著者
清水 裕 水田 恵三 秋山 学 浦 光博 竹村 和久 西川 正之 松井 豊 宮戸 美樹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-12, 1997
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of our study on the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake was twofold. First, we investigated the operation of the relief shelters, including relief activities. In this part of the study, we focused on the leaders of the shelters. The second purpose of this study was to reveal factors contributing to the effective management of the shelters. About three weeks after the Hanshin Earthquake, we conducted interviews with 32 leaders of the relief shelters and of volunteer workers. We were mainly concerned with the conditions of the emergency facilities, how leaders were selected and what managerial problems they faced. The result of our study showed three types of motivation for becoming leaders. The first occurred naturally as an outcome of their activities; the second by their own choice; and the last because of their regular job positions. These results were analyzed and categorized by the type three quantification analysis. We found that the most effective management of the relief shelters was under leaders chosen by the last method; that is, those who held positions of leadership in their regular jobs.
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992-02-25 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
杉浦 仁美 坂田 桐子 清水 裕士
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.75-85, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
29

This study examined if Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) might differ depending on the outgroup with which one's own group is compared. SDO was divided into two factors: “Group-based dominance” and “Equality.” We predicted that Group-based dominance would be high when one's own is compared with a relatively low status outgroup, whereas Equality would be high when one's own group was compared with a relatively high status outgroup. Furthermore, we predicted that this tendency would be apparent in members whose intragroup status was close to the outgroup. University students participated in an experiment that manipulated intergroup status by changing the outgroup status, and its effect on SDO, as well as intragroup status was examined. Results of Study 1 indicated no effect of intergroup and intragroup status on SDO. However in Study 2, by improving the SDO scale, we obtained results that supported our predictions. That is, Group-based dominance scores of low intragroup status members increased when compared with a low status group, whereas Equality scores of high intragroup status members increased when compared with a high status group.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors—“negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” “support for quake-hit areas,” and “radiation anxieties”—and reason (System 2) factors—“knowledge-based judgment” and “rational decision”—based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors “negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” and “radiation anxieties” were integrated as “anxiety over radiation and nuclear power.” The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while “support for quake-hit areas” is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
谷口 淳一 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.11-22, 2008

The present study tried to reveal whether self-presentations in dating relationships are self-verifying or self-enhancing, by examining the relationships among (1) self-view, (2) the desired evaluation and (3) the assumed evaluation from the dating partner. Participants were 156 undergraduates (60 males, 96 females) in dating relationships. The main findings were as follows: 1) Participants expected evaluations from their partners that are more positive than their own. 2) Participants assumed they would be given such evaluations from their partners and perceived the evaluations to be accurate. 3) As their "passion" for the partner became stronger, participants expected evaluations from their partners to be more self-enhancing on a dimension that was important to their relationship. 4) As their "intimacy" deepened, participants expected evaluations from their partners in a self-enhancing way. In addition, participants perceived their partners' evaluations to be highly accurate on a dimension that was important to their relationship. The result of this study supported the strategic self-verification model (Bosson & Swann, 2001) and suggested that both motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification work in dating relationships.
著者
武田 美亜 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.57-64, 2010

We examined whether Japanese dating couples have cynical intuitions about how their partners assess responsibility and whether the strength of this "naive cynicism" varies with the intimacy of the relationship. Thirty-eight undergraduates and their dating partners rated their own responsibility for six desirable and six undesirable joint activities and predicted their partner's self-ratings. They expected their partners to overestimate responsibility for desirable activities and underestimate responsibility for undesirable activities. In addition, this tendency was at least a result of their expectation that their partner's allocation of responsibility would be motivationally biased. Although partners in a more intimate relationship appeared to expect their partner's allocation of responsibility to be more biased, whether this tendency was found because of an assumption that their partner was more biased or because of the stronger self-effacing tendency of more intimate partners was not clear. Results were discussed in terms of judgmental bias in self versus others.
著者
佐藤 達哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.197-208, 1993-03-31 (Released:2016-12-01)

In Japan, not a few Japanese people may believe that blood group polymorphisms of the ABO system are related to personality differences. Blood-typing is regarded here as a lay people's personality theory. The aim of this study is to understand that how people use this theory and that what functions the theory Serves. Subjects are students of a university and those of a nursing-school. 7 hypotheses derived are bellow. 1) this theory is popular among these subjects, 2) most of subjects cannot tell whether this theory is valid or not, 3) when someone begins to talk about the topics, conversations would be maintained for a while, 4) this theory can tell about both individuals and personal relationships. and this theory is useful for both beginning conversations and self-presentation at interpersonal situations, 5) contents of this theory are made of generalizations, 6) guesses of others' blood types are influenced by both theory's criteria and impressions of others, 7) evaluations to minor blood groups (B and AB) are relatively negative. After discussing the validity of blood-typing as a personality theory, the implications of this study are discussed.
著者
浅野 良輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.41-46, 2011

This article investigated how relational efficacy affects emotional experiences in romantic relationships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy expectation of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problem; this concept is based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). Participants were 107 dating heterosexual couples. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling analysis suggested that couples higher in relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. Additionally, it is suggested that partners higher in perceived relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. The implications of the results and their contribution to existing literature are discussed.
著者
村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.113-124, 1996
被引用文献数
2

Many studies of group in social psychology have distinguished "groups" from other aggregates by some peculiar standards and piled up research focusing only on them. In reality, however, there are various aggregates that have many different characteristics. In the course of participant observation and interviewing at a park in early morning, the present study presents an aggregate which exists between group and togetherness situation. The circle of people here had characteristics of a group as follows: 1) it is an organization which has the shared purpose; 2) each member has particular status and role to each other; 3) There are the same norms shared by members. At the same time, however, it also had aspects of a togetherness situation as follows: 1) the membership (whether one is a member or not) is not clear; 2) deviants are not punished; 3) outsiders are not excluded. Based on these findings, the present study tries to document the continuity between group and togetherness situation and to propose a new viewpoint to see a variety of individual's identity which is salient in various aggregates.
著者
嘉瀬 貴祥 坂内 くらら 大石 和男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.60-67, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

The aim of this study was to reveal behavior and thought constructing life skills in Japanese adults toward consideration of life skills training for adults. Descriptions of life skills were collected as text data from 400 adults. Co-occurrence network analysis found 40 instances of behavior and thought from the data. Several factors obtained were similar to those in previous studies (e.g., “positive thinking,” “planning,” “interpersonal manner,” etc.). Additionally, the original factors were also identified (e.g., “searching on social media,” “skeptical attitude toward information,” “judgment of profit and loss,” “imagining the worst situation,” “judgment of the appropriate psychological distance,” “maintaining the appropriate psychological distance,” etc.).
著者
小松 さくら 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.45-49, 2008

The aims of this study were to examine with a Japanese sample the idea that the expectation of slack in the future is larger for time than for money and to examine the relationship between this expectation and optimism as a personality trait. The results showed that Japanese participants estimated slack with regard to both time and money, and it was larger with regard to time than to money, consistent with research done on American samples. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, however, the expectation of slack did not correlate with optimism. The low correlation between the estimated degrees of slack between that with regard to time and that with regard to money suggests that there is no consistent tendency across different resources.
著者
塩崎 麻里子 中里 和弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.211-220, 2010

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between regret over actions taken versus regret over inaction vis-a-vis bereaved family. The focal points of the study were as follows: 1) to explore the nature of unreversed regret in the bereaved; 2) to examine the association between the number and intensity of regrets and mental health and grief; and 3) to examine the effect of action and inaction on mental health and grief. Using a mail-in questionnaire, we surveyed and analyzed the results of 89 bereaved respondents. The results showed that participants had more lifetime regrets over inaction than over action taken. The number and intensity of regrets also correlated with mental health and grief. Bereaved participants who expressed regret over inaction had poorer mental health and stronger feelings of grief than those with no regrets over inaction. We discuss the implications of unreversed regret and examine regret prevention for the bereaved.
著者
高田 奈緒美 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.208-218, 2009

In distinguishing internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior, we attempted to identify different motives for these two modes of forgiveness and to examine the effects of interpersonal relationships with offenders and the motives behind forgiveness. Participants recalled personal episodes in which someone hurt them and rated the episodes in terms of the closeness between them and the offender, forgiveness, and the motives for forgiveness. A factor analysis of the motives produced 6 dimensions: need for acceptance, maintenance of relationship, pervasiveness of negative event, maintenance of social harmony, non-commitment, and consideration. We regarded consideration and pervasiveness of negative events as altruistic and the others as egocentric motives. Noncommitment did not correlate with either forgiveness or forgiving behavior. Need for acceptance correlated only with forgiving behavior. Other motives were positively correlated with both internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior. Our results showed that the maintenance of a relationship was highest in conflicts with high-close others. They also showed that need for acceptance, pervasiveness of a negative event, and maintenance of social harmony were higher in conflict with high-close and middle-close others than with low-close others.
著者
児玉 真樹子 深田 博己
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.1-12, 2010

This study examined the effects of three types of mentoring, such as career mentoring, childcare mentoring, and double-roles mentoring, on the working intentions of regular female employees rearing children. In addition, it also examined the effects of work-family conflict and vocational identity as mediators. Survey data from 247 regular female employees whose youngest child was less than 16 years old were used. The results showed the following: (a) double-roles mentoring directly promoted working intention, and (b) career mentoring promoted vocational identity formation directly, and the degree of vocational identity formation positively influenced working intention.
著者
小城 英子 坂田 浩之 川上 正浩
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.246-258, 2008

The purpose of this study was to construct a scale for comprehensive attitudes towards paranormal phenomena which would contain cognition and affect, and to analyze clusters of university students. Undergraduates (N=699) completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards paranormal phenomena and a number of other individual characteristics including the Big Five. The responses were analyzed by factor analysis, and as a result, six factors were extracted: "Inclination towards Augury and Magic," "Belief in Spirituality," "Enjoyment of Paranormal Phenomena," "Skepticism," "Fear of Paranormal Phenomena," and "Spiritual Experience and Belief." Based on these factors, six subscales were composed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by the correlation with other individual characteristics. Using cluster analysis, participants were divided into four types: an "Ordinary Group," a "Group Believing in Paranormal Phenomena," a "Group Believing in Science," and a "Group Enjoying Paranormal Phenomena."
著者
荒川 歩 村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.85-97, 2006

We investigated why people own lucky charms. One hundred ninety-eight students answered our questionnaire. The results showed that ownership of lucky charms is not entirely related to the desire to connect to a transcendental power; people have lucky charms because they have received them as gifts from family and friends; family and friends give lucky charms when they cannot provide other forms of support directly; the gift of a charm is usually from an older person to a younger person; the relationship between the donor and the recipient affects the type of charm given. These results suggest that donors may give lucky charms to allay their anxiety, and that lucky charms act as a reminder of the donor's support of the recipient in times of trouble.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.139-154, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study was conducted in order to examine effects of early adult attachment styles on exclusivity of romantic relationships. Two hundred fifty seven undergraduates participated in Study 1, which examined how early adult attachment styles influence one's "sense of exclusivity" and "expressions of the sense of exclusivity," from the perspective of attachment dimensions. Results showed that, the higher the level of anxiety was, the more regularly a "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. Furthermore, the higher the level of avoidance was, the lower the "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. In addition, participants with high avoidance were less likely to express their "sense of exclusivity." In Study 2, participants were limited to 104 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships. Exclusivity of romantic relationships as a function of early adult attachment styles was examined with the construction of causal models as follows: first, two dimensions of early adult attachment, second, feelings of discomfort when a third person intervenes in the romantic relationships, and, lastly, coping behaviors for feelings of discomfort. Results revealed that anxiety increased the frequency of lingering/sadness, while avoidance reduced the frequency of these feelings. Moreover, results indicated that avoidance caused a higher tendency to resort to destructive coping behaviors and a lower tendency towards selecting constructive coping behaviors, such as "voice." These results are discussed in terms of the relations between early attachment styles, emotional experiences, and destructive behaviors in romantic relationships.
著者
古谷 嘉一郎 坂田 桐子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.72-84, 2006
被引用文献数
1 5

In this research, we considered in what way face-to-face, mobile phone, and Short Message Service (SMS) modes of communication are associated with the relationship satisfaction of samesex friends. Specifically, from a media and content suitability perspective, we investigated 9 modes of communication, 3 media (face-to-face, mobile phone, and SMS)×3 types of content (task, emotional, and consummatory), and their association to relationship satisfaction. The results showed that relationship satisfaction and mode of communication were different for friendships where the partners were physically near each other and could see each other face to face even daily (short-distance friendship) and friendships where partners were physically separated and could only rarely meet face to face (long-distance friendship). Primarily, for short-distance friendships, a positive relation was observed for face-to-face consummatory communication and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, for long-distance friendships, SMS consummatory communication had a positive relationship with relationship satisfaction. We looked at these results from interpersonal research and communication research perspectives.