- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.29, no.1, pp.48-64, 1986
Yasushi TONAGA, <i>The Position of Allah in the Divine Self-Manifestation in the Thought of Oneness of Being</i> (<i>Wahdah al-Wujud</i>)—<i>with Special Reference to Kashani and Jili</i>—: Ibn 'Arabkl first formulated the theory of Oneness of Being (<i>Wahdah al-Wujud</i>). His theory was later developed into several versions by his direct and indirect disciples, who are called "the School of Oneness of Being". Kashani (d. ca. 735/1334-35) and Jili (d. ca. 832/1428) are two of them.<br>Kashani divided the process of the divine self-manifestation into five stages as follows: (1) <i>ahadiyah</i> (realm of absolute oneness), (2) <i>wahidiyah</i> (realm of relative oneness), (3) <i>'alam al-jabarut</i> (world of spirits), (4) '<i>alam al-malakut</i> (intermediate world), and (5) <i>'alam al-mulk</i> (phenomenal world). <i>Ahadiyah</i> is the realm of the exclusive essence of the One, while <i>wahidiyah</i> is that of integration of all the names and attributes of God. Regarding Allah as the mediator between the essence of the One and the created world of the many, Kashani located the position of <i>Allah</i> in the level of <i>wahidiyah</i>.<br>Almost a century later, Jill divided the same process into six stages as follows: (1) <i>uluhiyah</i> (divinity), (2) <i>ahadiyah</i>, (3) <i>wahidiyah</i>, (4) <i>rahmaniyah</i> (Compassionateness), (5) <i>rububiyah</i> (Lordship), and (6) maliklyah (Kingship). Emphasizing the supremacy of <i>Allah</i>, Jill located the position of <i>Allah</i> not in <i>wahidiyah</i>, but in <i>uluhiyah</i> which stands above <i>ahadiyah</i>.<br>In order to understand the historical change of the position of <i>Allah</i> between Kashani and Jili, one should take into account 'Ala' al-Dawlah Simnani (d. 736/1336) who, belonging to "the School of Oneness of Witness (<i>Wahdah al-Shuhud</i>)", criticized Kashani based on his conviction that <i>Allah</i> is the highest. I point out that Jill's thought would result from the reaction against Simnani from within the School of Oneness of Being.