著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0932, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
20

This study focuses on “satisficing” (answering behaviors in which participants do not devote appropriate attentional resources to the survey (Krosnick, 1991)) in an online survey and aims to investigate, via various indices, to what extent these behaviors are observed among students whose participation was solicited by the researchers in their universities. This study also aims to explore effective techniques to detect individuals who show satisficing tendencies as efficiently and accurately as possible. Online surveys were carried out at nine universities. Generally speaking, the predictive capability of various types of detection indices was not high. Though direct comparison with online survey panels was impossible because of differences in measurement methodology, the satisficing tendencies of university students were generally low. Our findings show that when using university students as samples for a study, researchers need not be “too intent” on detecting satisficing tendencies, and that it was more important to control the answering environment, depending on the content of the survey.
著者
多川 則子 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.126-138, 2006

The present study examined the effects of daily communication on favorability in the perception of romantic relationships, with reference to Matsui's (1990) Developmental Stage Model of Romantic Love. The 484 participants were divided into three categories according to their current relational status: romantic relationships (154 undergraduates), one-sided non-mutual relationships (205 undergraduates), and regular heterosexual friendships (125 undergraduates). The latter two groups were included for comparison. Sternberg's (1997) Triangular Love Scale was used in order to measure favorability in participants' relationships. A separate scale was used to record information relating to daily communication. Participants were asked various questions regarding their relationships. Some examples included, 'Exchanging talk about daily events','Having a relationship-specific verbal style', and 'Perceiving the partner's reaction'. For the purposes of this study,'Exchanging talk about daily events' was discussed in terms of messages regarding content and relational meaning (Watzlawick, Bavelas, & Jackson, 1967). And 'Having a relationship-specific verbal style' was discussed in terms of relational culture (Wood, 1982). The results indicated that the all daily communicational behavior mentioned above influenced the level of favorability of romantic relationships.
著者
稲垣 佑典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.92-102, 2009

Yamagishi (1998) predicted that the level of general trust in urban areas would be higher than in rural areas based on the emancipation theory of trust. According to this theory, communities in urban areas, in which both social uncertainty and opportunity cost are high should foster highlevel general trust. However, there is no difference in the level of general trust between urban areas and rural areas according to recent surveys conducted in Japan. These results contradict Yamagishi's prediction. This study examines whether and why there is a difference between urban and rural areas in the generating process of general trust. I conducted a mail survey in an urban area (Itabashi Ward in Tokyo) and a rural area (the former Tochio area of Niigata Prefecture) in order to examine the cause of this phenomenon. As a result, some of the analyses suggest that the emancipation theory of trust is likely to be applicable in urban areas; on the other hand, different trust-generating processes are more likely in rural areas.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.24-30, 2011

It has been shown that people under threat to self-worth exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward minority outgroups (e.g., African Americans in North America) (Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, & Dunn, 1998). But it has not been shown that people under such threat exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward outgroups which are not likely to be negatively evaluated (e.g., women). We conducted an experiment to examine whether male participants under threat to self-worth would exhibit implicit ingroup bias related to gender by using Implicit Association Tests (IATs.) Participants received either self-image threatening feedback about initial tests or no feedback (threat vs. non-threat). They then completed gender attitude IATs. The results showed that participants exhibited stronger implicit ingroup biases related to gender in the threat condition than in the nonthreat condition. The role of threat to self-worth in men's implicit gender attitude is discussed.
著者
野田 理世
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.199-210, 2010

This study investigates the impact of mood on category-consistent/inconsistent information processing by comparison of data collected immediately after an experiment and a time lapse. In two experiments, no impact of mood was observed in recall rate immediately after the experiment among participants induced into a positive mood, regardless of the consistency of category information. However, a greater recall rate was observed for category-consistent information in the time lapse condition. On the other hand, no substantial impact of mood was found, regardless of time lapse, in the negative mood. The results showed the significant impact of mood on category-information coding styles, depending on the strength of the unit connections of the category-consistent/inconsistent information.
著者
山岸 明子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.285-294, 2007

The purpose of this study was to reexamine the developmental feature of considering others' feelings and not considering one's duty to a group, based on Yamagishi's article which analyzed the promise concept in contemporary schoolchildren in Tokyo. The investigation was conducted in Nagano prefecture. A questionnaire was used to ask children in second, fourth and sixth grades whether they would keep or break promises in 4 scenarios in which various contextual factors against keeping these promises were included, adding 2 new situations to clarify the developmental feature. The fourth and sixth grade respondents were also asked to state reasons. The results were as follows: 1) the same tendency was found in both new situations and former ones. 2) the same tendency was found in Nagano, as in Tokyo, indicating no regional difference, 3) when stating reasons, there were many who stated concern for other's feeling (especially in fourth grade), and while many fourth graders felt a sense of duty to a group, there were many sixth graders who responded to promise situations flexibly, coordinating both positions. The findings are discussed with reference to Kohlberg's stage 3 and contextual relativism.
著者
垣内 理希
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.54-63, 1996

For nearly three decades, the existence of the physical attractiveness stereotype or the stereotype that physically attractive people have a more socially desirable personality almost has been taken for granted in social psychology. However, the existence of this stereotype is not so evident as is often assumed to be. Results of an experiment reported in this paper demonstrate that the effect of perceived "beauty" of a stimulus person (photographed female) on the subject's evaluation of that person's personality is drastically reduced or even reserved when the degree of subjects' liking of that person is controlled. On one personality dimension, even the reverse stereotype that physically attractive people have a malignant personality was found to exist when subject's liking of the stimulus person is controlled. These and related findings suggest that people assume that physically attractive person has a nice personality not because they have an implicit personality theory connecting physical and mental attractiveness but rather because people simply like an attractive person.
著者
菅 さやか 唐沢 穣 服部 陽介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.21-29, 2009

People often infer the causes of observed actions and events, and explain the causes to others through communication. The present study examined the effects of a communicative goal on the causal explanation of criminal cases. Japanese college students were presented with a criminal case, along with an equal number of potential internal causes and external causes. The extremity of the crime (i.e., murder vs. robbery) was manipulated. Participants were asked to explain what led the protagonist to commit the crime, either in order to help another participant make judgments about the criminal person (i.e., communicative goal condition) or to use the explanation as a basis for their own judgments (i.e., individual goal condition). Participants then responded to a free re- call task. The results revealed that the communicative goal facilitated the use of both internal and external causal information in explanations. Path analyses indicated that causal explanation mediated the effect of the communicative goal on the memory of stimulus information. The importance of communication in the study of causal attribution and related domains were discussed.
著者
桑山 恵真 工藤 恵理子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.109-118, 2010

People are unaware of the psychological processes that attenuate negative feelings, thus resulting in affective forecasting errors. Since people are unaware that these processes work more efficiently during intense negative feelings, they may expect intense negative feelings to last longer than mild ones. This study aimed to elucidate these affective forecasting errors and demonstrate that they occur in the absence of an external need for affect regulation. Additionally, people's predictions of the emotional states of others in the same situation were investigated. Those who only imagined receiving feedback (forecasters) predicted their affective states would be more negative five minutes after very negative feedback than after mildly negative feedback. However, the affective states of those who actually received very negative and mildly negative feedback (experiencers) differed less than those of forecasters and were less negative than the forecasters' predictions. Furthermore, predictions of an average student's feelings indicated that experiencers predicted that an average student's negative affective state would last longer than their own.
著者
垂澤 由美子 広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.12-18, 2006
被引用文献数
1

It has been demonstrated in previous research that the "permeability" of a group boundary influences the members' intention to act collectively as well as their group identity in a subordinate group. In this research, how personal "mobility" of group members affected both in-group collaboration and members' identity was investigated by adopting the "simulated international society game." Each of 344 undergraduates was assigned randomly to one of dominant or subordinate groups with either high or low levels of mobility. Eight games were played in all, and each undergraduate participated in only one of the games. The results indicated that members of both dominant and subordinate groups with low mobility collaborated within their own groups more frequently than those with high mobility. At the same time, members of the subordinate group with low mobility achieved relatively more positive identity than those with high mobility.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.92-102, 2000

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of material possession and social support network on QOL (Quality of Life). In this study, QOL was defined as "the subjective feeling of satisfaction or happiness" and was measured by "the grade of well-being" and "the state of mind and body health." Three hundreds and sixty-five victims of the Great Hanshin Earthquake(105 males, 256 females, and 4 undetermined sex) who lived at temporary houses in Nishinomiya City were asked to complete a questionnaire by personal interview method. The main findingswere as follows: (1) the victims who had lost their important possessions were higher in well-beingscore than ones that did not. On the other hand, the victims who had not lost them were higher inmind and body health score than ones that did. (2) The number of social support network had no effect on well-being score. But the victims who had a large number of social support network stended to be higher in mind and body health score than ones that had a small number of them.
著者
清水 裕 水田 恵三 秋山 学 浦 光博 竹村 和久 西川 正之 松井 豊 宮戸 美樹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-12, 1997
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of our study on the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake was twofold. First, we investigated the operation of the relief shelters, including relief activities. In this part of the study, we focused on the leaders of the shelters. The second purpose of this study was to reveal factors contributing to the effective management of the shelters. About three weeks after the Hanshin Earthquake, we conducted interviews with 32 leaders of the relief shelters and of volunteer workers. We were mainly concerned with the conditions of the emergency facilities, how leaders were selected and what managerial problems they faced. The result of our study showed three types of motivation for becoming leaders. The first occurred naturally as an outcome of their activities; the second by their own choice; and the last because of their regular job positions. These results were analyzed and categorized by the type three quantification analysis. We found that the most effective management of the relief shelters was under leaders chosen by the last method; that is, those who held positions of leadership in their regular jobs.
著者
宮崎 弦太 矢田 尚也 池上 知子 佐伯 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.61-72, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the determinants of exchange anxiety in close relationships—generalized worries that one’s partner will replace him/her with a more suitable person. We hypothesized that exchange anxiety would increase when individuals compare themselves with others who are more competent (experiencing upward social comparisons), especially in environments where they cannot easily find alternative relationships (environments with low relational mobility). By experimentally manipulating the type of social comparison, the results from Study 1 revealed that undergraduates (n=299) living in environments with low relational mobility felt stronger exchange anxiety when they experienced upward social comparison than downward social comparison. In Study 2, an online survey was conducted with a sample of adults living in either urban or rural areas (n=1000). The results showed that the frequency of upward social comparison was positively associated with exchange anxiety and that this tendency was moderated by the combined effect of relational mobility and trait self-esteem. These results suggest that the characteristics of one’s interpersonal environments affect the impact of the perceived risk of being replaced on exchange anxiety in one’s close relationships.
著者
相川 充 佐藤 正二 佐藤 容子 高山 巌
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.44-55, 1993
被引用文献数
4

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the degree of self-reported loneliness and the conversational skills observed in the interaction between strangers. The subjects were 48 university students who obtained high, medium, or low scores on the Japanese version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each of these three groups included 8 males and 8 females students. The interpersonal interactions between the subjects and the confederate of the same sex were recorded by video cameras. These records were analyzed quantitatively by the raters who were blind to the subject's state of loneliness. Other raters made the qualitative analysis of the subject's conversational skills. The subjects also rated themselves and the confederate during the conversation. The results revealed some unique characteristics of highly lonely students in terms of quality but not in terms of quantity. The highly lonely students tended to lack the social skills indispensable to establish intimate interpersonal relationships. They also tended to negatively rate both themselves and the other party following interpersonal interactions.
著者
戸谷 彰宏 中島 健一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.84-92, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
19

Our purpose is to examine the affect-free claim in terror management theory. Lambert et al. (2014) reported findings that disconfirm the claim that mortality salience (MS) manipulation does not produce any changes in self-reported affect including negative affect, which is the affect-free claim. As a conceptual replication of their findings, we conducted three studies to examine whether MS manipulation influences self-reported mood. Participants in Study 1 were college students, while Studies 2 and 3 included individuals in their 20s and 50s who were recruited using a web survey. Multiple-choice questions (Studies 1 and 2) and open-ended questions (Study 3) were used as experimental manipulation. Through these three studies, it was shown that MS manipulation elevated negative mood regardless of the experimental manipulation type and participants’ age. In these studies, participants did not demonstrate a cultural worldview defense. Results suggest that we should reconsider the affect-free claim in terror management theory.
著者
杉浦 仁美 坂田 桐子 清水 裕士
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.75-85, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
29

This study examined if Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) might differ depending on the outgroup with which one's own group is compared. SDO was divided into two factors: “Group-based dominance” and “Equality.” We predicted that Group-based dominance would be high when one's own is compared with a relatively low status outgroup, whereas Equality would be high when one's own group was compared with a relatively high status outgroup. Furthermore, we predicted that this tendency would be apparent in members whose intragroup status was close to the outgroup. University students participated in an experiment that manipulated intergroup status by changing the outgroup status, and its effect on SDO, as well as intragroup status was examined. Results of Study 1 indicated no effect of intergroup and intragroup status on SDO. However in Study 2, by improving the SDO scale, we obtained results that supported our predictions. That is, Group-based dominance scores of low intragroup status members increased when compared with a low status group, whereas Equality scores of high intragroup status members increased when compared with a high status group.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors—“negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” “support for quake-hit areas,” and “radiation anxieties”—and reason (System 2) factors—“knowledge-based judgment” and “rational decision”—based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors “negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” and “radiation anxieties” were integrated as “anxiety over radiation and nuclear power.” The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while “support for quake-hit areas” is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.