著者
坪井 りん
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.66, pp.111-128, 2005-01-31

This paper examines what kind of roles journalism played on the foundation of Modern "Art" at the Meiji era in Japan. It first looks at how arts were reported by journalism when it had not yet been established as a system and discusses the intimate relation between two. It then examines how the relation gradually changed with the commencement of art exhibitions, focusing on the newspaper coverage on the "Hakubakai" exhibitions. Finally, it looks at the Bunten, the national art exhibition held by Ministry of Education, and discusses how journalism shifted to overheated reports, naturally resulting to affect the viewers.
著者
瀬尾 華子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.93, pp.97-115, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-10-13)
参考文献数
18

This thesis investigates how the news and documentary program, “NNNDocument,” has reported the nuclear problem. This is important because previous studies have not clarified regional differencesand diachronic changes in programs produced by local broadcastingstations that represent how people feel where nuclear power stations werelocated. Seventy-eight documentaries about nuclear power from“ NNN Document,”which is produced by 29 local broadcasting stations of the NTV group, wereanalyzed. These sources were examined by analyzing changes in the way inwhich the stations represented people statements. This research discovered the following. From 1970 until the Chernobyldisaster, many different people appeared in the documentaries, but after theChernobyl disaster, the perspective of people living in areas suffering radiationdamage and depopulated areas close to nuclear power stations came to theforefront. During the 2000’s, the number of documentaries about nuclear powerdecreased sharply. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the lives ofthe refugees were portrayed from the point of view of their places of refuge.Thus, it is shown how “NNN Document” has come to more closely representthe opinions of citizens in the news about nuclear power generation.
著者
佐藤 潤司
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, pp.125-144, 2018

<p>In this paper, I will analyse the news over the caricature of Muhammad</p><p>drawn on the cover of the special edition of Charlie Hebdo in 2015, and consider</p><p>whether the Japanese newspapers played a role as leaders of 'freedom of</p><p>expression'.</p><p> In Japan, three of the seven main newspapers did not publish the caricature</p><p>and one of the four that published it was protested by Islamic groups and</p><p>published an apology article.</p><p> When I analysed the articles of the seven newspapers by using a text-mining</p><p>approach, I found three problems. Primarily, the contents and attitude of</p><p>the newspapers did not necessarily emphasize 'freedom of expression'. Secondly,</p><p>the evaluation process for the caricature and the criteria for publication or nonpublication</p><p>of the caricature were not shown. Thirdly, the newspaper that apologized</p><p>for publishing the image did not clarify the reason for the apology, and</p><p>the other newspapers did not report the news that instigated a discussion over</p><p>the rightness or wrongness of the publication. For these reasons, it is hard to</p><p>say that Japanese newspapers played the role.</p><p> In addition, it can be pointed out that the three newspapers which did not</p><p>publish the caricature either do not have a certain criterion or did not apply the</p><p>criterion. Finally, with respect to the newspaper that published the apology</p><p>article,the phenomenon known as atrophy of the news was seen.</p>
著者
難波 功士
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.29-39, 2007-01-30 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
18

The term 'subculture' has been used with many different meanings. From the point of view what culture was supposed to be against the term 'sub-'culture, I try to classify the uses of subculture into three groups. 1) Subculture as an antonym of high culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to massmedia. 2) Subculture as an antonym of total culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to segmented media. 3) Subculture as an antonym of main or dominant culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to alternative media. Based on the typology, I try to survey recent treatises or books on 'media and subculture'.
著者
烏谷 昌幸
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.29-51, 2014-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Japan's nuclear policies were discussed in TV documentaries during the program concentration period subsequent to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. To this end, the author analyzes three TV programs that discussed nuclear plant location policies, nuclear fuel cycle policies and policies regarding radiation exposure control for nuclear plant workers, focusing on how the TV staff obtained the facts that were essential for critical reviews in each program. The results reveal that the three programs critically reviewed nuclear policies by making effective use of facts obtained through one of the following processes: cooperating with the media, leaking confidential information, whistleblowing and investigative reporting. By placing the critical facts in the historical context of the post-Chernobyl period, the author studies how these critical facts were obtained and examines the meaning of the facts. In conclusion, the author points out the importance of understanding TV documentaries as products jointly produced by journalists and information sources.
著者
奥山 俊宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, pp.73-91, 2019-01-31 (Released:2019-06-06)
参考文献数
18

This research focuses on the U.S. Department of Justice’s investigation andprosecution of unauthorized disclosures of government information to themedia. Based on a review of 21 cases, the research shows trends in the frequencyof prosecutions. The investigations and prosecutions by the U.S. Department of Justice(DOJ) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) with regard to leakshave gone through some transition. In the 20th century, only four cases wereprosecuted. However, the situation has completely changed in this century.Under the Obama administration, there were eight charges against allegedleakers between 2009 and 2013. On the other hand, no such charges were filedfrom October 2013 to September 2016. Despite President Trump’s pledge formore prosecutions, there have only been five cases since his inauguration. Thishas occurred notwithstanding the frequency of leaks being about to “explode.” Several factors contribute to this volatility. Among these factors are theDOJ and FBI’s internal codes or norms with which the investigators and prosecutorsmust comply. For example, between 2005 and 2006, the normal constraints were relaxed,both in terms of investigative procedures with regard to the news media andthe scope of the interpretation of the substantive law, such as the EspionageAct. As a result, the frequency of prosecutions increased between 2009 and2013. However, between 2013 and 2015, the constraints of investigations againstthe press strengthened significantly under the direction of President Obama.Therefore there was “downtime” between 2013 and 2016. The DOJ serving under the Trump administration announced in 2017 thatit was reviewing policies affecting media subpoenas. The announcement can beregarded as evidence of the fact that the change of the norms or internal codeshas played an important role in trends in the frequency of prosecutions.
著者
鈴木 麻記
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, pp.117-136, 2016-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
23

This paper aims to reinterpret the activities of the Manga Artists' Association, the Tokyo-Manga-Kai, in terms of a movement attempting to improve the social position of manga, through a socio-historical consideration of the group's significance and limitations. This study seeks to overcome the limitations of conventional studies of manga history by avoiding the a priori assumption that "manga" was always a self-evident category. Rather, it aims to understand how it became possible for manga to be established as a cultural field and how artistic productions came to be consumed as manga. Additionally, the study aims to problematize these as historical phenomena in their own right. To clarify these points, this study focuses on an association of manga artists, rather than readers or the works themselves. Between the Meiji and Taisho periods, the referential category of "manga" encompassed a wide variety of representational forms, with only vague boundaries between manga and other representational media. To understand manga in contemporary terms as the category that oscillated between multiple boundaries, we need to question how manga artists had defined their own position by prioritizing their self-definition. Therefore, this study focuses on Japan's first association of manga artists, the Tokyo-Manga-Kai, and undertakes an analysis of the group's activities. The results of my analysis revealed that, in the Taisho period, without the establishment of manga as an autonomous and bounded field, manga artists were situated in a multi-layered and ambivalent position between the categories of art and journalism, and carried out various movements to define their position. While these movements may appear to have led to the promotion of manga and manga artists, they did not ultimately lead to the elimination of characteristic ambivalence.
著者
小城 英子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.54, pp.127-140, 248, 1999-01-31

In May of 1997 an atrocious murder occurred in Kobe's Suma district, and the murderer's profile was guessed to be a middle aged man, when in fact in the end a 14 year-old boy was arrested. This study analyzed the published comments made by experts and learned people concerning the profile of the murderer. Comments by experts were taken from four newspapers and analyzed using qualitative methods. Factors which led to the inaccuracy of profiles put forth by experts included insufficient and incorrect information, as well as the constraining influence of images of murderers in the past such as Tsutomu Miyazaki.
著者
鄭 佳月
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, pp.217-236, 2010-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
41

The purpose of this paper is to historically examine the opinion poll – asystem which was introduced to Japan – and to provide a multi-layered illustrationof its viewpoint structure. We will first look at the role which opinion polls played in GHQ, and identifythe positions of multiple polling organizations within the structure. Next, wewill examine the viewpoints established by sociologists employed by PO&SR,and highlight the fact that they relied on applied sociology and acknowledgedthe opinion polls as a social technology. This paper will re-examine the opinionpoll under the confused ideology of GHQ.
著者
花田 史彦
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, pp.183-202, 2018-01-31 (Released:2018-05-10)
参考文献数
24

Our task here is to analyse the remarks of Iwasaki Akira( 1903-81), a filmcritic, as a case study of the historical investigations into the problem of howthe images of ‘mass’ were formed and what role aspects of media like filmsplayed in the course of formation of mass society in Japan. In Chapter 1, we point out that Iwasaki was a person who had been workingon the ‘mass’ problems throughout his life, who had also been regarded as aman of resistance from wartime to the period of occupation. In Chapter 2, we analyse Iwasaki’s pre-war view of ‘mass’ and made itclear that he recognized mass as a target capable of enlightenment for socialreform. Chapter 3 throws light on the early post-war views of Iwasaki’s ‘mass’ andmade his sense of enlightened obligation clear. Section 1 of Chapter 4 treats Imamura Taihei’s critical comments on theproposals of Iwasaki to enlighten the ‘mass’, which can be seen as a transitionalview to the phrase ‘mass as the core’ by Tsurumi Shunsuke and MatsumotoToshio. In Section 2, we compare Tsurumi’s thought of the mass (neither passivenor monolithic) with Iwasaki’s pre-war sense of obligation towards massenlightenment. In Section 3, we make a comparison of Iwasaki with Matsumoto,who talked of the possibility of anti-establishment movement among mass society,and pointed out that Iwasaki saw negative inclinations towards Fascism in it. To conclude: Iwasaki never stopped talking about the ‘mass’, the images ofwhich were successively questioned and revised by succeeding generations ofpolemicists like Imamura, Tsurumi, Matsumoto. Iwasaki’s works thus performedshould be one of the factors in developing the image of the responsiblemass at the time of the advent of Japanese mass society.
著者
倉橋 耕平
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.153-171, 2009

<p> Our concern i s to examine i ssues relating to the falsification of the NHK television</p><p>program" ETV 2001" broadcasted on Jan. 30, 2001. But here we limit our</p><p>discussion to the matter of press freedom. The judgment each pronounced by</p><p>the Supreme Court and the Tokyo High Court i llustrate the point. The former</p><p>took account of" the freedom of expression" i ndemnified by the Constitution of</p><p>Japan, the latter condemned an i llegality of NHK for dereliction of i ts duty as a</p><p>corporate body. It i s clear that there are substantial discrepancies between</p><p>them i n the concept of freedom.</p>
著者
井上 善友
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.122-137,263, 1997-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)

In this age of the Internet, it is important to take notice of personal-computer communication, which is better than the Internet for two-way communication. This thesis mainly deals with the following three points:1. It has been said that personal-computer communication has made anonymous communication possible. However, if users want to enjoy all of its advantages, actual anonymity is difficult to maintain. 2. Since users issue information in personal-computer communication with no intent to gain profits, the information tends to be true. 3. Many aspects of personal-computer communication impose overload on users.