著者
関 めぐみ 三上 純 井谷 惠子 井谷 聡子
出版者
日本スポーツとジェンダー学会
雑誌
スポーツとジェンダー研究 (ISSN:13482157)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.21-31, 2019 (Released:2019-09-06)
参考文献数
18

This is one of the first studies to explore the experiences and expressions of discrimination, violence and exclusion based on genders, sexualities and the bodies in Physical education (PE) in Japan. Through this research, we hope to gain insight into the gender and sexual politics of Japanese PE. The study was administered in three Japanese universities in 2017. Based on 979 survey responses, we present a preliminary analysis of students reported the experiences of discrimination and exclusion. We conducted the quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 410 (41.9%) survey responses, which answered the open-ended question about negative experience in PE. By using quantitative content analysis software (KH coder), we extracted seven clusters: 1) being scolded for a mistake, 2) being a nuisance to a partner or a team, 3) forced to perform (play) sport or do exercise, 4) swimming, 5) running, 6) class (teaching) methods, and 7) methods of evaluation. The main factors that caused the negative experience are codified to: classmates (category 1), oneself (category 2), teachers (category 3, 6, 7) and exercise characteristics (category 4, 5). When analyzed the result by gender, “normative woman” (cis-gendered, heterosexual) tends to be ashamed that they are not good at sports and their self-respect becomes wounded. On the other hand, “normative man” (cis-gendered, heterosexual) tends to remember the negative experience as those moments when they were blamed by their classmates. The persons of “non-normative” gender/sexuality (transgender and/or non-heterosexual) tend to have more negative experiences based on heterosexism and binary gender system. Our findings suggest that the evaluation criteria set by the curriculum and/or teacher need to be changed. Because the criteria made students’ achievement (or the lack thereof) visible, it leads to the bodily hierarchy. This hierarchy push students who are not athletic into a lower position and marginalize them in the classroom.
著者
井谷 惠子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.14090, (Released:2015-06-12)
参考文献数
27

In 2002, the Central Education Council published a report entitled “Improvement of children's physical fitness”. The report pointed out that changes in the social environment and lifestyles in recent years had influenced children's physical fitness and movement skills, and that a “comprehensive policy” addressing various aspects was essential for tackling this problem. On the basis of this report, the Ministry of Education and local boards of education are currently undertaking various projects; however, a number of gaps still remain between the findings of the report and what is actually being done to address this issue.   The present paper examines the local political issues that have led to differences between the practices of local educational governments and the recommendations of the report by focusing on practices in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and Osaka Prefecture after publication of the report.   This study revealed that the local governments had been strongly influenced by the results of physical fitness tests in comparison with other districts, counter to the comprehensive policy suggested by the report. This suggests that one of the reasons for the existing gap is the implicit demand for measurable results based on strong promotion of the evaluation system stipulated by the current educational policy. The results also show that most projects to improve children's physical fitness have been undertaken by schools, despite the fact that almost no budget has been allocated for this purpose, thus forcing schools to bear the burden and responsibility alone. Furthermore, it is also evident that competitive sports are frequently used to promote an active lifestyle, even in elementary and junior high schools.   In view of the numerous practices aiming to improve performance through sports club activities and competitive sports events, such as long-distance relays for children and Olympic education, it appears that the government in fact has a hidden agenda to promote sports and to improve athletic performance behind the façade of children's fitness as a “social issue”.
著者
井谷 惠子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育学会
雑誌
教育学研究 (ISSN:03873161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.27-40, 2005

Although in general the ratio of women teachers to men has increased with the advance of women in society, the ratio of women PE teachers to men has not increased in the past 20 years. This is caused by sexism in the employment of PE teachers regardless of qualifications. This paper examines the discovery that the gender culture of a PE teacher society in which the disproportion of men to women is maintained in spite of gender equality in the school system itself. Through a survey by interviews of seven men and five women PE teachers who work in H prefecture, it has been found that gender culture creates the disproportionate number of men to women. This is discussed here considering three factors : 1. the influence of gender culture in sports, 2. the double-standard in physical education, 3. a labor atmosphere which is still considered "men's work". The first point discloses, the men and women dichotomy and the absolute view toward gender difference. Moreover, relating to physical education curriculum and teacher behavior, the masculine principles of strength, bravery, winning, and so on have been permitted to dominate interaction and pleasure. Second, the double standard which expects men and women to have different roles is identified. In physical education, teachers work to form masculinity and expect severeness and toughness in boys. On the other hand, so-called "education for women" is deeply rooted and women PE teachers mainly cover dance education for girls. Influenced by this double standard, the gender role, for example the often seen "women manager" in sport activities, is accepted and the gender order has continued. As for the third point, extracurricular activities such as coaching and student guidance, have strongly reflected the identity of PE teachers. The atmosphere of the company office that doesn't dislike long working hours and work on holidays has been adopted by PE teachers. PE teachers who believe that student guidance is their job and thus take an active role as a "strict teacher" to maintain school order. As a result, the gym in PE teacher society becomes like an office which reinforces male dominance and leaves women PE teachers on the sidelines.
著者
井谷 惠子 井谷 聡子 関 めぐみ 三上 純
出版者
日本スポーツとジェンダー学会
雑誌
スポーツとジェンダー研究 (ISSN:13482157)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.6-20, 2019 (Released:2019-09-06)
参考文献数
11

This study examines the gender politics in physical education curriculum that influence students to disengage from physical education and sport. For the analysis, we selected five students among survey respondents who identified as cis-gendered heterosexual women and conducted semi-structured interviews. The grounded theory approach (GTA) was utilized and MAXQDA Analytics Pro2018 was used to assist the analysis. The analysis generated nine primary categories, for example; “visibility”, “physical education curriculum”, and “characteristics of exercise”. It also generated forty-nine sub-categories. The relationships among categories indicate a “negative spiral” in which “poor exercise experience”, “low physical skill and strength”, “negative experience” and “negative emotional reaction” formed a chain relationship. Central to physical education curriculum is the focus on modern sports that has been developed as a tool to educate men. Such physical education is characterized by athleticism, record setting, hierarchy, and winning, as well as physical performance. The space of physical education is saturated with value orientation based on high performance. In such space, participants have had negative experiences in which their poor skills and physical weakness were exposed to their peers. They also expressed discomfort that physical education leaves little space for values outside of physical performance to be recognized.
著者
井谷 惠子
出版者
一般社団法人日本教育学会
雑誌
教育学研究 (ISSN:03873161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.27-40, 2005-03

Although in general the ratio of women teachers to men has increased with the advance of women in society, the ratio of women PE teachers to men has not increased in the past 20 years. This is caused by sexism in the employment of PE teachers regardless of qualifications. This paper examines the discovery that the gender culture of a PE teacher society in which the disproportion of men to women is maintained in spite of gender equality in the school system itself. Through a survey by interviews of seven men and five women PE teachers who work in H prefecture, it has been found that gender culture creates the disproportionate number of men to women. This is discussed here considering three factors : 1. the influence of gender culture in sports, 2. the double-standard in physical education, 3. a labor atmosphere which is still considered "men's work". The first point discloses, the men and women dichotomy and the absolute view toward gender difference. Moreover, relating to physical education curriculum and teacher behavior, the masculine principles of strength, bravery, winning, and so on have been permitted to dominate interaction and pleasure. Second, the double standard which expects men and women to have different roles is identified. In physical education, teachers work to form masculinity and expect severeness and toughness in boys. On the other hand, so-called "education for women" is deeply rooted and women PE teachers mainly cover dance education for girls. Influenced by this double standard, the gender role, for example the often seen "women manager" in sport activities, is accepted and the gender order has continued. As for the third point, extracurricular activities such as coaching and student guidance, have strongly reflected the identity of PE teachers. The atmosphere of the company office that doesn't dislike long working hours and work on holidays has been adopted by PE teachers. PE teachers who believe that student guidance is their job and thus take an active role as a "strict teacher" to maintain school order. As a result, the gym in PE teacher society becomes like an office which reinforces male dominance and leaves women PE teachers on the sidelines.
著者
井谷 惠子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.429-448, 2015 (Released:2015-12-18)
参考文献数
27

In 2002, the Central Education Council published a report entitled “Improvement of children's physical fitness”. The report pointed out that changes in the social environment and lifestyles in recent years had influenced children's physical fitness and movement skills, and that a “comprehensive policy” addressing various aspects was essential for tackling this problem. On the basis of this report, the Ministry of Education and local boards of education are currently undertaking various projects; however, a number of gaps still remain between the findings of the report and what is actually being done to address this issue.   The present paper examines the local political issues that have led to differences between the practices of local educational governments and the recommendations of the report by focusing on practices in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and Osaka Prefecture after publication of the report.   This study revealed that the local governments had been strongly influenced by the results of physical fitness tests in comparison with other districts, counter to the comprehensive policy suggested by the report. This suggests that one of the reasons for the existing gap is the implicit demand for measurable results based on strong promotion of the evaluation system stipulated by the current educational policy. The results also show that most projects to improve children's physical fitness have been undertaken by schools, despite the fact that almost no budget has been allocated for this purpose, thus forcing schools to bear the burden and responsibility alone. Furthermore, it is also evident that competitive sports are frequently used to promote an active lifestyle, even in elementary and junior high schools.   In view of the numerous practices aiming to improve performance through sports club activities and competitive sports events, such as long-distance relays for children and Olympic education, it appears that the government in fact has a hidden agenda to promote sports and to improve athletic performance behind the façade of children's fitness as a “social issue”.
著者
井谷 惠子
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Education
雑誌
スポーツ教育学研究 (ISSN:09118845)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.1-17, 2000-05-31 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
52

The status of the fitness goals in physical education in the USA.: with reference to the requests by society in general since the 1980's.Physical education professionals have become aware the role of national fitness and have tended to regard the fitness goals as more important in the USA since the 1980's. The purpose of this study was to discuss the status of the fitness goals in physical education by looking at the social factors which influenced their status, the Standards for Physical Education, and reviews by various reserchers. The results were as follows;1. Educational reforms since the 1980's have given rise to the tendency of adding importance to academic subjects and have brought the decline of the level of physical education. “Physical” is recognized as the identity of physical education and increased attention is again being focused on this word in order to resolve the crisis.2. The issues of health and fitness have been recognized as serious, nation wide problems. Several Surgoen General reports and recomendations by related academies called for an increased positive role of physical education.3. The National Standards for Physical Education published by NASPE in 1995 strongly focused on fitness standards. Psycho-moter, cognitive, physical, affective and social development have been traditional goals of physical education, with the addition of physical activity, itself now being realized as a primary goal.4. Various reserchers regard fitness as important. This change in understanding about the needs of fitness and of social changes have placed a new level of responsiblity on the role of fitness. Further more, various reserchers suggested fitness programs have changed their emphasis from high level fitness training to improvement in attitudes about the needs of fitness, knowledge base and the requirement of independent ongoing physical activities related to fitness throughout our lifetime.
著者
橋本 紀子 井上 惠美子 田代 美江子 井谷 惠子 木村 浩則 杉田 真衣 艮 香織 茂木 輝順 水崎 富美 森岡 真梨 丸井 淑美
出版者
女子栄養大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

本研究は、校歌・校訓の変遷の歴史的調査、人々の男女共学・別学観のインタビュー調査、高校生とOG/ OBの意識調査、学校参与観察、フィンランド・イギリス・韓国での海外調査等々、幅広い視点から行われた。その結果、ジェンダー平等教育の発展・普及のための、以下の重点課題が浮き彫りとなった。(1)新しいジェンダー平等教育の内容づくりを教育課程の見直しも含めて行うこと。(2)そのためには、教材や授業記録等も含めて、これまでの教育実践の掘り起こし、優れた実践の典型化をはかり、テキスト作成に結びつけること、などである。
著者
佐藤 和夫 井谷 惠子 橋本 紀子 木村 涼子 小山 静子 片岡 洋子
出版者
千葉大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2003

本研究では、日本が男女共同参画社会をめざすためには、男女共学、共修がどのように実施されるべきかについて、高校を対象に分析検討を行った。男女共学、共修は男女平等教育にとって必要な基礎的条件ではあるが、隠れたカリキュラムにおけるジェンダーに無自覚なまま共学、共修を実施しても、共学、共修がただちに男女平等教育には結びつかない。そのため、男女共学や共修の現状を明らかにしながら、男女平等をつくるための共学、共修とはどうあるべきなのかについて、以下の3つの調査領域における研究において析出した。1,福島県の男女共学化および共修の現状調査福島県は、男女共同参画社会の実現のための施策の一環として、長らく残っていた別学高校をすべて共学化した。その共学化実現過程や高校の現状について、聞き取りと観察および質問紙調査を組み合わせて分析、考察した。2,関西(大阪)の私立高校の共学化戦略と共学、別学の現状調査福島県とは対照的に公立高校はすべて共学だった大阪府では、私立高校が別学校を提供してきた。近年、共学化が進んでいる大阪の私立学校での別学、共学の経営戦略および生徒への質問紙調査によって、共学、別学の比較検討を行った。3,高校での体育共習の指導場面の観察調査男女共修の高校の体育の授業場面において、教師の声かけが生徒が男子か女子かで異なること、そこに教師のジェンダー観があらわれ、ジェンダーの利用と再生産が行われていることなどについて、授業観察の分析を行った。