著者
上林 憲司 田戸岡 好香 石井 国雄 村田 光二
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.130-138, 2016 (Released:2016-09-07)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
2 2

社会における善悪判断を左右する道徳性が,外的要因により意識されないまま変化することが知られている。本研究は道徳性に変化を及ぼす要因の一つとして,着衣に注目した。特に,道徳性が白色および黒色と結びついていることに基づき,白色または黒色の着衣が,着用者の道徳性に関する自己認知に及ぼす影響を検討した。参加者は白色または黒色の衣服を着用した状態で,自己と道徳性の潜在的な結びつきを測る潜在連合テスト(IAT)に取り組んだ。その後,道徳性について顕在的な自己評定を行った。その結果,潜在認知と顕在認知のどちらにおいても,白服着用者の方が黒服着用者より,自己を道徳的に捉えていた。これらの結果を踏まえ,着衣が認知や行動に影響を及ぼす過程や,道徳性を変化させる要因について議論した。
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.25-34, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
37

It has been consistently demonstrated that self-threat induces automatic prejudice. The present study investigated whether men would not exhibit automatic prejudice even in the self-threat condition if the gender category was not salient. We manipulated the salience of the gender category and the threat to self-worth, and then measured automatic gender prejudice with an evaluative priming task. Our results showed that when the gender category was salient, men in the self-threat condition automatically inhibited activation of positive concepts by the woman prime compared with those in the non-threat condition. In contrast, such an effect did not emerge when the gender category was not salient. Hence, when the salience of the ingroup–outgroup category is decreased, men do not exhibit automatic prejudice even under self-threat.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.24-30, 2011

It has been shown that people under threat to self-worth exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward minority outgroups (e.g., African Americans in North America) (Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, & Dunn, 1998). But it has not been shown that people under such threat exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward outgroups which are not likely to be negatively evaluated (e.g., women). We conducted an experiment to examine whether male participants under threat to self-worth would exhibit implicit ingroup bias related to gender by using Implicit Association Tests (IATs.) Participants received either self-image threatening feedback about initial tests or no feedback (threat vs. non-threat). They then completed gender attitude IATs. The results showed that participants exhibited stronger implicit ingroup biases related to gender in the threat condition than in the nonthreat condition. The role of threat to self-worth in men's implicit gender attitude is discussed.
著者
田戸岡 好香 井上 裕珠 石井 国雄
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.139-149, 2016 (Released:2016-09-07)
参考文献数
33

自分よりも優れた他者を見た時,私たちは妬みを感じることもあれば,羨望を感じる時もある。これまでの研究において,羨望は自分が優れた他者に追いつくという動機づけと,妬みは優れた他者を引きずりおろすという動機づけと関わっていることが示唆されている。本研究では身体化メタファー理論の観点から,これらの感情が自己他者概念と上下の運動感覚に関連していることを検討した。参加者は「自分」という単語の上に「他人」という単語が配置された図を呈示された。自己上方移動条件では「自分」という単語を「他人」という単語まで上げる動作を繰り返し,他者下方移動条件では「他人」という単語を「自分」という単語まで下げる動作を繰り返した。その後,参加者自身が競争相手に負けてしまうという内容のシナリオを呈示し,妬みと羨望を測定した。2つの実験の結果,自己上方移動条件は他者下方移動条件と比べて,妬みよりも羨望を感じていた。さらに,自己上方移動条件は防衛的な原因帰属をする傾向が減少していた。こうした結果から,メタファーが妬みと羨望に果たす役割について議論した。
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.53-60, 2009

The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is known as a useful measure of implicit attitude. Recent study had shown that the features of the stimulus items influence the IAT effects (Bluemske & Friese, 2006; Govan & Williams, 2004). We tested whether the stereotypic stimulus items would influence the effects of a gender attitude IAT. Study 1 preliminarily showed that female participants exhibit strong implicit ingroup biases related to gender, but male participant do not. Study 2 showed that the effects of gender attitude IATs were moderated by the stereotypicality of the stimulus items. This study demonstrated that the effects of gender attitude IATs in which stereotypic items were used reflect the effects of gender attitudes and gender stereotyping.
著者
田戸岡 好香 石井 国雄 村田 光二
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.112-124, 2015 (Released:2015-03-26)
参考文献数
24

ステレオタイプ抑制後にはステレオタイプのアクセスビリティが増加するリバウンド効果が生起する。これまでの抑制研究では,スキンヘッド男性のような少数派や高齢者のような地位が低いとみなされる対象に関する抑制が扱われてきたが,本研究では嫉妬的ステレオタイプを抑制した後のリバウンド効果について検討した。ステレオタイプ内容モデルによれば,我々は成功した外集団に対して有能だが冷たいとみなすことがある。ただし,そうした対象をいつも冷たいとみなすわけではなく,特に競争意識を知覚した時にネガティブな特性が顕現的になることが示されている。そこで,本研究では,抑制対象に対する競争意識の知覚がリバウンド効果の生起を調整することを検討した。参加者はキャリア女性(実験1)もしくはエリート男性(実験2)が他者と働いている場面を記述した。その際,半数の参加者にはその人物の冷たいというイメージを抑制するよう教示し,半数にはそういった教示は与えなかった。その後,ステレオタイプのアクセスビリティを測定した。実験の結果,抑制対象に競争意識を感じやすい場合にはリバウンド効果が生起し,感じにくい場合にはリバウンド効果が生起しなかった。ステレオタイプ抑制を対人認知の観点から検討することの意義について考察した。
著者
石井 国雄 田戸岡 好香
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.14020, (Released:2015-05-28)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
3

Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.24-30, 2011-08-25 (Released:2017-02-22)

It has been shown that people under threat to self-worth exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward minority outgroups (e.g., African Americans in North America) (Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, & Dunn, 1998). But it has not been shown that people under such threat exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward outgroups which are not likely to be negatively evaluated (e.g., women). We conducted an experiment to examine whether male participants under threat to self-worth would exhibit implicit ingroup bias related to gender by using Implicit Association Tests (IATs.) Participants received either self-image threatening feedback about initial tests or no feedback (threat vs. non-threat). They then completed gender attitude IATs. The results showed that participants exhibited stronger implicit ingroup biases related to gender in the threat condition than in the nonthreat condition. The role of threat to self-worth in men's implicit gender attitude is discussed.
著者
石井 国雄 田戸岡 好香
出版者
清泉女学院大学人間学部
雑誌
清泉女学院大学人間学部研究紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Human Studies Seisen Jogakuin College (ISSN:21893632)
巻号頁・発行日
no.15, pp.1-12, 2018-02-28

Makeup is an important dress for women, and is an important form of self-expression. The present study examined the effects of pink and blue makeup on self-cognition and gender-related choice among female college students. We hypothesized that female participants would perceive themselves more feminine and choose feminine things when they applied pink makeup than when they applied blue makeup. In the experiment, Japanese female college students were applied pink or blue makeup. Then participants completed a gender-related self-rating scale, and then chose which one they wanted feminine things or masculine things. Results showed that among participant in blue condition, frequency to makeup in everyday life predicted the gender related choice: the more frequently they do makeup, the more they chose feminine things. We discussed the role of makeup color on the feeling and gender-related self-cognition for women.
著者
石井 国雄 田戸岡 好香
出版者
清泉女学院大学人間学部
雑誌
清泉女学院大学人間学部研究紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Human Studies Seisen Jogakuin College (ISSN:21893632)
巻号頁・発行日
no.15, pp.1-12, 2018-02-28

Makeup is an important dress for women, and is an important form of self-expression. The present study examined the effects of pink and blue makeup on self-cognition and gender-related choice among female college students. We hypothesized that female participants would perceive themselves more feminine and choose feminine things when they applied pink makeup than when they applied blue makeup. In the experiment, Japanese female college students were applied pink or blue makeup. Then participants completed a gender-related self-rating scale, and then chose which one they wanted feminine things or masculine things. Results showed that among participant in blue condition, frequency to makeup in everyday life predicted the gender related choice: the more frequently they do makeup, the more they chose feminine things. We discussed the role of makeup color on the feeling and gender-related self-cognition for women.
著者
石井 国雄 田戸岡 好香
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.3, pp.240-248, 2015 (Released:2015-08-25)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
3

Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat.
著者
石井 国雄 田戸岡 好香
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.3, pp.240-248, 2015
被引用文献数
3

Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat.