems. Current concerns seem to be the genetic isolation from a neighboring chimpanzee population on Mt. Nimba, and crop damage caused by the chimpanzees.
著者
中久喜 正一
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.121-133, 1988 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
12

This is general remarks of the study of mammalian lung. The interpretations of the lung lobes are different among authors. Particulary, in the left lung. Therefore, the author investigates the lungs of 55 species of mammalia to establish the fundamental structure of the bronchial ramification of the mammalian lung: the dorsal bronchiole system, lateral bronchiole system, ventral bronchiole system and medial bronchiole system arise from the dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial sides of both bronchi. Further, two pairs of bronchioles arise from the lateral sides of the trachea. The upper lobe bronchioles are the first branch of the dorsal bronchiole system and two pairs of bronchioles which arise from the lateral sides of the trachea. In this way, three upper lobe bronchioles can be enumerated. The middle lobe bronchiole is the first branch of the lateral bronchiole systems. The accessory lobe bronchiole is the first branch of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles constitute the lower lobe (Nakakuki, 1975, 1980). The author identified the lung lobes not only basing upon the external observation but also basing upon the fundamental structure of the bronchial ramification of the mammalian lung. The results are summarized as show in the Table 1 and Table 2.
著者
吉田 高志
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.345-355, 2009-03-31 (Released:2010-06-17)
参考文献数
18

We followed physical growth and aging in the cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) bred and reared in the laboratory frorm gestation to old age, for those individuals whose gestational age and/ or exact age were known. Growth patterns of body mass were compared between sexes by a cross sectional study. Although higher rates of growth for infants and early juveniles were observed in both sexes, the pre-pubertal spurt with sexual maturity was observed only in males. The significant sex difference in body mass growth patterns was demonstrated in cynomolgus monkeys, which has not been observed in humans. The characteristics of physical growth from birth to 12 weeks of age in both sexes were examined morphometrically and discussed from the point of view of allometry. The postnatal growth of facial and extremity parts of the body were relatively greater than other body parts, particularly the trunk. Furthermore, physical growth during the first 6 years of life was analyzed. All measurement items in females showed monophasic allometry against the growth of the anterior trunk length. However, several items in males including body mass showed biphasic allometry with the inflection point occurring at about 2.5 years of age. The process producing sexual dimorphism in the cynomolgus monkey was demonstrated.Then age at menarche and menopause and post-menopausal lifespan in female cynomolgus monkeys are presented.
著者
杉山 幸丸
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.51-56, 2011-06-20 (Released:2011-07-28)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1 1

Bonobo tool-using behavior is rare, limited in variety and relatively simple in form. The tools of bonobos are almost always made of a crude branch with little processing and are used neither for getting food nor as a weapon but for improving "the quality of life" (rain hat, social communication etc.). The paucity is said to be influenced by the abundance and richness of the food resources, relieving them of the need to develop food processing tools. I agree with this explanation and propose another possibility. The chimpanzees' curiosity, high activity and aggressiveness to strangers and strange objects accelerated their development of tool-using behavior. In contrast, the mild and shy disposition of bonobos might have influenced the types of tools they developed.
著者
狩野 文浩
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.95-108, 2012-12-20 (Released:2013-01-24)
参考文献数
35

Despite the importance of eye movement analysis in comparative and cognitive studies, the eye movements of great apes have not been examined until recently using the eye-tracking method. This is due to the lack of a non-invasive, unrestrained eye-tracking method, which is appropriate for great apes. In this review, I first show how a recent user-friendly corneal-reflection eye-tracking technique captures their eye movements accurately and stably. I then introduce several comparative studies that examined the eye movements of great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutan) and humans when viewing still pictures of scenes and faces under similar conditions. The major conclusion of those studies is that, although the species were similar in their viewing patterns, quantitative species differences existed in those similarities. That is, great apes and humans viewed similar parts of scenes/faces for similar lengths of time. However, great apes and humans differed from each other in that (1) great apes scanned the scene more quickly and more widely than did humans in general, and (2) humans viewed the eye part of faces longer than did great apes. These species differences may reflect their cognitive differences. In future, there are at least three promising directions. (1) Movie presentations about other individuals' actions to reveal how great apes anticipate the others’ action goals. (2) A wearable eye-tracker to reveal how their vision actively interacts with the environment. (3) A correlational analysis to reveal how their basic gaze patterns influence their gaze-related performances such as gaze following and observational learning.
著者
本郷 峻
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.34.014, (Released:2018-06-27)
参考文献数
87

Camera trapping is a new method widely used to assess animal distribution, density and behaviour. Although recent studies have reviewed general patterns in camera trap studies and provided recommendations in their usage, primate studies using camera traps have yet to be thoroughly reviewed. Here, I conducted a systematic search for studies using camera traps in primatology (camera trap primate studies [CTPS]). Finding 57 papers published between 2001 and 2017, I recorded their study objectives and methodologies. The number of CTPS started to increase from 2010, and more than half of CTPS (64.9 %) focused on behaviours. The majority of behavioural CTPS investigated foraging behaviours, including tool use, geophagy and predation, while we also found studies exploring activity rhythms, terrestrial behaviour, habitat use and social behaviours. Some studies used camera traps to complete mammal checklists in study areas and confirm the presence of focal primate species. Some ecological CTPS estimated population density using spatial capture-recapture models and capture rates, and I also found a study calculating occupancy probabilities of arboreal primates. I then point out several issues we have to consider when deploying cameras (sensor sensitivity, image type and camera placement) and analysing images obtained (definitions of independent events and potential biases in detection probability). Unfortunately, several CTPS were not designed to test their study questions sufficiently, and many articles failed to report essential information to facilitate repeatability. I argue that future researchers conducting CTPS should focus on nocturnal primates, explore novel methodologies to use the camera-trap images themselves for primate colour and morphology, develop methodologies for density estimation of arboreal primates, and use sophisticated study designs and reporting. Primatologists will be able to test their existing hypotheses using new technologies.
著者
香田 啓貴
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.121-136, 2014-06-20 (Released:2014-08-02)
参考文献数
44

Since language is basically audio-vocal communications in humans, the vocal communication in nonhuman primates has been discussed with the questions for evolutionary origins of languages. Many studies have accumulated many empirical evidences showing similarities as well as gaps between human languages and nonhuman primate vocal communications. Here I briefly reviewed the research history of the studies for vocal communications in nonhuman primates, which have been mainly directed to search for origins of human languages. Generally, there are two major approaches for primate origins of human languages; 1) studies of vocal communication in nonhuman primates would contribute to understanding the origins of languages, or 2) it would be completely different forms of language and never contribute to its understanding. The first brief is arisen from the ethological studies for alarm calls, using playback experiments in wild animals. Those studies have showed semantic rules in their communications, which had been believed as a unique component of human language. However, their anatomical and physiological foundations never support vocal plasticity and learning ability in nonhuman primates, which are essential properties in human languages. Those usually lead to the second brief. It would be difficult to solve this critical discrepancy, because both ideas likely discuss the origins of languages with wrong views of unidirectional way in language evolution, i.e., the way from nonhuman primates to humans. Human languages is not the most complex fashion of vocal communications in primate lineages, but vocal communications in other primate species are also complex and unique styles. Now we need more careful attentions to communication uniqueness of various kinds of primate species as well as language uniquness.
著者
杉山 幸丸 渡邊 邦夫 栗田 博之 中道 正之
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.63-81, 2013
被引用文献数
2

Primatology in Japan after the World War II began in the late 1940s with the observation of shy wild Japanese macaques (<i>Macaca fuscata</i>) from more than 100 m. Depending on artificial feeding students succeeded to observe macaques within a short distance and identified each individual. Individual identification of calm free-ranging macaques within a short distance made it possible to record individual and social behavior of each identified individual in detail; long-lasting kin-recognition between a mother and her offspring, dominance relations among individuals and kin-groups, and then, social organization. Artificial feeding is a form of semi-experimental manipulation introduced into the wild monkey groups. This paper showed how students contributed to the primate studies under such a condition at Koshima, Takasakiyama and Katsuyama. Some behaviors, particularly cultural ones, were found only in the artificially-fed groups. Some other exceptional or uncommon phenomena or behaviors seen in non-artificially-fed groups were recorded, with many episodes sufficient for statistical analysis at artificially-fed groups. As far as we are cautious that artificial feeding is semi-experimental manipulation on the wild monkey groups, we can find out more about the important nature of human and non-human primates and evolutionary relations of them.
著者
中川 尚史 中道 正之 山田 一憲
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.111-125, 2011 (Released:2012-01-19)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
3 4

Questionnaire on infrequently-observed behaviors (IOBs) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were given to primatologists. This survey aimed to provide basic information on the degree of rarity of each behavior. The questionnaire consisted of questions for respondents themselves, (e.g., name, research carrier, daily observation time), focal group (name of group and local population, captive, provisioned free-ranging, crop-raiding or purely wild), and IOBs. Experience of direct observation of 36 candidates of IOBs was also requested to answer by yes, no, or impossible to answer because of ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. In total, 39 answer sheets were obtained from 32 respondents. The top 10 IOBs and the number of those answering "yes" in parenthesis are as follows: mating interruption by juveniles (1), simultaneously nursing different-aged offspring (1), tool-use (1), single mount ejaculation (2), transporting the older offspring (2), nursing the older offspring (2), simultaneously transporting different-aged offspring (3), pulling the hair of female chin as a courtship behavior by male (4), twin birth (4), and (diurnal) birth (6). Some of IOBs, such as mating interruption by juveniles, seem to be due to ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. Apparent inter-population differences in the percentage of respondents answering "yes" to the all the respondents giving definite answers were found in some behaviors, such as embrace-rocking behaviors, mating behaviors in birth season, stone-handling, and feeding on vertebrates. Some of them, like the latter two, seem to have something to do with provisioning. With the modification of three categories by Nakamichi et al. (2009), we proposed the following five categories of IOBs: I) behaviors which are difficult to be observed despite its common occurrence; II) behaviors which rarely occur in every population: III) behaviors which rarely occur in some populations, but frequently occur in the others; IV) behaviors which are difficult to identify and memorize despite its common occurrence; V) behaviors which rarely occur during the most of the time but temporally occur.
著者
古川 研
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.36-39, 1986 (Released:2009-09-07)
著者
平田 聡
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.55-66, 2009-12-20 (Released:2010-06-17)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
1 1

Cooperation plays an important role in daily social interactions in humans. Wild chimpanzees have been reported to act cooperatively during hunting, but whether or not they are really engaging in cooperation is under debate. Investigation of cooperation in captive chimpanzees dates back to Kohler&rsquos observation, but experimental examination of cooperative ability in chimpanzees has been limited. The present paper describes recent advances in the study of cooperation and other related behaviors in chimpanzees, focusing on two kinds of experiments. In one of the experiments, two individuals had to move a set of heavy stones in order to obtain food under them. Two chimpanzees never succeeded in the task, but a pair of a chimpanzee and a human succeeded, and the chimpanzee began to solicit the human partner when he was not responding. In the other experiment, two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously to obtain food. The two chimpanzees did not succeed initially, but they gradually began to adjust their behavior to succeed in the task, by watching the partner and waiting for her. These studies indicate that the chimpanzees are able to comprehend some aspect of cooperation, but they never showed ostensive communicative behavior to achieve cooperation with the partner. Taken together other related studies, competitive social skill hypothesis and emotional reactivity hypothesis may have a key in understanding evolution of cooperation. However, these hypotheses seem to be insufficient in explaining the whole picture, and future research in needed especially by focusing on the nature of mother-infant relationships.
著者
北村 光二
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.109-120, 2008-12-20 (Released:2009-08-11)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 1

This paper aims to consider why the sphere of social phenomena is significant in the study of primates, including humans, and what aspects of the phenomena we should focus on in order to understand its significance. Although the process of making relations with others may easily become undecided, it may not be retained. We humans cope with such undecidability by paying attention to the motivation of activity easily shared by participants, or adequate readiness for regulating each other's interaction. This does not mean that the social sphere is independent of other spheres, but these characters are common to the activities of making relations with the natural environment for surviving. The social sphere should be placed in the larger range of phenomena produced by the activities of making relations with the outer world in general. An individual animal tries to decide his act of making relation with an object depending on the meaning of the object, while he tries to identify the meaning depending on his act of making relation with the object. Here, the undecidable circle is formed. The same situation is found in the case of making relations with others. That is to say, one tries to decide his act to the other depending on the other's act while the latter decides his act depending on the former's act, so that the undecidable circle is also formed here. The undecidability in the process of making relations with objects is usually perfectly hidden. However, the other's selection in the process of making relation with the object is always apparent in the social sphere. The other not only makes the undecidability apparent by making a different selection from my own, but also teaches a new way of coping with it by sharing the motivation with him or regulating the process of interaction with him.
著者
中道 正之
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.297-303, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
6