- 一般社団法人 日本オリエント学会
- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.33, no.2, pp.20-35, 1990 (Released:2010-03-12)
Muhammad 'Abduh (d. 1905), a famous religious reformer in the modern age, is known as one of the leading spirits of 'Urabi movement in his early days. But it was only after the resignation of the “reactionary” Cabinet of Riyad Pasha in September, 1881 that he participated in the movement. Until that time, as editor-in-chief of the Egyptian official gazette, al-Waqa'i' al-Misriyah, he thoroughly supported Riyad's Government and accused the movement of its. demand for radical reforms. Then, why did he change his attitude toward the movement immediately after its triumph over the “reactionary” regime?The previous studies have concluded that 'Abduh participated in the movement in order that he might keep it away from any radical reforms, because he believed that it was only through a gradual reform or national education that Egypt could develop. But, in fact, since his participation in the movement, he recognized such radical reforms as the convention of the representative parliament by the new regime. This fact apparently contradicts the conclusion of the previous studies.To understand his real intention behind his recognition of them, I have inquired into his articles written during this period, namely, “Ikhtilaf al-qawanin bi-ikhtilaf ahwal al-umam (Difference of the Laws according to Difference of the Circumstances of Communities)” and “Al-Shura wa'l-qanun (The Parliament and The Law)”, both contributed to al-Waqa'i' al-Misriyah. As a conclusion, I have pointed out that 'Abduh's idea of national education is closely connected with the application of the Shari'ah. And even after his recognition of the new regime, he never ceased to demand its application, while his request for national education was completely dropped. Actually, he believed that Egypt could not develop without its application and its respect by the whole nation.