著者
佐藤 潤司
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.85, pp.185-204, 2014-07-31

In this paper, I will specifically and objectively identify critical opinions on the mass media that have developed on the Internet about a report giving the real names of the Japanese victims of the hostage crisis of January 2013 in Algeria, and consider the structural factors of such criticism. The targets of this analysis are 1262 cases of opinions output from highly-ranked Web pages displayed on a search engine listing using fixed criteria. 7.1% of the opinions supported the news report, 68.5% of opinions did not support it, with other opinions accounting for 24.4%. The results of an analysis of opinions that did not support the report by using a text-mining approach did not necessarily indicate criticisms of the report that used the real names of the victims, but were an accumulation of various feelings of distrust against the mass media expressed on the Internet that were triggered by this news report. In addition, opinions that did not support the report were formed using language structures peculiar to the Internet; namely, a cyber-cascade that began at the point where people critical of the mass media became sympathetic and radicalized as unclear information spread on the Internet.
著者
柳原 伸洋
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.35-53, 2016-01-31

This study examines and compares the films, dramas, and comics that describe air-raids mainly in Japan and Germany. We first consider the definitions and the uses of the words "Kusyu" and "Kubaku," that is, "air-raid." Next, we examine the post-war history of Japan and Germany and the "popularity" of bombardment as a basis of comparison. Thereafter, we characterize the differences and similarities between these countries through examples of Japanese and German works of popular culture. We conclude by presenting memorable descriptions of bombing, such as love during the bombing and the feelings of revenge. However, the bodies and faces of bomber pilots have been re-eliminated from the popular culture of Japan and Germany.
著者
小川 有希子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.54, pp.96-112, 249, 1999-01-31

The purpose of this study was to propose a method of 'qualitative' content anlysis, and to examine its methodological usefulness by relating its results to the viewers' reactions. A televised drama, in which a committed teacher dealt with the problem of bullying the classroom was analyzed, and viewers' reactions to the drama were collected by a questionnaire and summarized. The content analysis was done in the following manner: First, the development of the drama was analyzed and then segmented into units. Second, the units were categorized into three negative stages and two positive stages in terms of the characters' mental state. It was found that this method of content analysis was quite informative for identifying the segments of the problem that probably induced each reaction of the viewers.
著者
山本 昭宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.79, pp.153-170, 2011-07-31

This paper analyzes articles about nuclear energy in three science magazines, Kagaku Asahi (Asahi Science), Shizen (Nature), and Kagaku (Science), which were published in Japan in the 1950s. The analytical methodology used in the study is a combination of quantitative analysis and theory concerned with the agenda-setting function of the media. The study aims to reveal the relationship between the discourse found in the articles and Japanese opinions concerning nuclear energy development and radioactive substances, and to explore the qualitative changes in the discourse of the articles and the reasons underlying such changes. One conclusion that emerges from the quantitative analysis is that the number of discourses concerning nuclear energy increased between 1954 and 1955, and following this started to steadily decrease. Generally speaking, the Lucky Dragon 5 incident in 1954, in which the crew of a Japanese fishing vessel was exposed to nuclear fallout from US nuclear testing on Bikini Atoll, is considered to have started the anti-nuclear movement in Japan. At this time, in the science magazines, there was an increase in specialist discourses concerning topics such as nuclear reactors and methods of measuring nuclear fallout. In reality, almost all the scientists involved in nuclear energy research and development thought that they had no connection to the anti-nuclear movement. Based on a purely dualistic conception of good and bad, they continued to position nuclear energy as something to be used for good. From this perspective, it can be seen that in the Japanese science magazines of the 1950s, the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were understood only in a very limited sense.
著者
荒牧 央
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.59-75, 2010-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
26

Due to the decrease of response rate and the inspection limitation of basic resident register recently, the execution of public opinion poll faces many difficulties. At once the response rate of face-to-face interview had from 70% to 80%, but because of the increase of temporary absence and refusal, recent response rate decreased to 50% level. Especially the increase of refusal become remarkable and in addition to the increase of privacy consideration as a background, the shortage of understanding for meaning of survey and the evasion feeling of visitation by interviewer may exist. To deal with such a temporary absence and refusal, there are some movements of reevaluation of self-registering investigation such as drop-off/pick-up and postal survey. Once postal survey has a shortage of low response rate, some examples show the high response rate recently. And the opinion pools which can use such register has been limited due to the change of inspection system in the basic resident register and electoral roll. Moreover, there are issues that criteria and procedure of right or wrong of inspection are not unified each autonomy level. Recently, while public opinion polls conducted by mass-media are mainly persuaded by telephone survey of RDD, RDD has some issues that the increasing of young people who does not have fixed-line causes distortion of samples. To study more about these issues related to public opinion polls, it may be needed to share and discuss with the fielding methods among survey organizations.
著者
東 園子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.83, pp.31-45, 2013-07-31

Today, it is easy for ordinary people to widely disseminate their message and works over the Internet. Nevertheless, many people still disseminate information by paper media. For example, people known as otaku - fans of Japanese anime, manga, video games, etc. - often create fanzines binding manga and novels they produced themselves. They then sell these fanzines at events in Japan in which fanzines are sold. With the growth of the Internet, otaku also exhibit their works on the web. But many otaku, especially female otaku, still use paper media to publish their works. This paper considers the influences of electric media on paper media and the merits of using paper media as a tool for personal publications, by analyzing ways to use media in creative activities, and it also examines the female otaku's media awareness based on my research and interviews. Originally, fanzines created by otaku have four functions: publishing fan works, informing others about their creative activity, talking about one's favorite works and characters, and interacting with others who share the same interests. Events where trading fanzines takes place also have these four functions. As otaku use online tools for their creative activities, electric media have replaced paper media for informing others about their creative activity and discussing their favorite things. But paper media have advantages in publishing works and interacting with others. Paper media is more suitable for placing manga and treated better than electric media. By selling fanzines at events, otaku can enjoy face-to-face communication with others. They can also directly gauge the reader's response to their works. Works created by fans are provided free of charge on the Internet. On the other hand, fanzines are traded with money. The people I interviewed who create fanzines regard receiving payment for their works as a sign of appreciation for them. But readers enjoy their works without any cost on the web. So, creators of fanzines feel strongly that their readers should accept their works when they publish them by paper media rather than electric media. For these reasons, the creative female otaku I interviewed prefer paper media in this age of the rising Internet.
著者
小川 豊武
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.84, pp.89-107, 2014-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the category that applies to young people was carried out in national newspapers in Japan. Recent research in Japan criticizing discourses on the youth in mass media through empirical data has increased. Researchers insist that many of the discourses on the youth were stereotypes that ignored their diversity. However, in the only studies that are intended to dismantle the clarity of discourses on the youth, the question of why non-empirical discourses have been accepted by the reading public has been overlooked. Given these issues of concern, this research uses conceptual analysis in ethnomethodical research to understand how the category that applies to young people was carried out. Ethnomethodology aims to clarify the operational norms that make it possible to understand their act by describing how people use categories and concepts. In precious studies, other researches have focused on seinen and wakamono: seinen roughly means youth while wakamono means young people. The subject of analysis is articles in national newspapers from the 1950s to the 1960s, which used seinen and wakamono categories. This analysis revealed that in mass media the carrying out of seinen and wakamono as categories actually had various activities. These categories were never intended to be only stereotypes, rather they have allowed for many activities other than understanding the actual conditions of young people. Seinen was associated with organized institutions, with strong ties to educational oppotunities for men and women. Wakamono was associated with non-institutional groups, and it was also associated with the mass media's self-describing and synthesizing practice. By way of this function, these categories were affecting the way of segmentation and how newspapers create an understanding of young people.
著者
千葉 涼
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, pp.27-40, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-10-25)
参考文献数
23

In content analysis, which is defined as a scientific method for objectivelyanalyzing messages in communication, there are various rules that must beadhered to―similar to the methods in other social sciences. In this article, theauthor focuses on whether reliability tests are carried out and verifies the currentstatus of content analysis in Journal of Mass Communication Studies. As aresult, the author found that the reliability tests required in content analysiswere not sufficiently carried out, and that stricter adherence to the rules wasnecessary. Furthermore, when considering the proliferation of data analysis utilizingcomputers with higher reproducibility, it becomes difficult to define contentanalysis as only a quantitative and empirical method. Because of this, therewill be a need in the future to consider the tradeoff between reliability andvalidity, which is an issue in content analysis, in order to establish a new rolefor it as a method for achieving a balance between the two.
著者
三谷 文栄
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.205-224, 2010-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
16

The purpose of this paper is to examine the media's role in Japan's foreign policy process through revising R.M. Entman's model and analyzing a case with a revised model. In studies about the nexus of media and foreign policy, the media is not regarded as an actor who critically reports about a government's performance. Rather, preceding studies show that media preferentially covers information a government posts. However, the rapid spread of globalization after the Cold War helps heighten the linkage between domestic and foreign problems. This enables the public to access information about foreign countries much easier and requires us to reconsider media influence. This paper examines R.M. Entman's study, which has attracted special attention among the scholars in this field. His study proposed a model-the Cascade Model-for analysis of the nexus between foreign policy process and media's role (Entman 2004). This paper points out some problems of this model, and proposes a revised Cascade Model. Also it applies the revised model to Japan, specifically the Comfort Women Issue in 2007. As a case study, this paper analyses the interaction between the actions of political elite and news coverage of Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun and Sankei Shimbun. In this case study, the argument that media preferentially covers a government's interpretation is not supported. On the contrary, the media criticizes the government from their point of view. Additionally, Prime Minister Abe made a decision to back off from his own belief that comfort women are prostitutes. Finally, he accepted the traditional government's interpretation, the Kono Statement, through the intervention of media and public opinion. In this case, a media frame which reflects the views of Japan's public and each media was found, and this frame pressured on Prime Minister Abe to accept the Kono Statement.
著者
山森 宙史
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.87, pp.197-216, 2015-07-31

This study aims to consider the historical process of establishing of Manga by focusing on Comic Book Sections in Japanese bookstores from the early 1970s to 1980s. Prior studies on Manga tend to focus on trades outside of regular distribution channels to emphasize peculiar characteristics of the emerging media. Consequently, the social process during the 1970s and 1980s to pervade Manga almost all of the retail bookstores through wholesalers has not been clarified. The article shows how Manga to be recognized as one of the established genre in bookstores by concentrating on the particular standard of shinshoban (pocket paperback edition) comics which became one of the best sellers in retail bookstores after the 1970s. The early spread of permanent section of shinshoban comics during the 1970s can be understood as a conflict between Manga and other genre of books, mostly literal arts, and through industrial change surrounding book business as a background. In the late 1970s, sale structure of the small and medium-sized retail bookstores became more dependent on the shinshoban comics. The situation forced booksellers to redefine the identity of their bookstore represented in the composition of sections. Accordingly, most booksellers decided to redefine the identity of their bookstores as a space for consumption from a space of cultural excellence. Booksellers defined Manga merely as a commodity and accepted shinshoban comics to make up a permanent section in their bookstores to compromise their ideals. However, constructing Manga sections in bookstores was nothing less than legitimizing Manga as one of the established genres of printed books. Therefore, the establishment of Manga in the 1970s and 1980s can be seen as a process of reconsidering the publication culture for the Japanese publication industry in a transitional period.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.82, pp.173-191, 2013-01-31

This paper examines activities related to reading mobile phone novels (Keitai Shosetsu), which became a social phenomenon in the 2000s. Previous literature on readers or the audience of such texts has not focused on the specific local activities related to text, because existing models and theories of audience do not adequately help researchers conduct a comprehensive study of such topics. In addition, studies on mobile phone novels have overlooked the various related activities accompanying reading and instead focused exclusively on the originality of media usage and the novelty of the stories' plots. In contrast, my research approach focused on examining local activities - how students en-gage in reading, how they discuss the novels - through fieldwork, including participant observation and group interviews of middle school students. I found that most girls spent their recess time reading and talking about mobile phone novels not by means of mobile phones but instead by means of physical books, while boys attempted to become friends with the girls under the pretext of asking them about their favorite novels. These activities were analyzed using Sacks' notion of Membership Categorization Device (MCD) in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. My results revealed firstly that reading mobile phone novels presupposed the use of the category "girl." Further, while girls enjoyed reading these mobile phone novels as love stories, boys considered the content of the novels to be indecent, which, according to the girls, is because most boys read only the obscene sections of the novels. This difference in perspectives regarding reading mobile phone novels is the result of using MCD. Furthermore, students' behaviors were not driven by their culture, but accomplished by membership categorization. Therefore, as an exception a boy read content liked by girls. The above observations suggest that students are not readers or the audience of texts as a model, but instead behave according to the uses of membership categories.
著者
是永 論
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.104-120, 2004-01-31

The aim of this research is to examine the practical understanding of commercial films. Conversation analysis was conducted on viewers watching films in foreign languages so that they would mainly retain visual information. The main findings are as follows: First, the viewers identified the actors in advertisements by using categorization (Sacks[1972]). Second, they mediate the actors according to the plot by "footing" (Goffman[1980]). Thus the viewers find the plot appealing, according to neutrality and universality of advertisng discourse.(C)日本マス・コミュニケーション学会:このデータは日本マス・コミュニケーション学会の許諾を得て作成しております。
著者
細貝 亮
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, pp.13-22, 2019-01-31 (Released:2019-06-06)
参考文献数
18

In 2016, media outlets began conducting dual-frame random digit dialing(RDD) surveys that sample mobile phone numbers in addition to the traditionaltargets with landline phone numbers. The resulting greater outreach to hitherto underrepresented youths and mobile-only users has improved the credibilityof polls. Still, new challenges have been identified with surveys targetingmobile phone users. Examples include a predominant share of males amongrespondents and the difficulty in ensuring validity of survey caused by inconsistencywith methods used for surveys that target only landline phone users.Unfortunately, there are no promising alternatives for opinion polling in caseRDD surveys grow difficult. Worse still, failures in predicting election resultsand mistrust of the media have dampened confidence in polls. Going forward,pollsters must gain people’s trust regarding opinion polls by properly explaininghow they are supposed to be conducted.
著者
宇田川 敦史
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, pp.131-149, 2019-01-31 (Released:2019-06-06)
参考文献数
23

Rankings are ubiquitous forms of media in our daily life. In particular, rankingsof search engine results are one of the most commonly encountered media.However, most users are not aware of how web pages are ranked by searchengines and even the fact that search engine results are ranked. This meanssearch engines are “black-boxes” and rankings as a form of media are“obscured”. The purpose of this study is to clarify how this black-box andobscured media environment has been constructed by chronologically analyzingmajor personal computer magazines in the United States during the Web1.0era. This is a historical analysis of discourses regarding search engine rankingsand the World Wide Web in general.As a result, this study clarifies the following three conclusions. First, theWorld Wide Web was originally considered a plaything, like “web-surfing,”before becoming a tool for searching information. Secondly, tools for searchingwebpages changed from semantic directories to computational rankings. Lastly,discourse explaining computational technology gradually disappeared as a resultof a change in the search engine environment from over-competition to monopolization. Through this historical process, search engine rankings as media became“black-boxes” and implicit trust in the rankings were constructed. Consequently,users came to unconsciously consider only the top-ranked contents and rankingsas a form became obscured. This result suggests that the implicit trust inthese black-box platforms can potentially amplify “trolling” or “fake news.” Thestudy contributes to understanding how digital platforms affect daily communications,applying a media studies perspective.
著者
難波 功士
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.70, pp.29-39, 2007-01-30

The term 'subculture' has been used with many different meanings. From the point of view what culture was supposed to be against the term 'sub-'culture, I try to classify the uses of subculture into three groups. 1) Subculture as an antonym of high culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to massmedia. 2) Subculture as an antonym of total culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to segmented media. 3) Subculture as an antonym of main or dominant culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to alternative media. Based on the typology, I try to survey recent treatises or books on 'media and subculture'.