著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.108-120, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
40

This study was conducted to examine a model in which the relationships between adult attachment dimensions as beliefs and expectations about self and others and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by social images. A Social Image Scale was developed in a pilot study and Study 1. Participants in Study 2 comprised 571 undergraduates, 590 late-adolescent workers, and 397 early-adult workers. The results showed that there were mean differences on several variables among these three groups. However, correlational analysis revealed that anxiety and avoidance were significantly negatively related to goal-directedness and hopefulness in all three groups. Moreover, the results of a multiple-group analysis of the model revealed that the relationships between anxiety and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by negative social images, and the relationships between avoidance and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by positive and negative social images in the three groups.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.25-34, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
37

It has been consistently demonstrated that self-threat induces automatic prejudice. The present study investigated whether men would not exhibit automatic prejudice even in the self-threat condition if the gender category was not salient. We manipulated the salience of the gender category and the threat to self-worth, and then measured automatic gender prejudice with an evaluative priming task. Our results showed that when the gender category was salient, men in the self-threat condition automatically inhibited activation of positive concepts by the woman prime compared with those in the non-threat condition. In contrast, such an effect did not emerge when the gender category was not salient. Hence, when the salience of the ingroup–outgroup category is decreased, men do not exhibit automatic prejudice even under self-threat.
著者
今在 慶一朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.169-179, 2013

As a result of decentralization, the role which local municipalities fill in Japanese administration has become still more important. In this research, the relationship between the perceived fairness of decision-making by municipalities and people's attitudes to the region was examined. According to conventional studies on procedural justice, it has been confirmed that people use group authority as a cue to the fairness of decision-making and their attachments to the group are strengthened according to that perceived fairness. We conducted a questionnaire survey of residents in Sapporo and confirmed that city personnel tend to become a psychological factor in the perceived fairness of municipal administration. In addition, we confirmed that people in a low-income bracket tend to strengthen their attachments to their region through perceived fairness and to hold optimistic prospects concerning their livelihood.
著者
福島 治 岩崎 浩三 青木 慎一郎 菊池 潤考
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.1-11, 2006

この論文は「親の自己愛と子への攻撃 : 自己の不遇を子に帰すとき」(「社会心理学研究」22巻1号, p1-11, 2006.8)を英訳したものであるNarcissists are more likely than non-narcissists to attack a person who threatens their self-evaluation, because of the vulnerability of the self-evaluation (Baumeister, Smart, & Borden, 1996). Based on this model, it was hypothesized that those parents who are more narcissistic would more commit aggressive acts toward their children in cases where they intensely attribute to the child interference with their own ability to demonstrate their work performance (i.e., their self-esteem feels threatened). A hierarchical regression analysis of the self-report data from 626 sampled parents supported the hypothesis: among high attribution (i.e., highly blaming) parents, the more narcissistic reported more aggressive acts toward their children; in contrast, among the middle or the low attribution parents, narcissism did not significantly correlate with reported aggressive acts. The moderator effects of attribution on narcissists' aggression toward their children were discussed.
著者
小俣 謙二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.1-10, 2013

The present study aimed to examine the possibility that the reputation of a rape victim and the prejudice that women desire violent sex interactively influence third party bystanders' blame of the victim and assessment of psychological damage suffered by the victim. College students (n=399; 177 men, 222 women) responded to a questionnaire. Respectability was defined as follows: less respectable victims were part-time cabaret hostesses and the average respectable victims were average female students. Results indicated that less respectable victims were blamed more and assessed as having suffered less damage in comparison to the average student victims. In addition, there was an interaction between respectability and respondents' prejudices about the sexual desires of women, such that the effect of respectability on blaming the victim was limited to respondents with fewer prejudices about the sexual desires of women.
著者
原田 知佳 土屋 耕治 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.32-39, 2013

This study investigated the effect of high-level/low-level construals and deliberative/implemental mindsets on self-regulation within social settings. High- vs. low-level construals (Study 1, n=97) or deliberative vs. implemental mindsets(Study 2, n=95) were induced in participants, using previously validated priming procedures. They were then asked to complete measures about the "value" and "cost" of the behavior, "negative evaluation of temptations," and "behavioral intention" in each conflict scenario in which social self-regulation ability was required (self-assertiveness, patience, and emotion/desire inhibition scenes in social settings). The results of Study 1 showed that participants in whom high-level construals were activated had higher primary behavioral value ratings, lower evaluation of behavioral cost, and stronger intentions than their counterparts with low-level construals. No difference in negative evaluations of temptation was found. In Study 2, mindsets had no effect on the evaluation of behavior. These results indicated that the activation of high-level construals contributes to self-regulation in the context of social conflict, while deliberative/implemental mindsets had no effect on conflict behaviors within social settings.
著者
川嶋 伸佳 大渕 憲一 熊谷 智博 浅井 暢子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.63-74, 2012

Although public concern about social inequality has increased, Japanese people generally do not appear to be actively engaged in activities for social reform. We hypothesized multiple levels in the perception of unfairness-micro-unfairness based on personal experiences and macro-unfairness based on evaluation toward the whole of society-and predicted that micro-unfairness would lead to more protests compared to macrounfairness (H1). We also hypothesized that three psychological variables-immutability belief, low social efficacy, and estimated costs of social changes-would regulate the positive relationship between multiple levels of perceptions of unfairness and protests (H2). The results of the social survey held in Japan in 2009 (n = 1398) not only supported H1 but found that the effects of micro-unfairness on protests varied depending on the strength of macro-unfairness. In addition, the results of immutability belief and the estimated costs of social changes basically supported H2, but the results of low social efficacy did not.
著者
野波 寛 加藤 潤三
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.1-12, 2012

The present study defined legitimacy as approvability of others' or one's own rights to participate in managing commons and proposed two kind of determinants, institutional substance as a reference frame based on such matters as regal norms and perceived substance founded on a subjective estimation of others' or one's own desirability and the like. When an actor's rights to manage commons are established by legality as institutional substance, people will recognize their rights to be structured as a low variability. Therefore, their cognitive process for considering the grounds of the actor's rights besides legality will be disturbed. In this case, it is hypothesized that it becomes difficult for perceived substance such as trustworthiness to act as a determinant of legitimacy as a result of inhibition to attention. To examine the interference effects of institutional substance on perceived substance, a research survey was conducted to measure the evaluations of actors who participate in making policies for the prevention of red-clay flow at Onna village in the islands of Okinawa. The results indicated that the trustworthiness of actors promoted legitimacy when their legality was evaluated as low. We offer a theoretical discussion on the legitimacy of rights and its determinants around the management of commons.
著者
渡辺 舞 今川 民雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.31-40, 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate if participants changed their best friend or not over a three-month period after they entered university. The second purpose was to clarify how the pattern of selection of their best friend influenced the indices of interaction with friends among three points in time. Participants numbered 304 freshmen (131 male and 173 female students). They were administered a questionnaire on 3 occasions. According to the results, 44.4% of participants did not change their best friend during the 3 months. However, 55.6% of participants changed their best friend once or twice. These results showed the occurrence of early differentiation of relatedness in relationship development. On the other hand, these results also suggested that the reason why the relationship developed could not be explained only by the early differentiation of relatedness.
著者
上原 俊介 中川 知宏 森 丈弓 清水 かな子 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.161-173, 2012

A core relational norm regulating social interaction is the idea of responsibility for needs (RN). Assuming that anger is a signal indicating a violation of RN, we attempted to test the mediation model that the perception that one's needs are frustrated by a close other (romantic partner) would generate a perceived RN violation, which in turn would increase anger. Further, we attempted to examine whether mediation also works in relationships with friends. In a role-taking study providing participants with a series of scenarios depicting the other (either romantic partner, friend, or mere acquaintance) as responding or not responding to one's needs, we asked them to rate the intensity of anger and the perceived RN violation. The results showed that in the romantic partner condition, the frustration increased the perception of RN violation, which in turn intensified anger. Further, this mediation was also confirmed in the friend condition, suggesting that RN also operates within friend relationships.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.53-60, 2009

The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is known as a useful measure of implicit attitude. Recent study had shown that the features of the stimulus items influence the IAT effects (Bluemske & Friese, 2006; Govan & Williams, 2004). We tested whether the stereotypic stimulus items would influence the effects of a gender attitude IAT. Study 1 preliminarily showed that female participants exhibit strong implicit ingroup biases related to gender, but male participant do not. Study 2 showed that the effects of gender attitude IATs were moderated by the stereotypicality of the stimulus items. This study demonstrated that the effects of gender attitude IATs in which stereotypic items were used reflect the effects of gender attitudes and gender stereotyping.
著者
村山 陽
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.1-10, 2009

This study aimed to investigate the effect of exchanges with aged persons on children. In all, 381 upper graders at an elementary school completed the questionnaires. The nature of an exchange with aged persons was measured by the interaction frequency and the diversity of interaction with the aged persons. The results indicated that the effect of the exchange with the aged person was determined by physical proximity, the attribution of the aged person, and the gender of the child. At the same time, these exchanges influenced the development of emotional responses, interpersonal perceptions, and behaviors. For example, the lengths of exchange and the diversity of conversations with aged persons affected the empathy of children, which in turn influenced their helpfulness toward the aged persons. It highlighted the efficacy of intergenerational exchange for children of the present generation who have no contact with aged persons in daily life.
著者
村上 幸史 荒川 歩
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.233-248, 2009

Arakawa & Murakami (2006) reported that some people keep "lucky charms" not because they have faith in them, but because the lucky charms were gifts from people close to them. This indicates that lucky charms are used as a communication tool, through gift-giving, rather than as goods. To examine why lucky charms are given between parents and children, 89 pairs (students and their parents, the relatives who most commonly give lucky charms) completed questionnaires. The results showed that parents gave children lucky charms more often than vice versa. The lucky charms were given by parents to their children as a token to ward off danger or for luck in an exam. The parents thereby sought to reduce their own anxiety, as well as that of the children, and to relay the message that they were supportive as the child grew up. In addition, the children sometimes looked at the lucky charm and were reminded of their parents. It is clear from these results that, despite there being a difference of understanding in the purpose of the gift between the giver and the receiver, gift giving results in the mutual extraction of meaning from the act. The result is discussed in terms of "goods-mediated communication" through gift-giving, focusing on this ambiguity.
著者
松井 豊 山本 真理子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.9-14, 1985

Male students differing in the degree of their self-esteem rated the impressions of ten female photographs and made a choice of their dating partner. The rating scales included 19 personality and appearance traits, liking scales, and the subjects' fear of rejection. Four factors emerged as a result of a factor analysis of the 19 personality and appearance traits: homeliness, physical attractiveness, liveliness, and individuality. The findings were as follows : (a) liking for females was not only determined by their physical attractiveness but also by their homeliness ; (b) subject's self-esteem did not influence whom they choose as his date ; (c) liking of the high self-esteem subjects (HSE) were influenced more strongly by the physical attractiveness of the female than the low self-esteem subjects (LSE); (d) only the LSE was attracted more to females with high individuality; (e) LSE's liking score was strongly influenced by fear-of-rejection score. These findings suggest that the matching hypothesis should take into account factors other than physical attractiveness, i.e. desirable personality traits judged from the appearance of the other sex and also the self-esteem of the subject.
著者
竹橋 洋毅 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.50-57, 2008

Guided by the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective feeling of affect and the automatic processing of affective information. After the manipulation of goal framing (promotion focus vs. prevention focus), 32 participants were asked to indicate their affective state and to engage in a modified Stroop task. Results indicated that goal framing did not influence subjective feeling but influenced the speed of color naming in the Stroop task; participants in the prevention condition responded more slowly toward loss-related words (quiescence and agitation) than gain-related words (cheerfulness and dejection), whereas participants in the promotion condition responded toward gain-related words as slowly as toward loss-related words. These results suggest that goal framing heightens the activation of particular affective representations and the activations influence performance on a Stroop task automatically. The effects of automatic processing of affective information on subjective feeling and the process of self-regulation are discussed.
著者
高橋 尚也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.97-108, 2010

In Japan, activities to prevent crime by citizens have been encouraged, but are not developing well. Two studies were carried out to examine factors regulating citizen participation in activities to prevent crime in Edogawa ward. In a survey interview of 15 leaders of activity to prevent crime (Study 1), it was suggested that attachment to city, attitude towards activities to prevent crime, indirect support from administration, and mutually beneficial relations with administration led to development of these activities. In a survey of 141 randomly sampled adults (Study 2), people who participated in activities to prevent crime accounted for 14.2% of the total. Among men, participation was determined by the number of organizational affiliations in the community. Intention to participate was promoted by advanced age and high levels of political interest. In women, participation was determined by youth, number of schoolchildren in the family, and communication with neighbors. Intention to participate was restrained by low levels of political interest and absence of high-school children in the family. Implications for activities to prevent crime were discussed from the viewpoint of gender and benefit from activity.
著者
中西 大輔 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.193-199, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
23

Using evolutionary simulation, Yokota and Nakanishi (2012) have shown that majority syncing (generalized tit-for-tat strategy) is an adaptive strategy in intergroup conflict situations. When intergroup conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and ensure their behavior conforms to other members’ cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. This finding is supported by multi-group selection theory and by cultural group selection theory. However, this model addresses only majority-syncing as a social influence strategy. The current study introduced a minority-syncing strategy to Yokota and Nakanishi’s (2012) model. There were four conditions: Majority-syncing (agents conformed to the majority, but not to the minority), no conformity (agents did not conform), minority-syncing (agents conformed to the minority, but not to the majority), and mixed (both majority- and minority-syncing strategies were used). Computer simulation revealed that the cooperation rate decreased when minority-syncing was introduced. The cooperation rate of the no-conformity condition was higher than of both the minority and the mixed conditions. We discuss the implications of minority-syncing.
著者
中谷内 一也 Cvetkovich George
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.259-268, 2008
被引用文献数
2

The degree of trust in risk managers heavily influences the public's acceptance of new technologies. The present study examined factors affecting public trust in risk managers, integrating the salient value similarity (SVS) model and the traditional view of trust. A thousand residents in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures participated in a survey that investigated public trust in the government offices responsible for the decision to approve a genetically modified rice that claims to inhibit pollen allergies. In the high interest group, giving moral meaning to the outcomes of the decision was found to be a powerful predictor of trust. Perceived agreement in values between individuals and the regulators was also found to influence trust in decisions, as predicted by the SVS model. On the other hand, as expected with the traditional perspective on trust, a perception of procedural competency and a belief in the fairness of the risk managers were found to be powerful predictors of trust in the low interest group. Implications of these results for the practice of risk management were discussed.
著者
江利川 滋 山田 一成 川端 美樹 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.267-273, 2007
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affinity for television and its viewing. Data was based on a random sample of 682 people in the Tokyo metropolitan area, with a 65.0 percent response rate. Study 1 developed a Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), confirmed its reliability and validity, and found that the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors. Study 2 showed that affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned viewing and non-concentrated television viewing. In addition, Study 2 found that viewing of entertainment programs was positively correlated to TAS score, while news program viewing was not. These results were consistent with the finding of Rubin (1984) that TAS is positively correlated with ritualized television viewing and not with instrumental viewing.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.274-284, 2007

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between early adult attachment styles, self-perceptions and other's-perceptions (participants' impressions from their close friends) in friendships, and also to examine the effects of attachment styles and discrepancies between participants and their friends in terms of self-perceptions on evaluations of their relationships. Participants, 210 undergraduates, were asked to pair with their same-sex close friend in class and answered several questions. Results showed that "avoidance" attachment dimension was generally negatively related to positive self-perceptions in friendships. Also, similar tendencies were obtained on other's-perceptions. Moreover, the discrepancies between participants and their friends in terms of evaluations of their relationships increased as "avoidance" dimension increased. These results suggest that "avoidance" dimension is related to low levels of adjustment in the friendships. In addition, the discrepancies between self-perceptions of "sociability" were positively and those of "attractiveness" were negatively related to the discrepancies between evaluations of relationships.