著者
具志堅 伸隆 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.155-164, 2006

Past research based on the unrelated-affect paradigm has demonstrated that distinct emotions exert specific influences on cognition (e.g., Keltner, Ellsworth, & Edwards, 1993). This study investigated the effects of anger or fear on the perceived persuasiveness of an unrelated statement. Under anger, fear, or neutral conditions, participants read two statements, one critical and the other threatening, regarding a bad debt situation. The participants then made judgments about the pursuasiveness of these statements. As predicted, anger enhanced the persuasiveness of the critical statement by increasing the tendency to think that justice had been violated, whereas fear enhanced the persuasiveness of the threatening statement by increasing the tendency to think there would be negative repercussions. These results suggest that emotions increase the persuasive impact of affect-arousing communication by producing specific cognitive tendencies.
著者
樋口 収 桑山 恵真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.178-187, 2011

According to Construal Level Theory, psychological distance (e.g., spatial distance) is an important determinant of how information will be processed. When the target message seems more proximal (vs. distant) to the recipient, people attend to a concrete message (vs. abstract information). We investigated the possibility that people showed more agreement in response to a concrete message (vs. abstract information) when the target is proximal (vs. distant). In Study 1, spatial distance was measured by asking participants how far the target was (from Japan). In Study 2, spatial distance was manipulated using a world map. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. The implications of these findings for psychological distance and persuasion are discussed.
著者
西田 公昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.131-144, 1994
被引用文献数
1

This paper is intented as an investigation of process of belief-system change by means of a religious cult mind-control. This study analyzed the process by mainly using a questionnaire survey administrated to 272 persons of the cult exiters, with content analysis of text books of the dogma, videotapes of the dogma, recruiting manual, seminar's manuals and interviews to exiters from the religious cult supplementary used. It should be concluded from the analysis that the cult recruiters take advantage of camouflaged religious recruiting, interpersonal attraction, group attraction, personal and social reality operations for recruiter's mind control. In the process, to begin with, the recruiter are attracted by the recruiter's warm regard and they begin to learn the dogma without knowing that it is a religious recruiting. As the next step, recruiter come to believe the dogma through influence of reality operation and interpersonal attraction. And finally, the recruiters tell the truth of their own group to the recruiters and ask them to be the members of the group.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.133-146, 2005

It has been said that the reason why fortune telling in popular magazines (for women) is seen to "come true" derives from the authoritarian personality of the reader combined with the Barnum effect given by the text. However, past research had focused mostly on fortune telling of a personal character, and very few studies have been carried out which investigate matters of luck or fortune itself. The aim of this research is to investigate how people come to believe that a particular instance of fortune telling has actually "come true", focusing on the use of a "determination view of fate" as a descriptive style of text, and paying attention to both the presentation of material and the reader's cognition process, in four different studies. The "determination view of fate" is described as not varying no matter how readers act; it is something that readers accept as a set of values. For the purposes of this research, using the fortune telling descriptions in women's magazines, a line was drawn between cases in which the reader actually judged the contents as "likely to come true" (predictions) and those that actually "come true"(results), and the contents were analyzed. Consequently, among those who believed the prophecy at the stage of prediction and later judged it to have "come true, " certain structures of a self-fulfilling nature were seen to be held in common. In the light of the contents of the text, both negative and other contents described as nonvariable "fortune" contents were judged to have "come true." Although it can be concluded that, based on such results, fortune telling was recognized as actually dealing in "fortune, " it is conjectured that it evokes in the reader a feeling of hitting the mark through a revelation of fate. The reason why negative contents "come true" is discussed from the viewpoints of memory and content evaluation. The study indicates that those who believe in fortune telling do not do so because of authoritarianism, but rather because of flexible interpretation.
著者
横井 良典 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.16-25, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
45

This study examined trust in artificial intelligence in medical care and identified its determinants. Studies on risk perception have found that perceived ability, integrity, and value similarity determine trust in risk managers. Further, engineering studies on trust in artificial intelligence have suggested that perceived ability and integrity determine trust. However, few researchers have examined whether perceived value similarity affects trust in artificial intelligence. We employed a situation assumption method and focused on the shared policy of medical treatment. In Study 1 (n=165), the results revealed that the shared policy of medical treatment enhanced participants’ trust in artificial intelligence, as it did in humans. In addition, artificial intelligence was less trusted than humans were. Study 2 (n=139) replicated the experiment conducted in Study 1 by improving items for manipulation check. The results of Study 2 mostly reproduced those of Study 1. Empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.25-34, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
37

It has been consistently demonstrated that self-threat induces automatic prejudice. The present study investigated whether men would not exhibit automatic prejudice even in the self-threat condition if the gender category was not salient. We manipulated the salience of the gender category and the threat to self-worth, and then measured automatic gender prejudice with an evaluative priming task. Our results showed that when the gender category was salient, men in the self-threat condition automatically inhibited activation of positive concepts by the woman prime compared with those in the non-threat condition. In contrast, such an effect did not emerge when the gender category was not salient. Hence, when the salience of the ingroup–outgroup category is decreased, men do not exhibit automatic prejudice even under self-threat.
著者
宮崎 弦太 矢田 尚也 池上 知子 佐伯 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.61-72, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the determinants of exchange anxiety in close relationships—generalized worries that one’s partner will replace him/her with a more suitable person. We hypothesized that exchange anxiety would increase when individuals compare themselves with others who are more competent (experiencing upward social comparisons), especially in environments where they cannot easily find alternative relationships (environments with low relational mobility). By experimentally manipulating the type of social comparison, the results from Study 1 revealed that undergraduates (n=299) living in environments with low relational mobility felt stronger exchange anxiety when they experienced upward social comparison than downward social comparison. In Study 2, an online survey was conducted with a sample of adults living in either urban or rural areas (n=1000). The results showed that the frequency of upward social comparison was positively associated with exchange anxiety and that this tendency was moderated by the combined effect of relational mobility and trait self-esteem. These results suggest that the characteristics of one’s interpersonal environments affect the impact of the perceived risk of being replaced on exchange anxiety in one’s close relationships.
著者
戸谷 彰宏 中島 健一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.84-92, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
19

Our purpose is to examine the affect-free claim in terror management theory. Lambert et al. (2014) reported findings that disconfirm the claim that mortality salience (MS) manipulation does not produce any changes in self-reported affect including negative affect, which is the affect-free claim. As a conceptual replication of their findings, we conducted three studies to examine whether MS manipulation influences self-reported mood. Participants in Study 1 were college students, while Studies 2 and 3 included individuals in their 20s and 50s who were recruited using a web survey. Multiple-choice questions (Studies 1 and 2) and open-ended questions (Study 3) were used as experimental manipulation. Through these three studies, it was shown that MS manipulation elevated negative mood regardless of the experimental manipulation type and participants’ age. In these studies, participants did not demonstrate a cultural worldview defense. Results suggest that we should reconsider the affect-free claim in terror management theory.
著者
鈴木 文子 池上 知子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.183-190, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

From the perspective of social identity theory, some social psychologists have suggested that heterosexual men espouse negative attitudes toward gay men as a defensive mechanism against threats to their gender self-esteem. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether this gender self-esteem defense theory of sexual prejudice applies among heterosexual men and women in Japan. Our results in principle supported the gender self-esteem defense theory for heterosexual men. For heterosexual women, however, the results tended to be contradictory to the theory. The more positive heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem was, the less negative was their attitude toward lesbians. But this link tended to disappear when they were informed that no biological differences exist between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Our findings suggest that heterosexual men and women maintain their gender self-esteem in different manners: Heterosexual men maintain positive gender self-esteem by embracing negative attitudes toward gay men, but heterosexual women do not. Heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem may be related to expressing tolerance for sexual minorities.
著者
橋本 剛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.35-45, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
1

In general, the norm of reciprocity is assumed to be a facilitating factor in helping behavior. However, excessive help-seeking combined with insufficient contribution to others would be perceived as a selfish, free-riding deviation. To avoid this negative evaluation, people who feel they have a low sense of contribution (the subjective feeling of one’s contribution to others’ well-being) might be more reluctant to seek help. Thus, it was hypothesized that sense of contribution will be positively associated with help-seeking tendencies. It was also hypothesized that positive associations between sense of contribution and help-seeking will be amplified by recognition of the norm of reciprocity in groups; that is, greater pressure regarding the norm of reciprocity in groups means less help-seeking from those whose sense of contribution is low, and greater help-seeking from those whose sense of contribution is high. To examine these hypotheses, 500 Japanese adults completed an Internet survey regarding occupational relationships. Both hypotheses were supported.
著者
吉田 琢哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.211-218, 2011

Regulation of anger is fatal for well-being. Recent study has revealed that an effective means of anger regulation depends on interpersonal relationships in that constructive expression has a positive effect on relationship quality in close and equal relationships. To reveal the effective process of anger regulation, the present study focused on attitudinal factors toward emotional expression as determinant factors on constructive anger expression in close relationships. A survey was conducted on romantic adolescent couples and pairs of close friends. Results showed that a negative attitude toward one's emotional expression restrained constructive expression. While another attitudinal factor, expectation of others' emotional expression, had no effect on partners' use of anger regulation tactics, one's cognition of the partners' attitude promoted constructive anger expression. The role of communication for attitude decoding and changeability of attitude were discussed.
著者
後藤 崇志 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.125-136, 2013

The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout among employees with different degrees of autonomy. We conducted a panel survey among 424 employees. The results revealed that 1) autonomy affected the relationship between controlling emotional sensations and burnout. Controlling emotional sensations increased burnout among employees with low autonomy, but not among those with high autonomy. Moreover, the results revealed that 2) autonomy did not affect the relationship between other self-control behaviors and burnout. We discussed why a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout and how autonomy affected it, by referring to the process of self-control based on the Limited Resource Model, cognitive control, and physiological underpinnings.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0932, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
20

This study focuses on “satisficing” (answering behaviors in which participants do not devote appropriate attentional resources to the survey (Krosnick, 1991)) in an online survey and aims to investigate, via various indices, to what extent these behaviors are observed among students whose participation was solicited by the researchers in their universities. This study also aims to explore effective techniques to detect individuals who show satisficing tendencies as efficiently and accurately as possible. Online surveys were carried out at nine universities. Generally speaking, the predictive capability of various types of detection indices was not high. Though direct comparison with online survey panels was impossible because of differences in measurement methodology, the satisficing tendencies of university students were generally low. Our findings show that when using university students as samples for a study, researchers need not be “too intent” on detecting satisficing tendencies, and that it was more important to control the answering environment, depending on the content of the survey.
著者
多川 則子 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.126-138, 2006

The present study examined the effects of daily communication on favorability in the perception of romantic relationships, with reference to Matsui's (1990) Developmental Stage Model of Romantic Love. The 484 participants were divided into three categories according to their current relational status: romantic relationships (154 undergraduates), one-sided non-mutual relationships (205 undergraduates), and regular heterosexual friendships (125 undergraduates). The latter two groups were included for comparison. Sternberg's (1997) Triangular Love Scale was used in order to measure favorability in participants' relationships. A separate scale was used to record information relating to daily communication. Participants were asked various questions regarding their relationships. Some examples included, 'Exchanging talk about daily events','Having a relationship-specific verbal style', and 'Perceiving the partner's reaction'. For the purposes of this study,'Exchanging talk about daily events' was discussed in terms of messages regarding content and relational meaning (Watzlawick, Bavelas, & Jackson, 1967). And 'Having a relationship-specific verbal style' was discussed in terms of relational culture (Wood, 1982). The results indicated that the all daily communicational behavior mentioned above influenced the level of favorability of romantic relationships.
著者
稲垣 佑典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.92-102, 2009

Yamagishi (1998) predicted that the level of general trust in urban areas would be higher than in rural areas based on the emancipation theory of trust. According to this theory, communities in urban areas, in which both social uncertainty and opportunity cost are high should foster highlevel general trust. However, there is no difference in the level of general trust between urban areas and rural areas according to recent surveys conducted in Japan. These results contradict Yamagishi's prediction. This study examines whether and why there is a difference between urban and rural areas in the generating process of general trust. I conducted a mail survey in an urban area (Itabashi Ward in Tokyo) and a rural area (the former Tochio area of Niigata Prefecture) in order to examine the cause of this phenomenon. As a result, some of the analyses suggest that the emancipation theory of trust is likely to be applicable in urban areas; on the other hand, different trust-generating processes are more likely in rural areas.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.24-30, 2011

It has been shown that people under threat to self-worth exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward minority outgroups (e.g., African Americans in North America) (Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, & Dunn, 1998). But it has not been shown that people under such threat exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward outgroups which are not likely to be negatively evaluated (e.g., women). We conducted an experiment to examine whether male participants under threat to self-worth would exhibit implicit ingroup bias related to gender by using Implicit Association Tests (IATs.) Participants received either self-image threatening feedback about initial tests or no feedback (threat vs. non-threat). They then completed gender attitude IATs. The results showed that participants exhibited stronger implicit ingroup biases related to gender in the threat condition than in the nonthreat condition. The role of threat to self-worth in men's implicit gender attitude is discussed.
著者
野田 理世
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.199-210, 2010

This study investigates the impact of mood on category-consistent/inconsistent information processing by comparison of data collected immediately after an experiment and a time lapse. In two experiments, no impact of mood was observed in recall rate immediately after the experiment among participants induced into a positive mood, regardless of the consistency of category information. However, a greater recall rate was observed for category-consistent information in the time lapse condition. On the other hand, no substantial impact of mood was found, regardless of time lapse, in the negative mood. The results showed the significant impact of mood on category-information coding styles, depending on the strength of the unit connections of the category-consistent/inconsistent information.
著者
山岸 明子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.285-294, 2007

The purpose of this study was to reexamine the developmental feature of considering others' feelings and not considering one's duty to a group, based on Yamagishi's article which analyzed the promise concept in contemporary schoolchildren in Tokyo. The investigation was conducted in Nagano prefecture. A questionnaire was used to ask children in second, fourth and sixth grades whether they would keep or break promises in 4 scenarios in which various contextual factors against keeping these promises were included, adding 2 new situations to clarify the developmental feature. The fourth and sixth grade respondents were also asked to state reasons. The results were as follows: 1) the same tendency was found in both new situations and former ones. 2) the same tendency was found in Nagano, as in Tokyo, indicating no regional difference, 3) when stating reasons, there were many who stated concern for other's feeling (especially in fourth grade), and while many fourth graders felt a sense of duty to a group, there were many sixth graders who responded to promise situations flexibly, coordinating both positions. The findings are discussed with reference to Kohlberg's stage 3 and contextual relativism.