著者
三船 恒裕 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.128-134, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
28

We tested the reputation maintenance hypothesis of ingroup favoritism. Ninety-two non-student participants played one-shot prisoner’s dilemma games with an ingroup and an outgroup partner with minimal groups, and showed ingroup favoritism only when the participant and his/her partner knew each other’s group membership (common knowledge condition). The ingroup favoritism observed in the common knowledge condition positively correlated with fear of negative evaluation. These results provide support for the reputation maintenance hypothesis.
著者
鈴木 直人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.17-25, 2004
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the cognitive basis of self-effacing behavior among the Japanese. Based on the premises that self-effacement among the Japanese is a form of "default self-presentation," we predicted that Japanese self-effacement will dissipate when actual self-evaluation is required. The experiment (n = 110) consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, participants took a "cognitive ability test" that consisted of 20 questions. In Phase 2, they were asked to judge if their performance on the test was above or below the average performance level in their school. In the bonus condition, participants were rewarded for making a correct judgment in their performance. In the fixed-reward condition, no reward was provided for making a correct judgment. The results from experiments 1 and 2, taken together, indicate that self-effacement observed in the fixed-reward condition was not confirmed in the bonus condition. These results suggest that self-effacement among the Japanese is a strategy for self-presentation, which they switch on and off depending on the situation.
著者
山岸 みどり 小杉 素子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.33-42, 1996-08-15 (Released:2016-12-06)
被引用文献数
2

A new method of detecting and controlling for acquiescence response biases in questionnaire studies was developed and applied to a cross-national survey data on trust collected by Yamagishi & Yamagishi (1994). Instead of including a set of balanced items or a large number of mutually unrelated questions as was common in conventional methods for assessing acquiesence, the proposed method uses multiple, mutually independent sets of items selected based on a principal component analysis. A relatively high correlation (r=.56) between two independent indices of acquiescence (obtained from two independent sets of items) suggests validity of the proposed method. No statistically significant differences in acquiescence were found between American and Japanese respondents suggesting that the results of Yamagishi & Yamagishi's results were not due to crossnational differences in acquiescence responses.
著者
林 直保子 神 信人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.33-43, 1993-01-22 (Released:2016-12-01)

The main purpose of this study was to examine how the existence of multiple Prisoner's Dilemma relations among group members affects their choices in each PD relation. Twenty-eight computer simulated actors were used to simulate group members. Each simulated-actor had two kinds of strategies: (1) designation strategy (i.e., strategy to determine whom to choose as a game partner), and (2) behavior strategy (i.e., strategy to determine when to cooperate and when to defect). The simulation involved four designation strategies, and seven behavior strategies. Five of behavior strategies were variants of the tit-for tat strategy, said to be most effective in iterated 2-person PD games. Results of the simulation indicate that: (1) the designation strategy has a greater influence on the simulated-actor' total score than the behavior strategy; (2) effectiveness of the behavior strategy changes depending on the designation strategy adopted; (3) the relationship between disignation and behavior strategies mentioned above depends on the nature of the pay-off matrix used in each game played along the PD network.
著者
MILLER Alan・S 山岸 俊男 大坪 庸介 山岸 みどり 大沼 進 ミラー アラン ミラー アランS
巻号頁・発行日
1998 (Released:1998-04-01)

本研究の主要な成果は、以下の4点にまとめられる。(1)信頼と社会的知性との関連について。囚人のジレンマ(PD)における他者の行動予測の正確さが、共感4因子のうちの、想像性因子とのみ関連しており、他の因子とはほとんど関連していないことが明らかにされた。PDで協力行動を取った人物の顔写真と、非協力行動を取った人物の顔写真の再認において、後者の写真の再認率が前者の写真の再認率を上回ることが明らかにされた。(2)集団所属性に基づく信頼について。集団所属性にもとづく内集団成員に対する信頼が、内集団成員に対するポジティブなステレオタイプによって支えられているのではなく、集団内部に一般的互酬性が存在するという直感的な集団理解により支えられていることが明らかにされた。(3)信頼関係形成プロセスにおけるリスクテイキングの役割について。信頼関係形成に際して、リスクの程度が外的環境により決定される状況と、リスクの程度を自分で決定できる状況とを比較することで、リスクテイキングのオプションが信頼関係の形成を促進することが明らかにされた。(4)情報の非対称性が存在する社会関係での信頼行動を支える評判システムの役割について。情報の非対称性が存在するインターネット・オークション市場を再現した実験を実施し、適切な評判システムが存在しない限りレモン市場化が確実に発生することが明らかにされた。更に、単純な評判システムではレモン市場問題の有効な解決をもたらされないことが確認され、適切な評判システムを支える条件についての示唆が得られた。これらの研究成果は、リスクテイキングを中核とする信頼行動を生み出す心理的プロセスと、社会制度の両面から、信頼社会形成のための条件を明確にしている。
著者
山岸 俊男 渡部 幹 林 直保子 高橋 伸幸 山岸 みどり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.206-216, 1996-03-30 (Released:2016-12-04)
被引用文献数
2

An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses concerning effects of social uncertainty and general trust on commitment formation, hypotheses derived from Yamagishi & Yamagishi's (1994) theory of trust. First two hypotheses were supported, while the last one was not. First, increasing social uncertainty facilitated commitment formation. Second, low general trusters formed mutually committed relations more often than did high trusters. Finally, the prediction that the effect of general trust on commitment formation would be stronger in the high uncertainty condition than in the low uncertainty condition was not supported. Theoretical implications of these findings for the theory of trust advanced by Yamagishi and his associates are discussed.
著者
渡部 幹 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.65-72, 1993-12-25 (Released:2016-12-02)

The purpose of this research is to examine whether or not people prefer the trigger strategy when given a chance to choose between various kinds of strategies in a social dilemma (SD) situation. The experiment was run as a 4-person iterated SD situation with three conditions. The results show that Ss did not select morefrequently the trigger strategy in either condition. These results are inconsistent with the one found in an ealier study (Watabe, 1992). Changes in experimental design are needed in order to examine possible reasons of this inconsistency.
著者
垣内 理希 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.212-221, 1997-03-31 (Released:2016-12-06)

This study examined the development of trusting relationships as investments in relation-specific assets. A new experimental game called "the dilemma of variable interdependency" was created based on iterated prisoner's dilemma game, in which subjects faced a choice of increasing or decreasing the level of dependency in addition to the usual choice between cooperation and defection. Results of the experiment confirmed the hypothesis that high-trusters (those who have a strong belief in human benevolence) would take a risk of making themselves vulnerable to exploitative behavior of the partner more strongly than low-trusters. This resulted in formation of mutually highly dependent relationships among high-trusters. It was further demonstrated that the subjects' levels of trust affect their cooperation levels when they were given an option to choose the level of dependence but not in the ordinary two-person, iterated PD.
著者
真島 理恵 山岸 俊男 松田 昌史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.175-183, 2004-03-15 (Released:2017-01-13)

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of trust in relationships between temporary partners. In this study, we predicted that trust would play a "signaling" role in promoting mutual cooperation, even in relationships with unfixed or temporary partners. To examine this prediction, we conducted an experiment using two different games. We used the repeated PD/D (prisoner's dilemma with choice of dependence) game, which can measure trusting behavior independently from cooperation. Also, we used the ordinary PD game in which there is no option for trust. Seventy participants were assigned to either the PD/D condition or the ordinary PD condition. In both conditions, players interacted with a randomly matched partner in each trial. The results reveal that the cooperation rate in the PD/D game was significantly higher than that in the PD game. Such a finding indicates that trust serves as a signal of the player's intention, which in turn, promotes mutual cooperation. However, in a similar experiment in which players interacted with the same partner, Matsuda & Yamagishi (2001) found a much lower cooperation rate in the PD/D condition than what was found in this experiment. Therefore, we conclude that the role of trust in non-fixed relationships has only a limited effect for promoting mutual cooperation.
著者
鈴木 直人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.17-25, 2004-07-22 (Released:2017-01-14)
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the cognitive basis of self-effacing behavior among the Japanese. Based on the premises that self-effacement among the Japanese is a form of "default self-presentation," we predicted that Japanese self-effacement will dissipate when actual self-evaluation is required. The experiment (n = 110) consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, participants took a "cognitive ability test" that consisted of 20 questions. In Phase 2, they were asked to judge if their performance on the test was above or below the average performance level in their school. In the bonus condition, participants were rewarded for making a correct judgment in their performance. In the fixed-reward condition, no reward was provided for making a correct judgment. The results from experiments 1 and 2, taken together, indicate that self-effacement observed in the fixed-reward condition was not confirmed in the bonus condition. These results suggest that self-effacement among the Japanese is a strategy for self-presentation, which they switch on and off depending on the situation.
著者
寺井 滋 山岸 俊男 渡部 幹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.94-103, 2003-12-15 (Released:2017-01-13)

Using computer simulations, this study examined whether mutual cooperation can occur in social dilemmas characterized by the absence of a central authority. In the absence of a central authority, provision of a sanctioning system that administers selective incentives-a well referred solution to social dilemmas-constitutes a second-order social dilemma. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the generalized tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy, which is an extended version of tit-for-tat that is applied in n-person games, can help solve the second-order social dilemma. The results of computer simulations indicated that the second-order social dilemma could be resolved when group members adopt the Generalized TFT. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the Generalized TFT strategy could survive and prosper in a population originally dominated by "probabilistic actors."
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999-12-20 (Released:2016-12-15)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
寺井 滋 森田 康裕 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.172-179, 2003-03-31 (Released:2017-01-07)

Two experiments using the "Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Dependence" with a total of 70 subjects are reported. The cooperation rate was extremely high (95.1%) while the game was being repeated, but only half of the subjects cooperated in the final game. This suggests that cooperation in ongoing relations is supported by the "shadow of the future" (Axelrod, 1984). Nonetheless, most subjects trusted a partner who had behaved cooperatively toward them in the repeated games (i.e., under an incentive structure that encouraged such behavior), even in the final game, in which such an incentive basis was absent. This result indicates that the subjects failed to distinguish the two bases of expecting benign behavior from interaction partners-trust based on the inferred personal traits of the partner and assurance of cooperation based on the nature of the incentive structure.
著者
高橋 伸幸 山岸 俊男
出版者
The Japanese Group Dynamics Association
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.1-11, 1996-06-30 (Released:2010-06-04)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
5 2

本研究は, 利他的行動が特定の社会関係の中で果たす役割についての一連のコンピュータ・シミュレーションによる分析を通して, 特定の社会的状況のもとでは, 利他的に行動することが本人にとって有利な結果をもたらす可能性のあることを明らかにしている。本研究での分析の対象となっている利他的行動は, 集団内で成員が他の特定の成員に対して純粋に利他的に振る舞うかどうかを決定する (個人対集団場面ではなく, 個人対個人の関係) 状況での利他的行動である。このような状況での利他的行動が行為者本人にとって有利な結果をもたらす条件として本研究で明らかにされたのは, 集団の全員が下方OFT戦略を用いており, しかも下方OFT戦略の適用に際して「ほどよい」基準を用いている場合である。具体的には, 集団成員が利他的に行動する相手を選択するに際して, その相手が過去に少なくとも自分と同じくらい利他的に振る舞ってきた人間であるかどうかを決定基準として用いている場合には, より多くの他者に対して利他的に振る舞う方が成員の方がそうでない成員よりも, 結局はより大きな利益を得ることができることが, コンピュータ・シミュレーションを用いた分析により明らかにされた。
著者
高橋 知里 山岸 俊男 橋本 博文
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.113-120, 2009

We tested a hypothesis that responses to the Singelis' (1994) interdependent self scale would be enhanced after being exposed to an "exclusion game" -a social dilemma game with an option for excluding uncooperative members. Thirty-nine participants were assigned to one of two conditions. In the self-presentation condition, participants were told that their responses to the interdependence scale would be revealed to other participants after the experiment. In the control condition, participants were assured that their responses would be anonymous. The average interdependence score increased after experiencing the exclusion game in the self-presentation condition, and decreased in the control condition. These findings show that people come to present themselves to others as being more interdependent after being exposed to a social situation in which they face a threat of rejection from their peers.
著者
菊地 雅子 渡邊 席子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.1, pp.23-36, 1997-06-30 (Released:2010-06-04)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
18 11

他者一般の信頼性についての信念である一般的信頼の高さが必ずしもその人の騙されやすさを意味しないというRotter (1980) の議論, および高信頼者は低信頼者よりも他者の信頼性 (ないしその欠如) を示唆する情報により敏感であるという小杉・山岸 (1995) の知見を, 情報判断の正確さにまで拡張することによって導き出された「高信頼者は低信頼者に比べ, 他者の一般的な信頼性についての判断がより正確である」とする仮説が実験により検討され, 支持された。この結果は, 他者一般の信頼性の「デフォルト推定値」としてはたらく一般的信頼の高低と, 特定の他者の信頼性を示唆する情報が与えられた場合のその相手の信頼性の判断とは独立であることを示している。すなわち, 高信頼者は騙されやすい「お人好し」なのではなく, むしろ他者の信頼性 (ないしその欠如) を示唆する情報を適切に処理して, 他者の信頼性 (ないしその欠如) を正確に判断する人間であることを示唆している。最後に, 社会環境と認知資源の配分の観点からこの知見を説明するための一つのモデルが紹介される。
著者
西條 辰義 下村 研一 蒲島 郁夫 大和 毅彦 竹村 和久 亀田 達也 山岸 俊男 巌佐 庸 船木 由紀彦 清水 和巳
出版者
高知工科大学
雑誌
特定領域研究
巻号頁・発行日
2007-07-25 (Released:2007-04-01)

特定領域「実験社会科学」の研究者のほとんどがその研究成果を英文の学術雑誌に掲載するというスタイルを取っていることに鑑み, 社会科学の各分野を超えた領域形成が日本で始まり, 広がっていることを他の日本人研究者, 院生などに伝えるため, 和書のシリーズを企画し, 勁草書房の編集者と多くの会合をもち『フロンティア実験社会科学』の準備を実施した. 特定領域におけるステアリングコミッティーのメンバーと会合を開催し, 各班の内部のみならず, 各班の連携という新たな共同作業をすすめた. 方針として, (1)英文論文をそのまま日本語訳するというスタイルは取らない. (2)日本人研究者を含めて, 高校生, 大学初年級の読者が興味を持ち, この分野に参入したいと思うことを目標とする. (3)第一巻はすべての巻を展望する入門書とし, 継続巻は各班を中心とするやや専門性の高いものにする. この方針のもと, 第一巻『実験が切り開く21世紀の社会科学』の作成に注力した. 第一巻では, 社会科学の各分野が実験を通じてどのようにつながるのか, 実験を通じて新たな社会科学がどのように形成されようとしているのかに加えて, 数多くの異分野を繋ぐタイプの実験研究を紹介した. この巻はすでに2014年春に出版されている. 継続の巻も巻ごとで差はあるものの, 多くの巻で近年中に出版の見込みがついた. さらには, 特定領域成果報告書とりまとめを業務委託し, こちらも順調にとりまとめが進んだ. 以上のように本研究は当初の目標を達成した.
著者
高橋 知里 山岸 俊男 橋本 博文
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.113-120, 2009-11-30 (Released:2017-02-20)

We tested a hypothesis that responses to the Singelis' (1994) interdependent self scale would be enhanced after being exposed to an "exclusion game" -a social dilemma game with an option for excluding uncooperative members. Thirty-nine participants were assigned to one of two conditions. In the self-presentation condition, participants were told that their responses to the interdependence scale would be revealed to other participants after the experiment. In the control condition, participants were assured that their responses would be anonymous. The average interdependence score increased after experiencing the exclusion game in the self-presentation condition, and decreased in the control condition. These findings show that people come to present themselves to others as being more interdependent after being exposed to a social situation in which they face a threat of rejection from their peers.