著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1708, (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
27

The present study examined how leaders’ evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their “implicit theories” (e.g., Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member’s performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member’s next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.
著者
渡邊 寛 城間 益里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.162-175, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
56

There has been an increase in the number of Japanese people who disagree with traditional gender roles which has resulted in diversified male roles. Based on a nine-male-roles model, this study examined the chronological changes and differences in male characters as per their ages and relationships with the heroine in NHK’s morning drama serials known as “asadora,” which is a Japanese TV drama. Results indicated that the roles of middle-aged men evolved from “high communion” in the ’60s and ’70s, to “high social status” in the ’80s and ’90s, to “commitment to household responsibility” in the ’00s and ’10s. Meanwhile, young men’s roles evolved from “high agency” in the ’90s to “attentiveness to women” in the ’10s. Additionally, the heroines’ husbands, ex-husbands, male friends, and romantic partners demonstrated “low effeminacy,” “superiority to women,” and “attentiveness to women.” Conversely, the heroines’ brothers, sons, and neighbors demonstrated “psychological and physical strength” and “emancipation from emotional restriction and toughness.” Based on social changes in Japan, implications of this study and future prospects were discussed.
著者
佐藤 有紀 五十嵐 祐
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.93-100, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
37

This study investigated the effect of a player’s regulatory focus on his/her preference for cooperation and prosociality in a social dilemma situation. After the manipulation of regulatory focus, participants chose cooperation (remaining silent) or defection (betrayal) in simultaneous and sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) tasks based on a traditional scenario of prison sentence rewards. Participants in the prevention focus condition showed more defection than did those in the promotion focus and the control conditions. In the sequential PD task, a greater number of participants in the prevention focus condition used an egoistic strategy (i.e., consistent defection) as the second movers than did those in the promotion focus and the control conditions, who tended to use a conditional cooperation strategy. These findings suggest that prevention-focused players show a less strong preference for cooperation and behave more selfishly when the pay-off matrix is loss-framed.
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999-12-20 (Released:2016-12-15)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
田中 堅一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.13-26, 2000-07-25 (Released:2016-12-20)

The purpose of the study was to create a Japanese version of Pryor (1987) "Likelihood to Sexual Harassment scale" (LSH scale) and to assess its reliability and determinants. The scale meas ures differences among individuals regarding their likelihood of carrying out sexual harassment. Japanese male undergraduate students (N=192) completed questionnaires on the LSH scale and sexual attitudes (i.e., sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence). The results of principal component analysis and alpha coefficients showed the high reliability of the scale. Japanese male participants who had hostile attitudes to women produced high scores of the LSH scale. In addition, the LSH scores were higher in male participants who evaluated as trivial, rather than severe, behaviors that considered as sexual harassment in Japan and who anticipated sexual attraction to be women's sex role.
著者
及川 昌典 及川 晴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.40-46, 2013-08-31 (Released:2017-02-24)

The role of emotional suppression and expression in the affective priming effect was addressed by examining the consequences of expressing one's emotions toward the primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP: Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). Consistent with previous findings, pleasant or unpleasant picture primes influenced subsequent evaluations of unrelated neutral targets, despite blatant warning to ignore the primes. Interestingly, however, the affective priming effect disappeared when participants expressed their affective responses toward the primes. Moreover, the effect of negative emotional expression was moderated by individual differences in self-rumination. These findings suggest that an affective priming effect ensues when affect is kept unexpressed.
著者
高 史明 雨宮 有里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.67-76, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1

It has been shown that with regard to Blacks in the US, in addition to old-fashioned racism (a traditional and blatant form of racism), modern racism (a more subtle form, where one denies racism but nevertheless holds negative affect and belief against Blacks) has appeared in the post-Civil Rights Movement era (McConahay, 1986). Using the questionnaire method and exploratory factor analysis for Japanese college students, the present article revealed that this distinction between the two forms of racism is useful to describe racism against Zainichi Koreans (Korean residents in Japan). Furthermore, the present research investigated the consequences and underlying factors of the two forms of racism. Racism intensified contradictory discontent against Zainichi Koreans simultaneously, and had expected effects on the estimation of the number of Zainichi Koreans per unit of a certain kind of worker and people on social welfare in Japan. Protestant work ethics (Mirels & Garrett, 1971) intensified and humanitarianism-egalitarianism (Katz & Hass, 1988) weakened the two forms of racism. Implications of these findings were discussed.
著者
吉田 綾乃 浦 光博 黒川 正流
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.144-151, 2004

In this study, the authors have paid attention to people's reactions to others' self-derogative presentation. Study 1 indicated that people have the script that a self-derogative presentation would elicit a denial response, such as "I don't think so," from the receivers. Moreover, it was also suggested that the derogator has the tendency to believe that the receiver's reaction has an effect of either maintaining or enhancing self-evaluation. Study 2 suggested that the Japanese would make self-derogative presentations, not only on the basis of interpersonal motivations, but also on the basis of self-affirmative motivations. The necessity of examining the details of the effects of self-derogation and the receivers' reactions was discussed.
著者
横山 智哉 稲葉 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.92-103, 2016-11-30 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
1

Recent studies find that political talk influences political participation. However, as of yet, there has been no clear demonstration of how political talk translates into increased political participation. This study proposes a bridging effect, which reduces the perceived psychological distance between citizens and politics. In order to test this explanation, we collected panel data on an online national volunteer sample in November 2012 and January 2013. Findings suggest that the direct relationship between political talk and participation in governmental politics may be mediated through perceived psychological distance to politics. These findings support the bridging effect explanation.
著者
山岸 みどり 小杉 素子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.33-42, 1996-08-15 (Released:2016-12-06)
被引用文献数
2

A new method of detecting and controlling for acquiescence response biases in questionnaire studies was developed and applied to a cross-national survey data on trust collected by Yamagishi & Yamagishi (1994). Instead of including a set of balanced items or a large number of mutually unrelated questions as was common in conventional methods for assessing acquiesence, the proposed method uses multiple, mutually independent sets of items selected based on a principal component analysis. A relatively high correlation (r=.56) between two independent indices of acquiescence (obtained from two independent sets of items) suggests validity of the proposed method. No statistically significant differences in acquiescence were found between American and Japanese respondents suggesting that the results of Yamagishi & Yamagishi's results were not due to crossnational differences in acquiescence responses.
著者
林 直保子 神 信人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.33-43, 1993-01-22 (Released:2016-12-01)

The main purpose of this study was to examine how the existence of multiple Prisoner's Dilemma relations among group members affects their choices in each PD relation. Twenty-eight computer simulated actors were used to simulate group members. Each simulated-actor had two kinds of strategies: (1) designation strategy (i.e., strategy to determine whom to choose as a game partner), and (2) behavior strategy (i.e., strategy to determine when to cooperate and when to defect). The simulation involved four designation strategies, and seven behavior strategies. Five of behavior strategies were variants of the tit-for tat strategy, said to be most effective in iterated 2-person PD games. Results of the simulation indicate that: (1) the designation strategy has a greater influence on the simulated-actor' total score than the behavior strategy; (2) effectiveness of the behavior strategy changes depending on the designation strategy adopted; (3) the relationship between disignation and behavior strategies mentioned above depends on the nature of the pay-off matrix used in each game played along the PD network.
著者
宮川 裕基 谷口 淳一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1630, (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
38

This research explored whether self-compassion buffers people against perceived threat in the face of job rejection and enables them to invest their internal resources in job hunting again. It also examined whether intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting moderates the relation of self-compassion to the reinvestment of resources. In Study 1, a total of 153 Japanese undergraduates responded to a hypothetical scene about being rejected at a job interview for a sought-after company. Results indicated that self-compassion was negatively related to perceived threat and that the positive relation of self-compassion to resource reinvestment in job hunting was significant only among those high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting. In Study 2, a total of 50 job-hunting students recalled their own job rejections and reported on how they had coped with them. Results replicated the main findings of Study 1, indicating that self-compassionate people are less likely to overestimate threat from their rejection and that they are more likely to reinvest their internal resources in job hunting when they are high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward it.
著者
田村 美恵
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.26-33, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
21

The present study examined how the meta-stereotype information presented by outgroup members affects intergroup attitudes, as well as ingroup members’ perceptions of their group. Participants were given either positive or negative meta-stereotype information, which could be either consistent or inconsistent with their own self-views (ingroup stereotypes). As predicted, those provided with positive meta-stereotype information rated outgroup members favorably. Moreover, they regarded their own group more positively when the positive meta-stereotype information was inconsistent with ingroup stereotypes. On the other hand, participants presented with negative meta-stereotype information regarded the outgroup members unfavorably. This tendency was salient when the meta-stereotype information was incongruent with ingroup stereotypes. Negative meta-stereotypes information, however, did not influence the ingroup members’ perception of their own group. We discussed the impact of meta-stereotype information on intergroup relations, as well as the direction of further research.
著者
小宮 あすか 渡部 幹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.111-117, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)

Researchers have recently shown that regret functions to lead appropriate behaviors not to repeat the same failure again. Previous studies also argued that emotions have "functions of expression" in addition to such "functions of experience," but how expressing regret functions has not been sufficiently investigated. In the present article, we first reviewed the relations across remorse, guilt, and regret, and then reexamined a hypothesis suggested by Van Kleef et al. (2006) that expressing interpersonal regret signals future behavioral change and interpersonal sensitivity, and thus facilitates the construction of relationships. Supporting our predictions, the results showed that persons who indicated interpersonal regret were more likely to be judged trustworthy and were more desired as partners than persons who did not. We discuss the functions of experiencing and expressing regret.
著者
石井 辰典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.133-142, 2009-11-30 (Released:2017-02-20)

This research examined the hypothesis that the strength of the linkage between self-representation and other-representation varies as a function of the significance of the other people involved in the linkage by analysis of the task facilitation paradigm (Klein et al., 1992) and analysis using an implicit effect of self-representation (Smith et al., 1999). An experiment using friends and fathers for the target persons was conducted with 51 participants. As a result, the strength of the linkage between self-with-father-representation and father-representation varied as a function of the degree of significance of the father. On the other hand, there was a strong linkage between self-with-friend-representation and friend-representation even though the degree of significance of the friend was low. It was thought that these results differ because the meaning of significance was different for father and friend. Moreover, we found a linkage between the father-representation and self-with-friend-representation. The results suggest that further examinations of the factors which determine self-other representation linkage are necessary.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013-03-31 (Released:2017-03-03)

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
塩谷 芳也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.157-169, 2014-03-17 (Released:2017-02-28)

Th purpose of the study is to examine the impact of received social support on the mental health of victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. An Internet survey was conducted on September 9, 2011. Participants were victims of the disaster aged 18-69 years who lived in Miyagi prefecture (N=1,000). Depression was measured using the Japanese version of K6. Types and times of social support received within one month from the earthquake were measured. Samples were divided into lightly damaged victims (n=781) and severely damaged victims (n=219). Statistical analyses showed that cases who received "psychological encour-agement" tend to have depression after half a year of the earthquake only in the case of lightly damaged victims. Controlling for stressful events such as the death of family members and depression in the one month following the earthquake, psychological encouragement maintained a significant effect on depression for half a year from the earthquake. The mechanism that produced this correlation was explained in terms of the ambiguous and unstable identity of lightly damaged victims of the disaster.
著者
杉山 幸子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.13-21, 1993

Two hundred and ten members of a Japanese new religion. Mahikari, responded to a 6-page questionnaire. First, a factor analysis was performed to identify four dimensions of religiosity: belief, religious behavior, experiences, and the affective bonds of membership. Secondly, factor scores were subjected to ANACOVA to examine the effects of sex, age and the length of membership on each dimension. The results indicated that women had more religious experiences than men, and that people became more active in their religious behavior with age. In addition, youths were more affected than adults, and many late adolescent males had doubts about the teachings. The length of membership in Mahikari, on the other hand, was shown to have a positive effect on behavior.
著者
原田 耕太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.104-110, 2013

It is expected in existing theories that bias suppression, known to be a procedural justice norm (Leventhal, 1980), has a positive influence on perceived fairness and that egocentric bias causes perceivers to make a positive response to favorable outcomes more than to unfavorable ones. In addition, we tend to exhibit egocentric bias when unfavorable outcomes emerge; an interaction between the favorability of an outcome and egocentric bias is therefore to be expected. That is, perceived fairness would be lower in unfavorable outcome without bias suppression than in others. For the sake of meeting expectations, we have availed ourselves of modified scenarios from Study 1 of De Cremer (2004). Sixty undergraduate students participated in this study, of whom 55 were analyzed. Almost all of the results are to meet expectations. It can be considered that procedural justice might be superior to egocentric bias in perceived fairness; however, the influence of egocentric bias should not be disregarded.