著者
中村 敏健 平石 界 小田 亮 齋藤 慈子 坂口 菊恵 五百部 裕 清成 透子 武田 美亜 長谷川 寿一
出版者
日本パーソナリティ心理学会
雑誌
パーソナリティ研究 (ISSN:13488406)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.233-235, 2012-03-30 (Released:2012-05-22)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
4 2

This study developed a Japanese version of the Machiavellianism scale (Mach IV) and examined its reliability and validity. A questionnaire survey of university, junior college and vocational school students showed sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale. Its correlational validity was demonstrated in terms of the relationships with psychopathic tendencies, prosocial behavior, and Agreeableness (a dimension of the Five-Factor personality model). These results indicated that the Japanese version of the Machiavellian scale IV is useful to measure Machiavellian tendencies.
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999-12-20 (Released:2016-12-15)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
山岸 俊男 坂上 雅道 清成 透子 高橋 伸幸 阿久津 聡 高岸 治人
出版者
一橋大学
雑誌
基盤研究(S)
巻号頁・発行日
2015-05-29

平成29年度には、行動・心理・脳構造・遺伝子多型データセットの解析を進め、ゲーム行動と脳構造の関連性に関する実験を行った。その結果、以下の知見を含む複数の知見を論文化した。知見1:社会的規範の逸脱者への罰は、従来の研究では社会的公正動機に基づく利他的な行動と考えられてきた。しかし本研究の結果、規範逸脱者へ単に苦悩を与えたいという公正さとは無縁な攻撃的動機に基づく罰行使者もかなりの比率で存在することが明らかになった。さらに攻撃的罰行使者は左尾状核が大きいという脳形態的特徴があり、この尾状核は線条体に含まれることから、罰行使で何らかの満足を得ている可能性が示唆された。知見2:攻撃性と社会規範成立との関係については、学生参加者による検討から社会的地位の高さとテストステロン量の多さが、相手への支配的行動を強めることも明らかにされている。本研究の知見は、複数の罰行動の背後にある心理・神経基盤を混同してきた従来の研究へ警鐘を鳴らし、攻撃的な罰が社会的公正の達成へ正負いずれの方向に機能しうるかという観点からの研究の重要性を示唆するものである。海外の研究者と共同で信頼ゲーム実験を17カ国で実施し、ペアの相手の集団所属性について国を単位として内集団・外集団・不明集団で操作したところ、偏狭的利他性(内集団成員をより信頼・協力する)が文化・社会を超えた普遍的な心理的基盤である可能性と、そうした利他性は評判に基づいた間接互恵性によって相殺される可能性も併せて示された。これにより関係形成型独立性へと移行する社会制度設計に評判が重要な役割を果たすことが示唆された。本研究の最終目的につながる文化形成実験は、社会的ニッチ構築の観点からの心の文化差の説明を検証する世界初の本格的実験であるが、プレテストを繰り返し実施する中で適切な実験デザインを確定し、社会的ニッチ構築理論の精緻化を進めた。
著者
神 信人 山岸 俊男 清成 透子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.77-85, 1996-06-26 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
14 16

Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on ingroup favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for ingroup as well as outgroup participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an ingroup bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an ingroup bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained ingroup favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.
著者
井上 裕香子 長谷川 寿一 齋藤 慈子 清成 透子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.88.16347, (Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
20

The Social Value Orientation (SVO) explains individual differences in cooperation attitudes. In this study, we examine whether the SVO affects the time taken, and amount of information gathered, when judging the trustworthiness of other people. Participants were able to choose a partner based on the past allocation patterns of candidates, mimicking how people are able to select with whom they cooperate in their social environments. We investigated the effect of the SVO on the method of gathering information on character and choosing a social exchange partner. The results revealed that participants with a prosocial (cooperative) orientation took less time to choose a partner, gathered less information, and tended to choose partners who behaved equally with everyone, compared to participants with an individualistic (selfish) orientation. Our findings suggest that people with a prosocial orientation prefer partners who treat everyone equally, regardless of the relationship, while people with an individualistic orientation deliberately seek out candidates who are likely to provide a relationship which is beneficial to themselves.
著者
井上 裕香子 長谷川 寿一 齋藤 慈子 清成 透子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.6, pp.580-586, 2018

<p>The Social Value Orientation (SVO) explains individual differences in cooperation attitudes. In this study, we examine whether the SVO affects the time taken, and amount of information gathered, when judging the trustworthiness of other people. Participants were able to choose a partner based on the past allocation patterns of candidates, mimicking how people are able to select with whom they cooperate in their social environments. We investigated the effect of the SVO on the method of gathering information on character and choosing a social exchange partner. The results revealed that participants with a prosocial (cooperative) orientation took less time to choose a partner, gathered less information, and tended to choose partners who behaved equally with everyone, compared to participants with an individualistic (selfish) orientation. Our findings suggest that people with a prosocial orientation prefer partners who treat everyone equally, regardless of the relationship, while people with an individualistic orientation deliberately seek out candidates who are likely to provide a relationship which is beneficial to themselves.</p>
著者
井上 裕香子 長谷川 寿一 齋藤 慈子 清成 透子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

<p>The Social Value Orientation (SVO) explains individual differences in cooperation attitudes. In this study, we examine whether the SVO affects the time taken, and amount of information gathered, when judging the trustworthiness of other people. Participants were able to choose a partner based on the past allocation patterns of candidates, mimicking how people are able to select with whom they cooperate in their social environments. We investigated the effect of the SVO on the method of gathering information on character and choosing a social exchange partner. The results revealed that participants with a prosocial (cooperative) orientation took less time to choose a partner, gathered less information, and tended to choose partners who behaved equally with everyone, compared to participants with an individualistic (selfish) orientation. Our findings suggest that people with a prosocial orientation prefer partners who treat everyone equally, regardless of the relationship, while people with an individualistic orientation deliberately seek out candidates who are likely to provide a relationship which is beneficial to themselves.</p>
著者
清成 透子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.1, pp.1-9, 2002-04-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
13 10

Yamagishi, Jin, and Kiyonari (1999) recently proposed an alternative account of ingroup favoritism in the minimal group experiment (MGE). According to the hypothesis, expectation of “bounded generalized reciprocity” that a generalized exchange system exists in the group is the primary source of the favoritism, not motivation for social identity. Partly replicating the Yamagishi et al. study, the current study with 73 participants added further evidence; they did not cooperate more with an ingroup partner than with an outgroup partner, if they believed that the partner did not know the participant's membership, regardless of the partner's membership. It was further shown that expectation of cooperation by the partner in itself was not enough to raise the participant's cooperation level. Based on these findings, it was concluded that ingroup favoritism found in MGE was a result of the shared group identity that triggered the definition of the situation as a group situation where a generalized exchange system existed for ingroup members.
著者
小田 亮 大 めぐみ 丹羽 雄輝 五百部 裕 清成 透子 武田 美亜 平石 界
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.1, pp.28-36, 2013 (Released:2013-07-01)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
11 13

This study describes the development and evaluation of the Self-Report Altruism Scale Distinguished by the Recipient (SRAS-DR). The relationship between an actor and a recipient is important for evolutionary studies of altruistic behavior. However, the existing scale for Japanese undergraduates does not distinguish recipients of altruistic behaviors. We developed a new self-report altruism scale based on an evolutionary viewpoint. In Study 1, undergraduate students described their altruistic behaviors in daily life, which we classified according to the recipients (family members, friends or acquaintances and strangers). Then we chose 21 items (7 items for each recipient class) to construct the SRAS-DR by using exploratory factor analyses. In Study 2, we investigated validity and reliability of the scale. The scores were significantly correlated with other relevant scales as well as with behavioral indicators. Test-retest reliability was high. These results indicate that the SRAS-DR has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used in evolutionary studies of human altruism.
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999
被引用文献数
2 1

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
山岸 俊男 坂上 雅道 清成 透子 高橋 伸幸 高岸 治人 品田 瑞穂
出版者
一橋大学
雑誌
基盤研究(S)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-05-31

本研究は、人類に特有とされている高度な向社会性を、向社会行動をとることが自らの適応性の上昇をもたらす社会のしくみを作り出すことで形成され維持されているとする社会的ニッチ構築理論に基づき、一連の経済ゲーム実験、脳撮像実験、遺伝子多型分析を通して,一方では現代の人々がもつ心の文化差が、人々が集合的に作り出している社会的ニッチの違いを反映していることを示す証拠を提出すると同時に、もう一方では、現代社会に暮らす人々の向社会性のあり方の違いが、そうした違いを適応的にしている社会的ニッチの違いを反映していることを示す証拠を提供している。