著者
柳原 伸洋
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.35-53, 2016-01-31

This study examines and compares the films, dramas, and comics that describe air-raids mainly in Japan and Germany. We first consider the definitions and the uses of the words "Kusyu" and "Kubaku," that is, "air-raid." Next, we examine the post-war history of Japan and Germany and the "popularity" of bombardment as a basis of comparison. Thereafter, we characterize the differences and similarities between these countries through examples of Japanese and German works of popular culture. We conclude by presenting memorable descriptions of bombing, such as love during the bombing and the feelings of revenge. However, the bodies and faces of bomber pilots have been re-eliminated from the popular culture of Japan and Germany.
著者
小川 有希子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.54, pp.96-112, 249, 1999-01-31

The purpose of this study was to propose a method of 'qualitative' content anlysis, and to examine its methodological usefulness by relating its results to the viewers' reactions. A televised drama, in which a committed teacher dealt with the problem of bullying the classroom was analyzed, and viewers' reactions to the drama were collected by a questionnaire and summarized. The content analysis was done in the following manner: First, the development of the drama was analyzed and then segmented into units. Second, the units were categorized into three negative stages and two positive stages in terms of the characters' mental state. It was found that this method of content analysis was quite informative for identifying the segments of the problem that probably induced each reaction of the viewers.
著者
山本 昭宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.79, pp.153-170, 2011-07-31

This paper analyzes articles about nuclear energy in three science magazines, Kagaku Asahi (Asahi Science), Shizen (Nature), and Kagaku (Science), which were published in Japan in the 1950s. The analytical methodology used in the study is a combination of quantitative analysis and theory concerned with the agenda-setting function of the media. The study aims to reveal the relationship between the discourse found in the articles and Japanese opinions concerning nuclear energy development and radioactive substances, and to explore the qualitative changes in the discourse of the articles and the reasons underlying such changes. One conclusion that emerges from the quantitative analysis is that the number of discourses concerning nuclear energy increased between 1954 and 1955, and following this started to steadily decrease. Generally speaking, the Lucky Dragon 5 incident in 1954, in which the crew of a Japanese fishing vessel was exposed to nuclear fallout from US nuclear testing on Bikini Atoll, is considered to have started the anti-nuclear movement in Japan. At this time, in the science magazines, there was an increase in specialist discourses concerning topics such as nuclear reactors and methods of measuring nuclear fallout. In reality, almost all the scientists involved in nuclear energy research and development thought that they had no connection to the anti-nuclear movement. Based on a purely dualistic conception of good and bad, they continued to position nuclear energy as something to be used for good. From this perspective, it can be seen that in the Japanese science magazines of the 1950s, the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were understood only in a very limited sense.
著者
佐藤 潤司
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.85, pp.185-204, 2014-07-31

In this paper, I will specifically and objectively identify critical opinions on the mass media that have developed on the Internet about a report giving the real names of the Japanese victims of the hostage crisis of January 2013 in Algeria, and consider the structural factors of such criticism. The targets of this analysis are 1262 cases of opinions output from highly-ranked Web pages displayed on a search engine listing using fixed criteria. 7.1% of the opinions supported the news report, 68.5% of opinions did not support it, with other opinions accounting for 24.4%. The results of an analysis of opinions that did not support the report by using a text-mining approach did not necessarily indicate criticisms of the report that used the real names of the victims, but were an accumulation of various feelings of distrust against the mass media expressed on the Internet that were triggered by this news report. In addition, opinions that did not support the report were formed using language structures peculiar to the Internet; namely, a cyber-cascade that began at the point where people critical of the mass media became sympathetic and radicalized as unclear information spread on the Internet.
著者
荒牧 央
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.59-75, 2010-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
26

Due to the decrease of response rate and the inspection limitation of basic resident register recently, the execution of public opinion poll faces many difficulties. At once the response rate of face-to-face interview had from 70% to 80%, but because of the increase of temporary absence and refusal, recent response rate decreased to 50% level. Especially the increase of refusal become remarkable and in addition to the increase of privacy consideration as a background, the shortage of understanding for meaning of survey and the evasion feeling of visitation by interviewer may exist. To deal with such a temporary absence and refusal, there are some movements of reevaluation of self-registering investigation such as drop-off/pick-up and postal survey. Once postal survey has a shortage of low response rate, some examples show the high response rate recently. And the opinion pools which can use such register has been limited due to the change of inspection system in the basic resident register and electoral roll. Moreover, there are issues that criteria and procedure of right or wrong of inspection are not unified each autonomy level. Recently, while public opinion polls conducted by mass-media are mainly persuaded by telephone survey of RDD, RDD has some issues that the increasing of young people who does not have fixed-line causes distortion of samples. To study more about these issues related to public opinion polls, it may be needed to share and discuss with the fielding methods among survey organizations.
著者
東 園子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.83, pp.31-45, 2013-07-31

Today, it is easy for ordinary people to widely disseminate their message and works over the Internet. Nevertheless, many people still disseminate information by paper media. For example, people known as otaku - fans of Japanese anime, manga, video games, etc. - often create fanzines binding manga and novels they produced themselves. They then sell these fanzines at events in Japan in which fanzines are sold. With the growth of the Internet, otaku also exhibit their works on the web. But many otaku, especially female otaku, still use paper media to publish their works. This paper considers the influences of electric media on paper media and the merits of using paper media as a tool for personal publications, by analyzing ways to use media in creative activities, and it also examines the female otaku's media awareness based on my research and interviews. Originally, fanzines created by otaku have four functions: publishing fan works, informing others about their creative activity, talking about one's favorite works and characters, and interacting with others who share the same interests. Events where trading fanzines takes place also have these four functions. As otaku use online tools for their creative activities, electric media have replaced paper media for informing others about their creative activity and discussing their favorite things. But paper media have advantages in publishing works and interacting with others. Paper media is more suitable for placing manga and treated better than electric media. By selling fanzines at events, otaku can enjoy face-to-face communication with others. They can also directly gauge the reader's response to their works. Works created by fans are provided free of charge on the Internet. On the other hand, fanzines are traded with money. The people I interviewed who create fanzines regard receiving payment for their works as a sign of appreciation for them. But readers enjoy their works without any cost on the web. So, creators of fanzines feel strongly that their readers should accept their works when they publish them by paper media rather than electric media. For these reasons, the creative female otaku I interviewed prefer paper media in this age of the rising Internet.
著者
小川 豊武
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.84, pp.89-107, 2014-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the category that applies to young people was carried out in national newspapers in Japan. Recent research in Japan criticizing discourses on the youth in mass media through empirical data has increased. Researchers insist that many of the discourses on the youth were stereotypes that ignored their diversity. However, in the only studies that are intended to dismantle the clarity of discourses on the youth, the question of why non-empirical discourses have been accepted by the reading public has been overlooked. Given these issues of concern, this research uses conceptual analysis in ethnomethodical research to understand how the category that applies to young people was carried out. Ethnomethodology aims to clarify the operational norms that make it possible to understand their act by describing how people use categories and concepts. In precious studies, other researches have focused on seinen and wakamono: seinen roughly means youth while wakamono means young people. The subject of analysis is articles in national newspapers from the 1950s to the 1960s, which used seinen and wakamono categories. This analysis revealed that in mass media the carrying out of seinen and wakamono as categories actually had various activities. These categories were never intended to be only stereotypes, rather they have allowed for many activities other than understanding the actual conditions of young people. Seinen was associated with organized institutions, with strong ties to educational oppotunities for men and women. Wakamono was associated with non-institutional groups, and it was also associated with the mass media's self-describing and synthesizing practice. By way of this function, these categories were affecting the way of segmentation and how newspapers create an understanding of young people.
著者
山森 宙史
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.87, pp.197-216, 2015-07-31

This study aims to consider the historical process of establishing of Manga by focusing on Comic Book Sections in Japanese bookstores from the early 1970s to 1980s. Prior studies on Manga tend to focus on trades outside of regular distribution channels to emphasize peculiar characteristics of the emerging media. Consequently, the social process during the 1970s and 1980s to pervade Manga almost all of the retail bookstores through wholesalers has not been clarified. The article shows how Manga to be recognized as one of the established genre in bookstores by concentrating on the particular standard of shinshoban (pocket paperback edition) comics which became one of the best sellers in retail bookstores after the 1970s. The early spread of permanent section of shinshoban comics during the 1970s can be understood as a conflict between Manga and other genre of books, mostly literal arts, and through industrial change surrounding book business as a background. In the late 1970s, sale structure of the small and medium-sized retail bookstores became more dependent on the shinshoban comics. The situation forced booksellers to redefine the identity of their bookstore represented in the composition of sections. Accordingly, most booksellers decided to redefine the identity of their bookstores as a space for consumption from a space of cultural excellence. Booksellers defined Manga merely as a commodity and accepted shinshoban comics to make up a permanent section in their bookstores to compromise their ideals. However, constructing Manga sections in bookstores was nothing less than legitimizing Manga as one of the established genres of printed books. Therefore, the establishment of Manga in the 1970s and 1980s can be seen as a process of reconsidering the publication culture for the Japanese publication industry in a transitional period.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.82, pp.173-191, 2013-01-31

This paper examines activities related to reading mobile phone novels (Keitai Shosetsu), which became a social phenomenon in the 2000s. Previous literature on readers or the audience of such texts has not focused on the specific local activities related to text, because existing models and theories of audience do not adequately help researchers conduct a comprehensive study of such topics. In addition, studies on mobile phone novels have overlooked the various related activities accompanying reading and instead focused exclusively on the originality of media usage and the novelty of the stories' plots. In contrast, my research approach focused on examining local activities - how students en-gage in reading, how they discuss the novels - through fieldwork, including participant observation and group interviews of middle school students. I found that most girls spent their recess time reading and talking about mobile phone novels not by means of mobile phones but instead by means of physical books, while boys attempted to become friends with the girls under the pretext of asking them about their favorite novels. These activities were analyzed using Sacks' notion of Membership Categorization Device (MCD) in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. My results revealed firstly that reading mobile phone novels presupposed the use of the category "girl." Further, while girls enjoyed reading these mobile phone novels as love stories, boys considered the content of the novels to be indecent, which, according to the girls, is because most boys read only the obscene sections of the novels. This difference in perspectives regarding reading mobile phone novels is the result of using MCD. Furthermore, students' behaviors were not driven by their culture, but accomplished by membership categorization. Therefore, as an exception a boy read content liked by girls. The above observations suggest that students are not readers or the audience of texts as a model, but instead behave according to the uses of membership categories.
著者
三谷 文栄
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.205-224, 2010-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
16

The purpose of this paper is to examine the media's role in Japan's foreign policy process through revising R.M. Entman's model and analyzing a case with a revised model. In studies about the nexus of media and foreign policy, the media is not regarded as an actor who critically reports about a government's performance. Rather, preceding studies show that media preferentially covers information a government posts. However, the rapid spread of globalization after the Cold War helps heighten the linkage between domestic and foreign problems. This enables the public to access information about foreign countries much easier and requires us to reconsider media influence. This paper examines R.M. Entman's study, which has attracted special attention among the scholars in this field. His study proposed a model-the Cascade Model-for analysis of the nexus between foreign policy process and media's role (Entman 2004). This paper points out some problems of this model, and proposes a revised Cascade Model. Also it applies the revised model to Japan, specifically the Comfort Women Issue in 2007. As a case study, this paper analyses the interaction between the actions of political elite and news coverage of Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun and Sankei Shimbun. In this case study, the argument that media preferentially covers a government's interpretation is not supported. On the contrary, the media criticizes the government from their point of view. Additionally, Prime Minister Abe made a decision to back off from his own belief that comfort women are prostitutes. Finally, he accepted the traditional government's interpretation, the Kono Statement, through the intervention of media and public opinion. In this case, a media frame which reflects the views of Japan's public and each media was found, and this frame pressured on Prime Minister Abe to accept the Kono Statement.
著者
是永 論
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.104-120, 2004-01-31

The aim of this research is to examine the practical understanding of commercial films. Conversation analysis was conducted on viewers watching films in foreign languages so that they would mainly retain visual information. The main findings are as follows: First, the viewers identified the actors in advertisements by using categorization (Sacks[1972]). Second, they mediate the actors according to the plot by "footing" (Goffman[1980]). Thus the viewers find the plot appealing, according to neutrality and universality of advertisng discourse.(C)日本マス・コミュニケーション学会:このデータは日本マス・コミュニケーション学会の許諾を得て作成しております。
著者
樋口 喜昭
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.67-88, 2014-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
48

This paper first examines how the Japan Broadcasting Corporation broadcasted in each region prior to the Pacific War, and how they regarded regional characteristics in each broadcast, based on data from journals such as The Japan Broadcasting Corporation journal from that time, in order to clarify discussion of locality in broadcasts prior to the Pacific War. From this research, it is clear that the locality of early radio broadcasts in Japan had three different aspects as follows: 1) the locality of broadcasting that existed initially, 2) the subsequent centralization of Japanese Broadcasting, and 3) the resumption of local broadcasting for wartime emergency broadcasts. The first aspect stemmed from the fact the Corporation organized entertainment centered programs and had been trying to provide programs to suit the taste of listeners in each region. The second aspect stemmed from the fact when the ratio of program leadership grew nationwide, regionalism in broadcasting was often emphasized by the Corporation through strengthening central control, and it was possible to broadcast relative to the political background of the time. The third aspect stemmed from the fact since it had become necessary to acknowledge practical issues such as increased production and promotion of the war, local broadcasts were once again emphasized. The first and third aspects prioritize local circumstances in broadcasting for different reasons. However, the second aspect deals with standardized local broadcasts, used by the Corporation, to influence the Japanese public.
著者
難波 功士
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.70, pp.29-39, 2007-01-30

The term 'subculture' has been used with many different meanings. From the point of view what culture was supposed to be against the term 'sub-'culture, I try to classify the uses of subculture into three groups. 1) Subculture as an antonym of high culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to massmedia. 2) Subculture as an antonym of total culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to segmented media. 3) Subculture as an antonym of main or dominant culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to alternative media. Based on the typology, I try to survey recent treatises or books on 'media and subculture'.
著者
木村 忠正
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.93, pp.43-60, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-10-13)
参考文献数
32

People’s activities on the Internet are becoming digitized, and substantiveanalysis methodologies such as quantitative content analysis and network analysisare developing rapidly. Meanwhile, they cultural anthropology is methodologicallycharacterized as essentially qualitative, with ethnography at their core.How can cultural anthropology approach our online activities and our lives ingeneral with the Internet as a component through the method of ethnography?It is necessary to fundamentally revisit the conventional methodology built onthe premise of the analog age with regard to ethnography in the context of thecyberspace field. Accordingly, cultural anthropologists who are interested in Internet studiesand communications researchers who engage in an ethnographic approach haveaccumulated diverse developments in methodological discussions surroundingonline ethnography, virtual ethnography, digital anthropology, and so on. Based on the author’s awareness of these issues and the developments inscientific discussions, has been proposed hybrid ethnography. The aim of thispaper is to clarify the methodological subject of media studies pertaining to thedigital network age based on the research the author conducted in online publicopinion as part of the larger framework of the changes in ethnographicalapproaches, while attempting to propose concrete arguments on the methodologyof hybrid ethnography by presenting research examples that include theelements of: 1. quantitative content analysis, 2. data structure analysis( variousmethods of multivariate analysis), and 3.( social) network analysis.
著者
柴野 京子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, pp.41-59, 2008-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
49

This study aims to examine the impact of distribution systems on publishing and reading in modern Japan. In analyzing the formation of bookstores from the Meiji through Showa periods, this essay considers the two major spaces within those stores - the bookshelf and the table - within their distinct historical contexts. While the use of bookshelves came from the West and formed an intellectual, and constructed space, traditional Japanese books for commoners were sold on tables placed outdoors to provide easy access to the masses. The modern "bookstore" integrated these two spaces, resulting in the formation of an intermediate class of readers.
著者
土橋 臣吾
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.87, pp.17-35, 2015-07-31

The aim of this paper is to study today's information environments surrounding cellphones from local relationships between cellphones and humans. To this end, the authors first examined the characteristics of cellphones as objects - more specifically, the meaning of the mobility and variability of cellphones. Then the authors tackled the following issues: (1) developing a theoretical perspective for analyzing relationships between mobile and variable technology and humans; and (2) studying contemporary technological trends regarding design among agencies of cellphone users. To solve the first issue, the authors first examined the framework for studying the adoption of technologies in homes (fixed space) for comparison and showed the limitations of the framework with a view to developing a perspective for analyzing relationships between the mobile and variable cellphone technology and humans. The authors' study revealed that to analyze relationships between cellphones and humans, it is necessary to assume a structure of collaboration between technology and humans rather than confrontation between the two and that humans who use cellphones can be understood as bundles of agencies that continue to change in the structure. To solve the second issue, based on the perspective developed in the above analysis, the authors studied how agencies of cellphone users are being developed and designed in the following two technological trends in recent years: the introduction of ubiquitous technology and the widespread use of applications. The authors' findings revealed that while these two technological trends are separate from each other, they are similar in that they both capture people's activities and experiences in great detail and create information environments in accordance with the flow of everyday life. As a result, all areas of humans' daily lives will become targets of development and design. Based on these findings, the authors finally examined how they can view technology from a critical perspective in such information environments. The results of their study led them to believe that it becomes very difficult to view technology from a critical perspective in a structure that supports collaboration between technology and humans. In order to overcome such difficulty, it is necessary to change the notion of critique from what is projected from outside to what reorganizes an information environment from within its inner structure.
著者
北田 暁大
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.53, pp.83-96, 213, 1998-07-31

Offering the proposition "Media is the messages, " Murshall McLuhan indicated that the modality of media consumption can define our kinetic sense and thoughts. The unfortunate acceptance of McLuhan's arguments invited the lack of the sociological scrutiny. This paper will rethink the theoretical implication of McLuhan's proposition from the viewpoints of social system theory developed by Niklas Luhmann. His theory clarifies the theoretical difference between face-to-face communication and mediated communication, and the concept of "observation" will give us the alternative idea of "Medialiteracy".
著者
池上 賢
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.91, pp.103-121, 2017-07-31 (Released:2017-11-07)
参考文献数
15

In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the identity of audiencesand their experiences of manga. Firstly, from a theoretical perspective, we discussthe outcomes and problems of the constructivist view of audience research.Secondly, we point out that the notion of narrative identity and the idea ofmedia as a resource is effective. In addition, we argue that the process of positioningmanga experiences as an element of audience’s narratives while theytalk about their life stories is effective. We analyzed the data by using the lifestory method of dialogical constructionism. As a result of our analysis, we foundfollowing findings: first, in the narration of manga experience related to identity,manga experience was positioned in a certain role in an individual’s life story.Secondly, the construction of the identity using the manga experience as aresource was not done by an individual alone, but was carried out in participationwith others. Thirdly, the characteristics of manga as media were involvedin the construction of the narratives, specifically the fact that characters inshonen manga are often shown in their growth into adults, that shojo mangaoften includes transgender characters and that manga is made up of“ picturesand words” so that it is easy to share and has a high level of communicability.In contemporary society, media such as comics occupy an important position asa resource for audience’s identities, and an accumulation of research on the subjectis required in the future.