著者
伊藤 高史
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.140-154,230, 1997-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)

This paper puts forward a republican view on freedom of expression to discuss the legitimacy of the media's self-regulation of so-called hate speech in Japan. The issues concerning such self-regulation make it evident that the idea of free speech has lost its real meaning and I argue that going back to the idea of republican freedom is indispensable to reconstruct the idea of free expression. By discussing the republican view, I suggest that the problem with the current way of settling the arguments of hate speech is that a third party is eliminated from negotiation processes between the media and complaints.
著者
山腰 修三
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.150-163, 2004-01-31

This article reconsiders critical communication theory with reference to the theoretical turn of Stuart Hall's communication model. The focus is on three aspects: social and political change in post-war UK; neo-Marxist concept of "discourse" and "ideology": Hall's political project as New Left. During the late 70's to early 80's, Hall had changed his communication theory dramatically in order to stand against the political project of Thatcherism. I examine that Hall's perspective had changed from "encoding/decoding" model, which leads to "semiotic democracy," to "struggle over meaning," which can be connected with new theoretical trends.
著者
嵯峨 景子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.129-147, 2011-01-31

This paper aims at examining the process of creation and change of readers' community in the magazine "Jyogaku Sekai". For this purpose, I analyzed the letters from readers, and discussed about the historical transition of their writing and communication style. Through a past quantitative analysis, it became clear that a large change has occurred around 1916. At first, a major function of the readers' column was exchanging information about daily life, postcards, books, and etc. However, around 1916, the function of exchanging information disappeared, and the letters of readers became more fictional, romantic, and daydreaming. A use of pen name, graceful style of writing, and sentimental motif spread among girls, these elements established the friendships of readers, and the romantic community was made by the function trough the magazine. I summarize that the large change has occurred based on the decline in the age of readers, the expansion of female magazine market, and development of girl culture in Taisho era.
著者
田村 千穂
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.115-132, 2009-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
13

In the early 1910s, when stage actresses emerged, the so-called “Katsudō-Actresses” appeared i n the cinema scene. I examine how they differed fromcontemporary film actresses and how they were received by audiences backthen. I analyzed the earliest film magazine of Katsudōshashinkai from 1909 to1912. The activities of Katsudō-Actresses were not limited to acting on screen.They also performed on stage as actors of chain-dramas, and dancers of sideshows played i n movie theaters. Katsudō-Actresses appealed to the audiencethrough both presentation and representation. Such uniqueness was sustainedby the circumstance of the early Japanese cinema.
著者
高井 昌吏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, pp.17-33, 2016-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
27

This study focuses on popular songs concerning "the war and women" in post-war Japan. In particular, three songs were examined: Akiko Kikuchi's "Hoshi no Nagare ni" and "Ganpeki no Haha" released in 1947 and 1954, respectively, and Yuriko Futaba's popular remake of "Ganpeki no Haha" released in 1972. These songs were analyzed in connection with the societal background in which they gained popularity, including the influence of mainstream values as well as concepts of women and mothers that were held at the time. The results of this analysis suggested that directly after the war ended, many Japanese women were despondent and pushed into prostitution because of an impoverished society. The song "Hoshi no Nagare ni" conveys the sorrows of prostitution, and this theme is directly connected to its success. The 1954 hit "Ganpeki no Haha" has strong connections to the suspicion that Japanese citizens felt toward the Self Defense Force, which was established in the same year, as well as to the massive protests in 1960 concerning the US-Japan Defense Treaty. In particular, the general public tended to be influenced by stories about "mothers' sadness," particularly in terms of mothers and children being separated by war. This had powerful correlations with peace-oriented public opinion and anti-rearmament attitudes of the time. However, Yuriko Futaba's mid-1970s remake of "Ganpeki no Haha" gained mass popularity for several reasons. The 1970s witnessed the appearance of the "kyouiku-mama" (literally "education mama") -a type of mother who stressed on education for her children above everything else. The "kyouiku-mama" was considered to be a social problem during the time, and the completely different type of mother presented in "Ganpeki no Haha" produced feelings of longing for an "ideal mother" archetype that was perceived to be lost from the society. Therefore, "Ganpeki no Haha" was highly praised by the general public.
著者
大久保 遼
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.209-230, 2011-01-31

This article analyzes the page layouts of photography magazines during the Russo-Japanese War, and it thus reveals the emergence of the "photographic construction of vision" in photography magazines, or the mutual referencing and montage between the photographs and the text on the same page. The page layouts of photography magazines are visually constructed not only by the photographs themselves but also by the relationship between the photographs and the text such as articles or captions. Such "photographic construction of vision" in these magazines is a historic phenomenon. Through an examination of the Records of the Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso jikki) and its special issue Photographic Pictorial of Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso shashin gaho), a study of the photography correspondents dispatched by these magazines, and a comparative analysis of the page layouts and the moving pictures of that time, this article reveals that the concept of photographic construction emerged in photography magazines around 1900. This finding can be confirmed by the following observations: (1) the editor's reflective consideration of photo editing, (2) mutual referencing between the photographs and the text, and (3) the photographic style of the montages used in the magazine. Finally, this article concludes that such photographic construction became more complicated and established in later periods, and that it came to be a precursor of the modernist movement in the 1930s and the war propaganda by means of photographs in the 1940s. Moreover, it caused distraction and lead to readers cursorily examining the relationship between the text and photographs without deconstructing this relationship.
著者
李 衣雲
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.69, pp.108-125, 2006-07-31

This thesis deals with the image produced by Japanese dramas which were broadcasted in Taiwan mainly from 1992 to 2000. Comparing with the other dramas broadcasted in Taiwan during that period, Japanese dramas had a bourgeoisie feel in taste and fashion. The filming techniques also created the air of romance. The consumer desires were prompted by such air and a romanticized Japanese image was contrived by the Taiwanese audience through these Japanese dramas. Thus, when the audience visited Japan, they felt a gap between the image and the reality.
著者
河津 孝宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.72, pp.59-77, 2008-01-31

This article aims to describe the viewing experiences that white-collar women living in Tokyo go through when watching the American TV series "Sex and the City". The ethnographic approach used in cultural studies in the 80's has been adopted to analyze the subject. The audiences extract a realism from the textual world, and adopt a viewing position that aligns with their own life stage. Furthermore, the experience of viewing is linked to their life history and reflexively updates their self-identity. This article presents an alternative approach which discusses TV viewing in terms of diachronic experience of audience.
著者
新藤 雄介
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.80, pp.133-152, 2012-01-31

This paper aims to examine local cooperative action with regard to books during the third and fourth decades of the Meiji Period (1897-1912). It hopes to reveal the changes in the modes of cooperation concerning books and the effect these had on community-based organizations. The paper will focus primarily on cooperative action and local associations within Saitama Prefecture, using the example of reading rooms and traveling libraries with elementary schools, teachers, and youth groups (seinen-kai). Before the introduction of the traveling library in the third decade of the Meiji Period (1897-1906), elementary schools were utilized as the primary function hall for all local community events. Reading rooms for youth groups were set up in these elementary schools. However, the establishment of such communal reading rooms required many resources, from finding or even building new rooms, gathering books to staffing them. Consequently, reading rooms were largely managed by teaching staff and were used exclusively for educational purposes. The fourth decade of the Meiji Period (1907-1912) saw a proliferation in interest from local people in cooperative action concerning books. The central prefectural administration introduced traveling libraries, and held various events in elementary schools throughout Saitama Prefecture. While the initial impetus was the aim to provide schools with books for youth groups, the traveling libraries soon also targeted the community at large. This change to the function of traveling libraries represented a move away from cooperative action concerning itself exclusively with educational purposes, and towards everyday matters, including amusement. In order to fulfill these duties, the traveling library needed day-to-day bases to work from. In the case of Saitama Prefecture, new youth groups were established or old ones revitalized to support these endeavors. As such, the traveling library played a vital role in the rebuilding of local communities throughout the entire prefecture.
著者
金 〓和
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.169-188, 2011-01-31

A postcard nowadays is perceived self-evident as a private communication tool; however, it was once "a new medium" in the past. This paper explores a postcard from a historical viewpoint to reconsider it as a medium. Paying attention to socio-cultural factors surrounding the establishment of postal service system in Japanese modernization process, it will closely look into "Hagaki Bungaku" (in Japanese, the title literally means "postcard literature"), a popular magazine specializing in a picture postcard hobby. The main discussion is about its readers' active contribution as well as its editorial policy during the Russo-Japanese War period which is said to be the heyday of picture postcards. In this paper, the concept of hagaki bungaku, which in fact suggested writing "short literature on a postcard", will be investigated in relation to material characteristics of picture postcards. Meanwhile, the "postcard literature" written by the magazine's readers will be examined in terms of cultural practices, linking with the socio-cultural aspects of Meiji era. Finally, this paper summarizes "a postcard as literature" as "a possible pattern" of postcards as a medium, indicating that the framework achieved from historical approach of media will be also efficient in understanding contemporary media phenomena.