著者
羽鳥 剛史 藤井 聡
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.87-97, 2008
被引用文献数
2

Regional subsistence can be improved if and only if at least one local resident exhibits altruistic and cooperative behavior. This is known as the volunteer's dilemma. This study aimed to examine the social conditions that encourage such pro-social behavior in a local community. For this purpose, a mechanism creating altruistic behavior is modeled that is based upon the idea of multilevel selection in evolutionary theory. We present a dynamic model including both group selection and individual selection. We derive analytical solutions from the model in order to investigate the conditions under which altruistic behavior can emerge. A numerical analysis of time-dependent solutions is conducted using the Runge-Kutta method. Stationary solutions of the dynamic model are then analytically derived. The result indicates that group selection could be an important force to encourage altruistic behavior. Finally, based on the analysis, measures that promote voluntary pro-social behavior are discussed.
著者
上瀬 由美子 堀 洋元 岡本 浩一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.25-35, 2010

The present research investigated relations between perceived occupational stigma and their attributes, the coping strategies of those affected by occupational stigma, and the effects of perceived stigma on global and occupational self-esteem mediated by coping strategies. Data from 501 respondents, a representative set of data stratified by age and gender, showed that (a) approximately 10% of the respondents perceived themselves as occupationally stigmatized, (b) low-income men, especially young or contingent workers, were apt to show awareness of their occupational stigma, (c) five coping strategies in particular (Re-evaluation, Group identification, Social comparison, Attribution of discrimination, and Disengagement) were common, (d) group identification positively enhanced occupational self-esteem in persons who perceived occupational stigma strongly. Lastly, the characteristics of the coping strategies and issues for further research were discussed.
著者
立脇 洋介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.21-31, 2005

The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of negative feelings caused by negative events in opposite-sex relationships, and the relation between negative feelings and sex difference, relationship with partner, coping behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Three hundred and fifty-six undergraduates responded to a questionnaire asking about their relationships with their partners, negative events, negative feelings, their coping behaviors, relationship satisfaction and a love scale. Negative feelings were classified into affiliation-dissatisfaction and aggressive/refusal feelings. Affiliation-dissatisfaction was composed of sadness, anxiety and so on. It was caused by distance from partners, and did not influence the relationship satisfaction of lovers. The aggressive/refusal feelings were composed of irritation, anger and so on. They were caused by interference from partners. The more frequently they occurred, the lower relationship satisfaction was.
著者
加藤 司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.171-180, 2005

The main purpose of the present study was to elaborate on coping behavior toward romantic break-ups, and to examine the relationship between coping and mental health. First, in order to establish the items for this study, a pilot survey of 950 undergraduates was conducted in order to collect free responses describing coping behavior toward romantic break-ups. Second, 455 undergraduate students completed scales for assessing coping behavior, the extent of romantic love toward the ex-partner, and mental health (duration of recovery period from the break-up, and the resulting distress). Factor analysis of the coping items produced six factors : Regret, Grudge, Dissolving Relationship, Positive Reappraisal, Displacement, and Distraction. Structural equation modeling was conducted, suggesting that coping behavior influenced mental health even after the effects of the recovery period were controlled. It was also found that Regret and Grudge/Dissolving Relationship influenced mental health negatively.
著者
山本 翔子 結城 雅樹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.61-71, 2019-11-30 (Released:2019-11-30)
参考文献数
41

The Trolley Problem is a well-known moral dilemma that deals with the morality of saving many people’s lives at the expense of a smaller number of others. A recent cross-cultural study found that, while the morality rating attributed to the action did not differ, there was a cultural difference in participants’ intention to act in a given way. From a socioecological perspective, we propose that this could be due to cross-societal differences in the expected reputation that others would assign to the actor for performing the action, which in turn stems from different levels of relational mobility in the respective social ecology. Supporting our theory, a vignette study with US and Japanese participants showed that 1) while there was no cultural difference in morality ratings, among those who judged the action to be morally correct, the Japanese participants showed less action intention than the American participants; 2) the Japanese participants expected a less positive reputation for their action from others than did the American participants; and 3) the weaker action intention among the Japanese participants was associated with the smaller relational mobility and weaker positive reputation expected for action.
著者
和田 実
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.9-19, 1996
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adolescents' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and to examine the effects of sex and gender-role identity on them. Subjects were 312 (124 male and 188 female) undergraduates. Sixty-three males and 95 females rated the attitudes toward gay men. Sixty-one males and 93 females rated the attitudes toward lesbians. Major findings were as follows: 1. From factor analysis, three factors were extracted: social acceptance, psychological distance, and positive images. 2. As compared with females, males scored lower on social acceptance, higher on psychological distance, and lower on positive images. Especially, males avoided gay men more psychologically than lesbians. 3. Males in high masculinity (HM) accepted gay men less and avoided them more psychologically than males in low masculinity (LM). 4. Females in LM accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in HM. Females in high femininity (HF) accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in low femininity (LF). Females in HM imaged gay men and lesbians more positively than females in LM. These findings were discussed in terms of the sex differences of socialization (gender role expectation) and same-sex friendship.
著者
戸谷 彰宏 中島 健一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.84-92, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
19

Our purpose is to examine the affect-free claim in terror management theory. Lambert et al. (2014) reported findings that disconfirm the claim that mortality salience (MS) manipulation does not produce any changes in self-reported affect including negative affect, which is the affect-free claim. As a conceptual replication of their findings, we conducted three studies to examine whether MS manipulation influences self-reported mood. Participants in Study 1 were college students, while Studies 2 and 3 included individuals in their 20s and 50s who were recruited using a web survey. Multiple-choice questions (Studies 1 and 2) and open-ended questions (Study 3) were used as experimental manipulation. Through these three studies, it was shown that MS manipulation elevated negative mood regardless of the experimental manipulation type and participants’ age. In these studies, participants did not demonstrate a cultural worldview defense. Results suggest that we should reconsider the affect-free claim in terror management theory.
著者
垣内 理希
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.54-63, 1996

For nearly three decades, the existence of the physical attractiveness stereotype or the stereotype that physically attractive people have a more socially desirable personality almost has been taken for granted in social psychology. However, the existence of this stereotype is not so evident as is often assumed to be. Results of an experiment reported in this paper demonstrate that the effect of perceived "beauty" of a stimulus person (photographed female) on the subject's evaluation of that person's personality is drastically reduced or even reserved when the degree of subjects' liking of that person is controlled. On one personality dimension, even the reverse stereotype that physically attractive people have a malignant personality was found to exist when subject's liking of the stimulus person is controlled. These and related findings suggest that people assume that physically attractive person has a nice personality not because they have an implicit personality theory connecting physical and mental attractiveness but rather because people simply like an attractive person.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.167-177, 2010

The purposes of this study were to develop an animism scale for adults and to examine the relationship between animistic thinking and the "memorial service for dolls" in terms of voluntary loss. In this study, animism was defined as the tendency to regard inanimate objects as living, and to regard objects in nature as gods. Questionnaires were given to 395 people who had held a memorial service for dolls and 204 people who had not. The results of the factor analysis indicated that this animism scale consisted of three factors: the apotheosis of natural products, the parts of possessors, and the anthropomorphication of possessions. Animism was more prevalent in the following groups of individuals: a) those who held a memorial service for dolls, b) female individuals, and c) younger individuals, that is, individuals aged 39 and under. The third result in particular was discussed in terms of the influences of video games and the media rather than the traditional Japanese polytheistic religion of Shinto. Furthermore, participants were asked about psychological changes after they finished holding a memorial service for dolls. As a result, some people who held a memorial service for dolls felt grief and guilt, although they voluntarily parted with their dolls.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
2

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of neya-ko (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their neya-oya (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the neya custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the neya custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders’ lives, the neya custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.
著者
今在 慶一朗 内山 博之 今在 景子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013

According to traditional corrective education, sincere and emotional interaction is effective in changing prisoners' personalities. However, some recent studies insist that certain psychological operations such as counseling are not effective and occasionally have a negative effect on rehabilitation. In this study, on the other hand, we predicted that keeping public order by treating prisoners with fairness is effective. We asked prisoners to rate staff at their correctional institution, to describe their attitude toward decisions made there, and to give their view of public order in society. We found that fair treatment of prisoners promotes acceptance of investigation results regarding violations or punishments, volition of rehabilitation after release, and internalization of public order. Furthermore, we confirmed that fairness by staff indicates to prisoners that public order within the institution is being maintained.
著者
熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.200-207, 2009

In intergroup conflict a third party sometimes intervenes aggressively into the interactions between the concerned parties, escalating the conflicts. We hypothesized that the third party will become aggressive if they perceive that a fellow member of their group, with whom they strongly identified themselves, is harmed by the other group and that the perception of harm is more definitely determined by unfairness than by the objective severity of the harm. Group identification was manipulated by cooperative ingroup activities. Half of the participants observed that an ingroup fellow member was harmed by an outgroup member based on unfair evaluation, while the others observed that the harm was given based on fair evaluation. They were then given a chance to retaliate against the harm-doer by creating unpleasant noises. The results indicated that both aggressive motivation and behaviors were increased by unfair harm only when participants strongly identified with the ingroup. The group identification did not affect the perception of unfairness. These results suggest that symbolic or psychological harm affects third-party aggression.
著者
道家 瑠見子 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.104-110, 2007

The research into decision-making has shown that people express less regret in a repeating choice than in a switching choice (i.e., the status quo effect). However, recent research has suggested that when a prior experience was negative, less regret was expressed in a switching choice than in a repeating choice (i.e., the reversal of the status quo effect). We conducted a replication using different scenarios to examine the conditions in which those effects would occur. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the valence (positive, negative) of a prior experience and asked the participants to rate how much regret they thought the decision-maker would have felt. As predicted, the status quo effect occurred in the positive-experience condition, and the reversal of it occurred in the negative-experience condition. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the levels of the decision-maker's responsibility. The results suggested that a stronger reversal effect was observed in the high responsibility condition. The limitation and the implication of these findings for regret research are discussed.
著者
小宮 あすか 渡部 幹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.111-117, 2013

Researchers have recently shown that regret functions to lead appropriate behaviors not to repeat the same failure again. Previous studies also argued that emotions have "functions of expression" in addition to such "functions of experience," but how expressing regret functions has not been sufficiently investigated. In the present article, we first reviewed the relations across remorse, guilt, and regret, and then reexamined a hypothesis suggested by Van Kleef et al. (2006) that expressing interpersonal regret signals future behavioral change and interpersonal sensitivity, and thus facilitates the construction of relationships. Supporting our predictions, the results showed that persons who indicated interpersonal regret were more likely to be judged trustworthy and were more desired as partners than persons who did not. We discuss the functions of experiencing and expressing regret.
著者
高林 久美子 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.141-150, 2010
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated how women show prejudice and stereotyping implicitly toward female subgroups. We examined the effects of primed and chronic self-representations on implicit prejudice and implicit stereotyping. We predicted that when self-representation as a traditional woman was more dominant compared to self-representation as a nontraditional woman, participants would regard housewives as more favorable than career women, and would regard the targets as stereotypic. Female participants, who had completed the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitude (SESRA), were asked to picture the future themselves as a career woman or a housewife. Then they engaged in two types of IAT to measure prejudiced responses and stereotypic responses toward female subgroups. We found that participants who were primed with their self-representations as a traditional woman enhanced implicit stereotypic responses toward female subgroups compared to those who were primed with self-representations as a nontraditional woman. We also found that traditionalists (i.e., those with low evaluations in SESRA) implicitly evaluated housewives more favorably than career women and than egalitarians (i.e., those with high evaluations in SESRA). These results suggested that prejudiced responses and stereotypic responses are independent.
著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.36-45, 2010
被引用文献数
2

In this study, we examined crime control in local communities through interpretations mainly from social capital. Using data obtained from a mail survey in an urban area, we investigated the effects of cooperative behaviors promoted by individual-level or macro-level social capital in neighborhoods on the number of respondents' crime victimizations. The results show that the network size of cooperative acquaintances at the individual level promotes the number of respondents' cooperative behaviors. Moreover, having a neighborhood where greeting and standing talking are frequent promotes respondents' cooperative behaviors. It is also suggested that cooperative behaviors aggregated at the macro level have an inhibitory effect on the number of victimizations in terms of "burglaries of the communities."
著者
三浦 麻子 川浦 康至
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.153-160, 2009
被引用文献数
1 2

This study focused on an online knowledge-sharing community, in which information was exchanged and accumulated actively in the community based on the question-and-answer interaction of users. We examined its characteristics by text mining, one of the most effective methods for the content analysis of enormous quantities of text-based data. Based on an analysis of posted questions and answers, the same gender difference as in previous studies on interpersonal communicative discourse was found. Female users tended to post questions and answers related to their interpersonal relationships. Based on an analysis of their perspectives on the community, it was suggested that many users positively evaluated the usefulness of the community and did not hesitate to post questions and answers. These attitudes of users toward the community should lead to their positive evaluation of both the overall community and the communication made there, as pointed out by Miura and Kawaura (2008).
著者
丹波 秀夫 小杉 正太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.116-125, 2006

This study investigated the impact of social skills on the life events experienced by university undergraduates (n=429). Segrin (2001) advocated a social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis which states that social skills reduce the experiences of life events. On the contrary, Tanaka, Yonehara, and Kosugi (2003) showed that social skills increased the experiences of life events, therefore, it may also be possible to posit a social skills surplus stress generation hypothesis. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, in which the explanatory variables were the components of social skills, and criterion variables were the experiences of life events, it was clear that the components of social skills principally influenced the experiences of life events related to interpersonal relationships. Specifically, trouble-shooting skills decreased life event experiences, while communication-skills increased them. Therefore, it is suggested that both of the above hypotheses are based on the influences of the different components of social skills on life event experiences.
著者
伊東 秀章
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.163-171, 1997
被引用文献数
1 9

More people are choosing to remain single in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intention to marry and various psychological factors, using Ajzen & Madden's (1986) theory of planned behavior, which has received the most attention among the models of the attitude-behavior relation. The results show psychological factors such as general attitudes toward marriage, loss of freedom felt by marriage, perceived behavioral control, individualism, and impressions of parents' marital relationships are related to a person's willingness to marry. However, subjective norm and gender-role orientation are not related. In conclusion, more people will remain single because psychological motivation for marriage will decrease.
著者
高木 彩 小森 めぐみ
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.126-134, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
29

This study distinguished between subjective and objective knowledge of scientific technology whose influence on health is yet to be defined, and explored the effect of each type of knowledge on risk perception. A web-based survey among the Japanese population (N=1,110) was conducted. It assessed the subjective and objective knowledge of electromagnetic field (EMF), interest in EMF, risk perception, and trust on the related organizations. The results indicated that respondents’ objective knowledge about EMF was generally poor. Their subjective knowledge and objective knowledge were significantly correlated, but the strength of correlation was moderate. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant subjective×objective knowledge interaction on risk perception. While objective knowledge consistently attenuated risk perception, subjective knowledge boosted risk perception only when respondents’ objective knowledge level was low. The possibility of the potential influence of reputation of EMF on the boosted subjective knowledge about EMF was discussed.