著者
Wakana Okuda 奥田 若菜
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.317-332, 2019-01-25

Language policy is a governmental intervention that assigns languages arelative status. One language can thus be given priority over others by anauthoritarian state, and this distinction reflects the political and social situationof the society. In this article, the author discusses the process ofestablishing the legitimacy of Portuguese as an official language in Timor-Leste and illustrates two pillars of the discourse upon which this legitimacyhas been built. The first pillar is the invocation of history and leaders’speeches about Portuguese during the struggle for Timor-Leste’s independence,and the second is the argued necessity for Timor-Leste to join theinternational community for greater development. Resting on these two pillars,Portuguese has begun to function as the national language in Timor-Leste.
著者
河合 洋尚 Hironao Kawai
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.199-244, 2013

中国広東省・福建省・江西省の境界部に位置する山岳地帯は,世界中に散住する客家の故郷であり,そこの漢族住民のほとんどが客家で占められていると,一般的に考えられている。ところが,この「客家の故郷」における1980 年代以前のデーターを整理しなおしてみると,この地の漢族住民は必ずしも客家として記述されておらず,また,客家としての自己意識をもたない住民も少なくはなかった。この事実を踏まえ,本稿では,特に1980 年代以降の一連の空間政策により「客家の故郷」をめぐるイメージが形成され,ここの漢族住民が客家とみなされていったプロセスを明らかにする。The border district of Guangdong, Fujian, and Jiangxi province is generallyconsidered to be the "homeland of the Hakka" and the Han inhabitantsof this district are normally considered to be the Hakka. In fact, however,the inhabitants are not always described as Hakka in the documents of 1980sand after and they have recieved their particular identity as the Hakka onlyrecently. This paper aims to make clear the process by which the space policysince the 1980s has fabricated the image of the "homeland of the Hakka" andthe Hakka ethnicity.
著者
Safonova Tatiana Sántha István
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
Senri Ethnological Studies (ISSN:03876004)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, pp.59-79, 2016-12-08

This article is based on several periods of long-term field research conductedbetween 1995 and 2009 among various groups of Evenki, who inhabit the Baikalregion of East Siberia. During these expeditions the researchers recognized that itwas problematical to categorize the Evenki as exclusively hunter-gatherers,although compared to other people, especially their neighbors, they seemed tomaintain a lifestyle best described as hunter-gathering. Based on evidencecollected by other ethnographers, mainly Shirokogoroff and Shubin, this articleargues that the hunter-gathering lifestyle is always framed by contacts with cattlebreeders,traders, peasants, miners and people with other occupations. Very oftentransformations and transitions in a hunter-gathering lifestyle are caused by eithersocial or environmental changes. As a conclusion it could be said that the huntergatheringlifestyle can be defined as a strategy of adaptation to externalcircumstances, and in this respect temporary inclusion of cattle, horse and reindeerbreeding, as well as wage labor, do not mean complete assimilation. On thecontrary, these strategies help maintain hunter-gathering activities in the long term.
著者
楊 海英 Haiying Yang
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.4, pp.629-657, 2008

清朝の光緒年間の初期に,「中興の臣」とされる左宗棠の部下で,湖南出身の劉福堂(別名劉厚基)という人物が赴任先の陝西の要塞都市である楡林で『圖開勝跡』という漢籍を編集した。同書には清朝末期の楡林地域の碑刻などが数多く抄録されているだけでなく,ときの辺疆における軍事状況を反映した絵画や隣接するオルドス・モンゴルを描いた地圖と絵画,さらにはオルドス・モンゴルの盟長をつとめていたバダラホ(1808–1883)が書いた満洲語の文章も収められている。こうした豊富な内容を有する『圖開勝跡』は清朝の西北部から中央アジアの東部までを巻きこんだ回民反乱時の陝西地域とオルドス地域の社会を活写した第一級の資料である。 劉福堂とバダラホ王の二人は協力し合って陝西北部の回民反乱軍を鎮圧した。反乱鎮圧後,バダラホ王は劉福堂の本『圖開勝跡』のなかに「凱旋圖」を書き添えて,自分の戦功をアピールした。「凱旋圖」にはオルドスの7 つの旗内にある寺院や遊牧民の天幕と家畜群,それに王(ジャサク,札薩克)の住む宮殿が活写されている。本論文ではまず「凱旋圖」が成立した歴史的な背景を解説し,その上で同圖が伝えるオルドス7 旗の歴史的・民族学的情報を抽出し整理する。バダラホ王の「凱旋圖」は19 世紀末のオルドス・モンゴルの政治と社会を研究するのに欠かせない重要な資料であることが明らかになった。In the early phase of the Guangxu ( 光緒) era, during the Qing dynasty,a Chinese administrator called Liu Futang ( 劉福堂, also known as Liu Houji劉厚基), who came from Hunan province, was engaged in the compilation ofa historical book titled "Tukai Shengji" ( 圖開勝跡). This book was writtenin Chinese. Liu Futang served the renowned Chinese statesman and militaryleader Zuo Zongtang ( 左宗棠). Zuo Zongtang is famous for his allegianceand distinction in his political and military career. He saved his country fromcivil wars and conflicts against foreign powers, thus re-establishing the powerof the Qing dynasty, which had been suffering from serious crises underminingChinese sovereignty. The compilation of the book was carried out in Yulin( 楡林), a fortress town in Shanxi province, where Liu Futang and his troopswere stationed. Included in the book are not only many epitaphs collectednear Yulin around the end of the Qing dynasty, but also paintings and drawingsdepicting military expeditions along the frontier regions of China. Thebook also contains maps and paintings of Ordos, Mongolia. Furthermore, it isworth noting that it includes a collection of writings in the Manchurian language,written by Jasagh Badaraqu (1808–1883) of Ordos Mongolia. "TukaiShengji" is an excellent collection of historical materials vividly describingthe circumstances of Shanxi and Ordos around the end of the 19th century,when the Hui Rebellion broke out, spreading over a vast region of north westChina and the eastern part of Central Asia. As far as I know, however, noin depth research of this book has been presented in the academic circles ofMongolian studies before.Liu Futang and Jasagh Badaraqu coordinated their military efforts andtogether calmed the Hui rebellion in north Shanxi. After successfully suppressingthe Hui uprising, King Badaraqu had several picture scrolls titled the"Return of the Army in Triumph" incorporated into "Tukai Shengji", whichwas being compiled by Liu Futang. It is understood that, by doing so, KingBadaraqu was pursuing publicity for his military distinction. Graphicallydepicted in these scrolls are temples in the seven Ordos banners in those days,tents and livestock owned by nomad tribes, the palace of Jasagh and otheritems. This paper extracts, streamlines and presents historical as well as ethnologicalinformation about the seven Ordos banners that is incorporated intothese seven picture scrolls. Based on that information, this paper discussesthe historical background against which the scrolls were produced, thus analysingthe specific nature of the paintings. It has been proved that these picturescrolls, the "Return of the Army in Triumph", are indispensable historicalmaterials for us to understand Ordos Mongol politics and society around theend of the 19th century.
著者
大塚 和義 Kazuyoshi Ohtsuka
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.4, pp.778-822, 1977-01-14

Prior to the 20th century the Ainu caught large fish and seaanimals by means of toggle-headed harpoons known as kite.The 120 examples referred to in this paper represent the majorityof kite known to be extant. The author has classified these intotypes according to their distribution, shape and function.Type A-found only along the coast of Iburi. Its rear barbsare large and wing-shaped, with flat ends. Used mainly forcatching swordfish.Type B-found in most Ainu regions, this type can further beclassed into five subtypes (B1–B5). Its rear barbs are pointed.Used for catching sunfish, dolphin, and probably all kinds of seaanimals (seals, fur seal, sea lions, whales, etc.).Type C-found on the Japan Sea side of Oshima peninsulaand along the straits of Tsugaru. Similar in shape to Type B,it is rhombic in cross-section with a longitudinal ridge line.Targets of use unknown.Type D-found only on the coast of the Gulf of Uchiura.The back cavity is shallow and the top of the rear barb is Vshaped.The tip is bent slightly so that aconite poison can beplaced in the neck groove. Used for catching whales.Type E-found along the Gulf of Uchiura. It has a holeperforated at right angles to the face of the harpoon.In addition to these 120 from modern times, numerous otherAinu harpoons have been retrieved from archaeological sites.These can be given the following chronological arrangement:Types A and B2 may, be considered to be the most recentsince they have not been found in prehistoric ruins. I assumethat they came into existence around the beginning of the 19thcentury. Type C can be traced to the end of the 18th century,and Type D presumably derives from the same period.Harpoons of Type B (except B2) were found inside the bodyof a whale caught offshore from Keichi in 1725. So it can beargued that they date at the latest to the early 18th century.Furthermore, harpoons of a type similar to Type B occur inarchaeological sites in Hokkaido, where they date to around the17th century. I have tentatively classed these Hokkaidospecimens as Type F.Type F appears to have been developed as a cross betweentwo types of harpoons. One was the so-called Ketsunyu-rit&mori,a harpoon known as early as 7000 years ago in Hokkaido. Theother was a type of harpoon that came in from the north aroundthe time of the 12th century. With Type F we have the firstform of the Ainu kite.
著者
岸上 伸啓 Nobuhiro Kishigami
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.3, pp.399-470, 2011-02-25

文化人類学者は,さまざまな時代や地域,文化における人類とクジラの諸関係を研究してきた。捕鯨の文化人類学は,基礎的な調査と応用的な調査からなるが,研究者がいかに現代世界と関わりを持っているかを表明することができるフォーラム(場)である。また,研究者は現代の捕鯨を研究することによってグローバル化する世界システムのいくつかの様相を解明し,理解することができる。本稿において筆者は捕鯨についての主要な文化人類学研究およびそれらに関連する調査動向や特徴,諸問題について紹介し,検討を加える。近年では,各地の先住民生存捕鯨や地域捕鯨を例外とすれば,捕鯨に関する文化人類学的研究はあまり行われていない。先住民生存捕鯨研究や地域捕鯨研究では日本人による調査が多数行われているが,基礎的な研究が多い。一方,欧米人による先住民生存捕鯨研究は実践志向の研究が多い。文化人類学が大きく貢献できる研究課題として,(1)人類とクジラの多様な関係の地域的,歴史的な比較,(2)「先住民生存捕鯨」概念の再検討,(3)反捕鯨NGO と捕鯨推進NGO の研究,(4)反捕鯨運動の根底にある社会倫理と動物福祉,およびクジラ観に関する研究,(5)マスメディアのクジラ観やイルカ観への社会的な諸影響,(6)ホエール・ウォッチング観光の研究,(7)鯨類資源の持続可能な利用と管理に関する応用研究,(8)クジラや捕鯨者,環境NGO,政府,国際捕鯨委員会のような諸アクターによって構成される複雑なネットワークシステムに関するポリティカル・エコロジー研究などを提案する。これらの研究によって,文化人類学は学問的にも実践的にも捕鯨研究に貢献できると主張する。
著者
小長谷 有紀 帯谷 知可 ダダバエフ ティムール 島村 一平 吉田 世津子
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2009-04-01 (Released:2009-04-01)

モンゴルおよび中央アジア諸国において20世紀に人びとが経験した社会主義時代の生活上の大きな変化について理解を深めるために、写真やポスターなどの公的な画像記録と、それらによって喚起される人びとの私的な記憶を収集した。とくに、高齢者の語りを人生史として収集した。公的な記録と私的な記憶のずれや、地域による違いなどから、社会主義的近代化プログラムの画一性と、地域によって異なる文化的な多様性とを明らかにした。
著者
費 孝通[著] 塚田 誠之[翻訳]
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.461-479, 1997

For sixty years, the author has been engaged in the study of ethnicgroups in China. This paper represents an attempt to provide an overallview of his personal experiences in this field which in turn sheds light onthe ways in which he has viewed ethnic identity. Prior to 1949, after havingbeen trained in the subjects of anthropology and sociology, theauthor started to conduct fieldwork in both Han and non-Han communities.After 1949, for the purpose of creating equality among all nationalitiesin China, the newly established People's Republic administereda major research program to identify ethnic groups within itsterritorial sovereignty. As a member of this program, the author was involvedin extensive nationality surveys. Through these surveys, he cameto realize that ethnic groups were shaped in the communal lives of theirmembers and transformative in time. This observation led the author toemphasize the significance of the social historical perspective inethnological studies.Even though the "Anti-Rightist Movement" and the "CulturalRevolution" deprived him of 23 years of academic life, the lessons ofethnic identification which he gained in the early fifties remained in theauthor's mind. In 1979, he re-started work among minority nationalities.Personal involvement in various research projects and in thepolicy-making process has made it possible to put forward a new argument.In 1989, summarizing his thoughts, the author put forword argumentthat China is an integrated nation with cultural diversity. In doingso, he had two criticisms in mind. On the one hand, he criticizes the ideathat one ethnic entity should be ruled by one independent state which haslegitimated various violent campaigns of ethnic separation in Europe.However, the author's own studies indicate that different ethnic groupshave lived together for centuries within China. Therefore, the Eurocentricdefinition of nation-state is not applicable in China. On the otherhand, historical studies of interrelationships among ethnic groups inChina have demonstrated that the Chinese nation was shaped through atwo-way process. From the bottom-up perspective, the history of theChinese nation is one through which diverse ethnic cultures and socialsolidarities became integrated into a higher level order. From the topdownperspective, the higher level order has never excluded lower levelethnic cultural systems. Such a two-way historical perspective offers acritique of those who attempt to draw a clear-cut demarcation line betweenthe Chinese nation and "other cultures" within it.