- 国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
- vol.32, no.4, pp.629-657, 2008
清朝の光緒年間の初期に,「中興の臣」とされる左宗棠の部下で,湖南出身の劉福堂(別名劉厚基)という人物が赴任先の陝西の要塞都市である楡林で『圖開勝跡』という漢籍を編集した。同書には清朝末期の楡林地域の碑刻などが数多く抄録されているだけでなく,ときの辺疆における軍事状況を反映した絵画や隣接するオルドス・モンゴルを描いた地圖と絵画,さらにはオルドス・モンゴルの盟長をつとめていたバダラホ(1808–1883)が書いた満洲語の文章も収められている。こうした豊富な内容を有する『圖開勝跡』は清朝の西北部から中央アジアの東部までを巻きこんだ回民反乱時の陝西地域とオルドス地域の社会を活写した第一級の資料である。 劉福堂とバダラホ王の二人は協力し合って陝西北部の回民反乱軍を鎮圧した。反乱鎮圧後,バダラホ王は劉福堂の本『圖開勝跡』のなかに「凱旋圖」を書き添えて,自分の戦功をアピールした。「凱旋圖」にはオルドスの7 つの旗内にある寺院や遊牧民の天幕と家畜群,それに王(ジャサク,札薩克)の住む宮殿が活写されている。本論文ではまず「凱旋圖」が成立した歴史的な背景を解説し,その上で同圖が伝えるオルドス7 旗の歴史的・民族学的情報を抽出し整理する。バダラホ王の「凱旋圖」は19 世紀末のオルドス・モンゴルの政治と社会を研究するのに欠かせない重要な資料であることが明らかになった。In the early phase of the Guangxu ( 光緒) era, during the Qing dynasty,a Chinese administrator called Liu Futang ( 劉福堂, also known as Liu Houji劉厚基), who came from Hunan province, was engaged in the compilation ofa historical book titled "Tukai Shengji" ( 圖開勝跡). This book was writtenin Chinese. Liu Futang served the renowned Chinese statesman and militaryleader Zuo Zongtang ( 左宗棠). Zuo Zongtang is famous for his allegianceand distinction in his political and military career. He saved his country fromcivil wars and conflicts against foreign powers, thus re-establishing the powerof the Qing dynasty, which had been suffering from serious crises underminingChinese sovereignty. The compilation of the book was carried out in Yulin( 楡林), a fortress town in Shanxi province, where Liu Futang and his troopswere stationed. Included in the book are not only many epitaphs collectednear Yulin around the end of the Qing dynasty, but also paintings and drawingsdepicting military expeditions along the frontier regions of China. Thebook also contains maps and paintings of Ordos, Mongolia. Furthermore, it isworth noting that it includes a collection of writings in the Manchurian language,written by Jasagh Badaraqu (1808–1883) of Ordos Mongolia. "TukaiShengji" is an excellent collection of historical materials vividly describingthe circumstances of Shanxi and Ordos around the end of the 19th century,when the Hui Rebellion broke out, spreading over a vast region of north westChina and the eastern part of Central Asia. As far as I know, however, noin depth research of this book has been presented in the academic circles ofMongolian studies before.Liu Futang and Jasagh Badaraqu coordinated their military efforts andtogether calmed the Hui rebellion in north Shanxi. After successfully suppressingthe Hui uprising, King Badaraqu had several picture scrolls titled the"Return of the Army in Triumph" incorporated into "Tukai Shengji", whichwas being compiled by Liu Futang. It is understood that, by doing so, KingBadaraqu was pursuing publicity for his military distinction. Graphicallydepicted in these scrolls are temples in the seven Ordos banners in those days,tents and livestock owned by nomad tribes, the palace of Jasagh and otheritems. This paper extracts, streamlines and presents historical as well as ethnologicalinformation about the seven Ordos banners that is incorporated intothese seven picture scrolls. Based on that information, this paper discussesthe historical background against which the scrolls were produced, thus analysingthe specific nature of the paintings. It has been proved that these picturescrolls, the "Return of the Army in Triumph", are indispensable historicalmaterials for us to understand Ordos Mongol politics and society around theend of the 19th century.