著者
杉山 幸丸 三谷 雅純 丸橋 珠樹 五百部 裕 ハフマンマイケル A 小清水 弘一 大東 肇 山越 言 小川 秀司 揚妻 直樹 中川 尚史 岩本 俊孝 室山 泰之 大沢 秀行 田中 伊知郎 横田 直人 井上(村山) 美穂 松村 秀一 森 明雄 山極 寿一 岡本 暁子 佐倉 統
出版者
京都大学学術出版会
巻号頁・発行日
2000-09

食う-食われる,エネルギー収支,どうやって子孫を残すか……サルたちはさまざまな生物的・非生物的環境とどのように関わりながら暮らしているのだろうか.本書によって,霊長類社会の研究者はその社会の生物学的背景をより深く理解でき,他の生物の生態研究者は霊長類における生態学的研究の最前線に触れられる.
著者
中川 尚史 川本 芳 村山 美穂 中道 正之 半谷 吾郎 山田 一憲 松村 秀一
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-04-01 (Released:2013-05-15)

ニホンザルは順位序列が明確な専制型と分類されてきた。しかし、野生群は乳母行動から、餌付け群は給餌実験時の攻撃性から評価した結果、勝山、小豆島は専制型、屋久島、淡路島は寛容型と個体群間変異があった。他方、モノアミン酸化酵素A遺伝子およびアンドロゲン受容体遺伝子の頻度に個体群間変異があり、屋久島では前者の短いアリル、淡路島では後者の長いアリルが高頻度で見られた。これはアカゲザルやヒトの攻撃性と遺伝子型の関連と一致する傾向であった。また、ミトコンドリアDNAによる分子系統関係も、屋久島と淡路島は比較的近縁であることを示し、社会様式の違いに遺伝的背景があることを示唆する結果となった。
著者
中川 尚史 後藤 俊二 清野 紘典 森光 由樹 和 秀雄 大沢 秀行 川本 芳 室山 泰之 岡野 美佐夫 奥村 忠誠 吉田 敦久 横山 典子 鳥居 春己 前川 慎吾 他和歌山タイワンザルワーキンググループ メンバー
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 Supplement
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.22, 2005

本発表では,和歌山市周辺タイワンザル交雑群の第5回個体数調査の際に試みた無人ビデオ撮影による群れの個体数カウントの成功例について報告する。<br> カウントの対象となった沖野々2群は,オトナ雄1頭,オトナ雌2頭に発信器が装着され群れの追跡が可能であった。またこれまでの調査からこの群れは,小池峠のやや東よりの車道を南北に横切ることが分かっていた。<br> 今回の調査3日目の2004年9月22日にも,一部の個体が道を横切るのを確認できた。しかし,カウントの体制を整えると道のすぐ脇まで来ていてもなかなか渡らない個体が大勢おり,フルカウントは叶わなかった。この警戒性の高まりは,2003年3月から始まった大量捕獲によるものと考えられる。翌23日も夕刻になって群れが同じ場所に接近しつつあったのでカウントの体制をとり,最後は道の北側から群れを追い落として強制的に道を渡らせようと試みたが,失敗に終わった。<br> そこで,24日には無人ビデオ撮影によるカウントを試みることにした。無人といってもテープの巻き戻しやバッテリー交換をせねばならない。また,群れが道を横切る場所はほぼ決まっているとはいえ,群れの動きに合わせてある程度のカメラ設置場所の移動は必要であった。そして,最終的に同日16時から35分間に渡って27頭の個体が道を横切る様子が撮影できた。映像からもサルの警戒性が非常に高いことがうかがわれた。<br> こうした成功例から,無人ビデオ撮影は,目視によるカウントが困難なほど警戒性の高い群れの個体数を数えるための有効な手段となりうることが分かる。ただし,比較的見通しのよい特定の場所を頻繁に群れが通過することがわかっており,かつテレメーター等を利用して群れ位置のモニタリングができる,という条件が備わっていることがその成功率を高める必要条件である。
著者
中川 尚史 中道 正之 山田 一憲
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.111-125, 2011 (Released:2012-01-19)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
3 3

Questionnaire on infrequently-observed behaviors (IOBs) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were given to primatologists. This survey aimed to provide basic information on the degree of rarity of each behavior. The questionnaire consisted of questions for respondents themselves, (e.g., name, research carrier, daily observation time), focal group (name of group and local population, captive, provisioned free-ranging, crop-raiding or purely wild), and IOBs. Experience of direct observation of 36 candidates of IOBs was also requested to answer by yes, no, or impossible to answer because of ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. In total, 39 answer sheets were obtained from 32 respondents. The top 10 IOBs and the number of those answering "yes" in parenthesis are as follows: mating interruption by juveniles (1), simultaneously nursing different-aged offspring (1), tool-use (1), single mount ejaculation (2), transporting the older offspring (2), nursing the older offspring (2), simultaneously transporting different-aged offspring (3), pulling the hair of female chin as a courtship behavior by male (4), twin birth (4), and (diurnal) birth (6). Some of IOBs, such as mating interruption by juveniles, seem to be due to ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. Apparent inter-population differences in the percentage of respondents answering "yes" to the all the respondents giving definite answers were found in some behaviors, such as embrace-rocking behaviors, mating behaviors in birth season, stone-handling, and feeding on vertebrates. Some of them, like the latter two, seem to have something to do with provisioning. With the modification of three categories by Nakamichi et al. (2009), we proposed the following five categories of IOBs: I) behaviors which are difficult to be observed despite its common occurrence; II) behaviors which rarely occur in every population: III) behaviors which rarely occur in some populations, but frequently occur in the others; IV) behaviors which are difficult to identify and memorize despite its common occurrence; V) behaviors which rarely occur during the most of the time but temporally occur.
著者
中川 尚史 中道 正之 山田 一憲
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1111280025-1111280025, (Released:2011-11-30)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
3 3

Questionnaire on infrequently-observed behaviors (IOBs) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were given to primatologists. This survey aimed to provide basic information on the degree of rarity of each behavior. The questionnaire consisted of questions for respondents themselves, (e.g., name, research carrier, daily observation time), focal group (name of group and local population, captive, provisioned free-ranging, crop-raiding or purely wild), and IOBs. Experience of direct observation of 36 candidates of IOBs was also requested to answer by yes, no, or impossible to answer because of ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. In total, 39 answer sheets were obtained from 32 respondents. The top 10 IOBs and the number of those answering "yes" in parenthesis are as follows: mating interruption by juveniles (1), simultaneously nursing different-aged offspring (1), tool-use (1), single mount ejaculation (2), transporting the older offspring (2), nursing the older offspring (2), simultaneously transporting different-aged offspring (3), pulling the hair of female chin as a courtship behavior by male (4), twin birth (4), and (diurnal) birth (6). Some of IOBs, such as mating interruption by juveniles, seem to be due to ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. Apparent inter-population differences in the percentage of respondents answering "yes" to the all the respondents giving definite answers were found in some behaviors, such as embrace-rocking behaviors, mating behaviors in birth season, stone-handling, and feeding on vertebrates. Some of them, like the latter two, seem to have something to do with provisioning. With the modification of three categories by Nakamichi et al. (2009), we proposed the following five categories of IOBs: I) behaviors which are difficult to be observed despite its common occurrence; II) behaviors which rarely occur in every population: III) behaviors which rarely occur in some populations, but frequently occur in the others; IV) behaviors which are difficult to identify and memorize despite its common occurrence; V) behaviors which rarely occur during the most of the time but temporally occur.
著者
中川 尚史
出版者
日本生態学会
雑誌
日本生態学会誌 (ISSN:00215007)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.291-307, 1996-04-25
被引用文献数
9

Studies on food selection in non-human primates were reviewed from the viewpoint of optimal food selection. Key factors in the classical model of optimal food selection were "maximization" of the "intake rate" of "energy". Later, the key factors were changed to "maximization" of the "contents" of "energy-essential nutrients" and "minimization" of the "contents" of "digestion inhibitor-toxins" in a modified model for herbivores. Most studies on food selection in herbivorous non-human primates have been based on the modified model, and revealed that primates choose food so as to maximize protein, and to minimize digestion inhibitiors (fiber, condensed tannin). However, the present review points out that the above key factors of the classical model are also important because food availability relating these factors correlates positively with feeding frequency.
著者
中川 尚史
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 = Primate research (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.91-107, 2008-12-20
被引用文献数
3 3

The male-female affinitive relationships among non-kin which persist beyond the estrus period have been known in some primates, mainly savanna baboons, Japanese macaques and rhesus macaques. I call this friendship, and review the benefits of friendships for each sex. For females, proximity and alliance of male friends disrupts antagonism by opponents, more or less, in all three species. On the other hand for the males, the effect of enhanced reproductive success seems to be negative. It is necessary to fully consider male benefits via infants in savanna baboons. Since it is highly possible that baboon males take care of a female friend's infant that he sired in the past, such friendships, especially in infanticidal baboons, would evolve through kin-selection rather than reciprocal altruism. When it comes to reciprocal exchange of benefits between a male and female, it seems that females play a positive role in the maintenance of friendships, as overall benefits seem to be female-biased. Socio-ecology can offer explanations for the ultimate cause of friendships. However, its explanatory power is not enough to explain the following observations: two non-troop males visit a group of Japanese macaques in coastal forest, Yakushima on separate days during a mating season. They received grooming one-sidedly by a female and soon left the group without copulating. These two cases seemed to be interactions between old friends, but the reciprocity cannot be formed. As the reunion with an old female friend of a male after immigration rarely occurs, mal-adaptive behavior would not be a problem. Socio-ecology does not explain such rarely occurring events. However, we can not ignore such cases just because they rarely happen. It is one aspect of the Japanese macaque society that monkeys "renews" old friendship.