著者
小松 さくら 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.45-49, 2008

The aims of this study were to examine with a Japanese sample the idea that the expectation of slack in the future is larger for time than for money and to examine the relationship between this expectation and optimism as a personality trait. The results showed that Japanese participants estimated slack with regard to both time and money, and it was larger with regard to time than to money, consistent with research done on American samples. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, however, the expectation of slack did not correlate with optimism. The low correlation between the estimated degrees of slack between that with regard to time and that with regard to money suggests that there is no consistent tendency across different resources.
著者
塩崎 麻里子 中里 和弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.211-220, 2010

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between regret over actions taken versus regret over inaction vis-a-vis bereaved family. The focal points of the study were as follows: 1) to explore the nature of unreversed regret in the bereaved; 2) to examine the association between the number and intensity of regrets and mental health and grief; and 3) to examine the effect of action and inaction on mental health and grief. Using a mail-in questionnaire, we surveyed and analyzed the results of 89 bereaved respondents. The results showed that participants had more lifetime regrets over inaction than over action taken. The number and intensity of regrets also correlated with mental health and grief. Bereaved participants who expressed regret over inaction had poorer mental health and stronger feelings of grief than those with no regrets over inaction. We discuss the implications of unreversed regret and examine regret prevention for the bereaved.
著者
高田 奈緒美 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.208-218, 2009

In distinguishing internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior, we attempted to identify different motives for these two modes of forgiveness and to examine the effects of interpersonal relationships with offenders and the motives behind forgiveness. Participants recalled personal episodes in which someone hurt them and rated the episodes in terms of the closeness between them and the offender, forgiveness, and the motives for forgiveness. A factor analysis of the motives produced 6 dimensions: need for acceptance, maintenance of relationship, pervasiveness of negative event, maintenance of social harmony, non-commitment, and consideration. We regarded consideration and pervasiveness of negative events as altruistic and the others as egocentric motives. Noncommitment did not correlate with either forgiveness or forgiving behavior. Need for acceptance correlated only with forgiving behavior. Other motives were positively correlated with both internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior. Our results showed that the maintenance of a relationship was highest in conflicts with high-close others. They also showed that need for acceptance, pervasiveness of a negative event, and maintenance of social harmony were higher in conflict with high-close and middle-close others than with low-close others.
著者
児玉 真樹子 深田 博己
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.1-12, 2010

This study examined the effects of three types of mentoring, such as career mentoring, childcare mentoring, and double-roles mentoring, on the working intentions of regular female employees rearing children. In addition, it also examined the effects of work-family conflict and vocational identity as mediators. Survey data from 247 regular female employees whose youngest child was less than 16 years old were used. The results showed the following: (a) double-roles mentoring directly promoted working intention, and (b) career mentoring promoted vocational identity formation directly, and the degree of vocational identity formation positively influenced working intention.
著者
小城 英子 坂田 浩之 川上 正浩
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.246-258, 2008

The purpose of this study was to construct a scale for comprehensive attitudes towards paranormal phenomena which would contain cognition and affect, and to analyze clusters of university students. Undergraduates (N=699) completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards paranormal phenomena and a number of other individual characteristics including the Big Five. The responses were analyzed by factor analysis, and as a result, six factors were extracted: "Inclination towards Augury and Magic," "Belief in Spirituality," "Enjoyment of Paranormal Phenomena," "Skepticism," "Fear of Paranormal Phenomena," and "Spiritual Experience and Belief." Based on these factors, six subscales were composed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by the correlation with other individual characteristics. Using cluster analysis, participants were divided into four types: an "Ordinary Group," a "Group Believing in Paranormal Phenomena," a "Group Believing in Science," and a "Group Enjoying Paranormal Phenomena."
著者
荒川 歩 村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.85-97, 2006

We investigated why people own lucky charms. One hundred ninety-eight students answered our questionnaire. The results showed that ownership of lucky charms is not entirely related to the desire to connect to a transcendental power; people have lucky charms because they have received them as gifts from family and friends; family and friends give lucky charms when they cannot provide other forms of support directly; the gift of a charm is usually from an older person to a younger person; the relationship between the donor and the recipient affects the type of charm given. These results suggest that donors may give lucky charms to allay their anxiety, and that lucky charms act as a reminder of the donor's support of the recipient in times of trouble.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.139-154, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study was conducted in order to examine effects of early adult attachment styles on exclusivity of romantic relationships. Two hundred fifty seven undergraduates participated in Study 1, which examined how early adult attachment styles influence one's "sense of exclusivity" and "expressions of the sense of exclusivity," from the perspective of attachment dimensions. Results showed that, the higher the level of anxiety was, the more regularly a "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. Furthermore, the higher the level of avoidance was, the lower the "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. In addition, participants with high avoidance were less likely to express their "sense of exclusivity." In Study 2, participants were limited to 104 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships. Exclusivity of romantic relationships as a function of early adult attachment styles was examined with the construction of causal models as follows: first, two dimensions of early adult attachment, second, feelings of discomfort when a third person intervenes in the romantic relationships, and, lastly, coping behaviors for feelings of discomfort. Results revealed that anxiety increased the frequency of lingering/sadness, while avoidance reduced the frequency of these feelings. Moreover, results indicated that avoidance caused a higher tendency to resort to destructive coping behaviors and a lower tendency towards selecting constructive coping behaviors, such as "voice." These results are discussed in terms of the relations between early attachment styles, emotional experiences, and destructive behaviors in romantic relationships.
著者
古谷 嘉一郎 坂田 桐子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.72-84, 2006
被引用文献数
1 5

In this research, we considered in what way face-to-face, mobile phone, and Short Message Service (SMS) modes of communication are associated with the relationship satisfaction of samesex friends. Specifically, from a media and content suitability perspective, we investigated 9 modes of communication, 3 media (face-to-face, mobile phone, and SMS)×3 types of content (task, emotional, and consummatory), and their association to relationship satisfaction. The results showed that relationship satisfaction and mode of communication were different for friendships where the partners were physically near each other and could see each other face to face even daily (short-distance friendship) and friendships where partners were physically separated and could only rarely meet face to face (long-distance friendship). Primarily, for short-distance friendships, a positive relation was observed for face-to-face consummatory communication and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, for long-distance friendships, SMS consummatory communication had a positive relationship with relationship satisfaction. We looked at these results from interpersonal research and communication research perspectives.
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 山形 伸二 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.188-201, 2011

Factors contributing to individual differences of empathy were examined using behavioral genetics methodology. Data related to individual levels of empathy and parental warmth received during childhood were collected from approximately 450 pairs of twins (ages 14-33). A bivariate model analysis clarified that shared family environmental factors did not contribute to the formation of empathy. No common shared environmental factors were detected between empathy and parental warmth, either. The positive correlation between the two variables was mediated principally by genetics. The result does not support socialization theory, which holds that warm parenting nurtures children's empathy. However, the subsequent gene-environment interaction model analysis revealed that shared family environmental factors significantly affected the formation of empathy for those with high or very low parental warmth. The results imply that individuals with a strong or very weak attachment to their parents were more influenced by the shared family environment.
著者
野寺 綾 唐沢 かおり 沼崎 誠 高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.195-201, 2007

The purpose of this study is to examine the promoting effect of a fear of death on the activation of gender role stereotypes. Terror management theory proposes that when mortality is salient, people heighten the tendency to support their cultural worldview. Since stereotypes are considered to represent cultural worldview, a fear of death should increase the responses consistent with the stereotype. In this study, the activation of stereotypes regarding gender roles (e.g., "Housekeeping is a job for women.") was measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were 48 male undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that the participants who completed the questionnaire implying mortality had a larger IAT effect than those who completed the questionnaire unrelated to mortality, and that death-related anxiety led to the activation of gender role stereotypes. It is claimed that terror management theory has theoretical value for studies on stereotype activation, as well as a function in justifying a system such as gender role in stereotype activation.
著者
唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.172-179, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study explored the determinants of intent of primary caregivers to continue taking care of elderly family members. The exploration was guided by two previous lines of study, one arguing the additive effect of positive and negative aspects of caregiving, and the other arguing the effect of attitude towards family caregiving. Four hundred and forty-five family caregivers answered questions relating to depression, caregiving intent, attitude towards family caregiving, and positive and negative aspects of caregiving. Structural equation modeling revealed that attitude to wards family caregiving increased both depression and intent to continue family caregiving. It is argued that when constructing a support system for family caregivers one must consider the possibility of family members being trapped by their attitude towards family care.
著者
赤澤 淳子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.147-159, 2005
被引用文献数
2

The effects of variables of the social exchange model for gender role division on satisfaction level in a marital relationship and sense of fulfillment were analyzed based on the data of 236 couples, whose children's average ages were 18 or younger. The major findings are as follows. 1) It is suggested that a husband's egalitarianism in terms of gender roles enhances his commitment to housework. 2) The higher a wife's income, the greater is her husband's commitment to housework. 3) Except for perceptions of comparison level, satisfaction in a marriage is highly dependent on a husband's perception of the other's-outcome (efforts and accomplishments), and a wife's perception of the other's-outcome, together with her own achievements in housework. 4) In addition to comparison level for alternatives in both husbands and wives, a husband's perceptions of self-input and the other's-outcome in an income-generating job, and a wife's perception of the other's-outcome and her own achievements in housework affect the sense of fulfillment. Such differences are thought to be caused by differences in the quality of labor that occur in gender role division.
著者
大久保 暢俊 下田 俊介 鷹阪 龍太 山田 一成
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.156-163, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
21

The purpose of this study is to investigate consumer attitudes towards shopping in Japan. Factor analyses of data by 1,286 nonprobability online panels in a Web survey (in 2014) confirmed a hypothesized two-factor structure (the hedonic and utilitarian), but although the hedonic subscale had enough internal consistency, the utilitarian subscale had relatively low internal consistency. The correlations of the scores on consumer attitudes towards shopping with other measures, such as bargain orientation, impulsive buying tendency, and frugality, provided support for the criterion validity of each subscale. In many cases, these relationships were not affected by variables such as gender, life stage, and household income. Implications for the two-dimensional model of Japanese consumer attitudes towards shopping are discussed.
著者
高木 彩 小森 めぐみ
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.126-134, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
29

This study distinguished between subjective and objective knowledge of scientific technology whose influence on health is yet to be defined, and explored the effect of each type of knowledge on risk perception. A web-based survey among the Japanese population (N=1,110) was conducted. It assessed the subjective and objective knowledge of electromagnetic field (EMF), interest in EMF, risk perception, and trust on the related organizations. The results indicated that respondents’ objective knowledge about EMF was generally poor. Their subjective knowledge and objective knowledge were significantly correlated, but the strength of correlation was moderate. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant subjective×objective knowledge interaction on risk perception. While objective knowledge consistently attenuated risk perception, subjective knowledge boosted risk perception only when respondents’ objective knowledge level was low. The possibility of the potential influence of reputation of EMF on the boosted subjective knowledge about EMF was discussed.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-132, 2009-11-30 (Released:2017-02-20)
被引用文献数
3

The relationship of Internet behavior to sociability and aggression in real life was investigated in a web-based survey. Weblog users (n=395) and online-game users (n=206) were asked to respond to questionnaires that included their behavior on the Internet, as well as to scales that measured real-life sociability, aggression, and social isolation. Results indicated that Self-reflection on weblogs and Feeling of Belonging during online-games related to enhancement of sociability. By contrast, Internet behavior such as flaming, as well as immersive and addictive use, related to decrease of sociability and increase of aggression regardless of the type of application that was used. These findings suggest that the effects of weblogs and online-games use depend on the type of behavior, as well as the types of application, that are used. It is also suggested that social isolation in real life decreased sociability through immersive and addictive use, and increased aggression through flaming.
著者
豊沢 純子 竹橋 洋毅
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.200-209, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
16

This study examined the relationship between speed and accuracy in police calls for service, verbal behavior (listener, communicator), and communication structure (adjacency pairs, turn-taking). Forty participants were randomly assigned to either the role of reporter or police officer, and asked to communicate based on a scenario of snatching by using the mobile phone. The results showed that verbal behavior were positively correlated with accuracy and negatively correlated with speed. Communication structure were positively correlated with accuracy and not correlated with speed. However, adjacency pairs were positively related with speed accuracy. The way of intervention to facilitate forming adjacency pairs was discussed.
著者
沼崎 誠 小口 孝司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.42-49, 1990

The present study tried to make a Japanese self-handicapping scale and examined the scale to measure the individual differences in self-handicapping behavior. Subjects were 428 university students. In Study 1, the self-handicapping scale (Jones et al., 1986) was translated into Japanese. The self-handicapping scale was analyzed, its items and structure were checked for reliability, and so on. As a result "SH23" that consists of 23 items was made "SH23" was negatively correlated with self-esteem scales as predicted. In Study 2, the predictive validity was confirmed. Also two factors that are the "can't" factor and the "wouldn't" factor which were extracted in Study 1 were contributed independently to predict self-handicapping behaviors.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1602, (Released:2018-06-15)
参考文献数
27

In this study, a hoarding tendency is defined as a trait whereby many possessions are saved and cannot be discarded because of their subjective meaning. For this study, an internet-survey of non-clinical individuals was conducted. First, the effects of age and gender on expression of hoarding were investigated. Next, as the main purpose of this study, the causal relationships between hoarding tendencies and various problems that hoarding causes were investigated. Four hundred and fifty-three participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings were as follows: 1) Females and people in their 30s significantly tended to hoard possessions. 2) The results of analysis indicated that hoarding caused mental problems, economic problems, social problems, and functional problems. In addition, a covariance structure analysis for the proposed model suggested that excessive attachment to possessions, such as “avoidance of discarding possessions” and “extended self,” caused an excessive build-up of items in the home, and these functional problems resulted in the above-mentioned problems. 3) Furthermore, the results of multi-sample simultaneous analysis indicated that the causal model for participants in their 60s was greatly different from that of other age groups. That model revealed that people in their 60s did not hesitate to throw belongings away and did not have the various problems that hoarding causes.