- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.82, no.733, pp.805-815, 2017 (Released:2017-03-30)
This paper aims to describe the nationwide formation and spread of Yami-ichi (black market) after World War II and government's involvements in their processes. Then it tries to regard yami-ichi as a kind of universal activity of city more than extraordinary experiences through the grasp of nationwide cases and trace the various process of developments. We have overviewed the nationwide municipal histories of 100 cities which had a population of more than 45,000 people out of 210 municipalized cities in 1940 for this purpose. The existence of Yami-ichi can be identified at least 99 of 100 cities. Firstly, Yami-ichi existed at almost all of the cities with more than 45,000 people. They were very various in the point of name, location in the city and those organizers, and their spatial form could be marshaled as three-step model in chronological order. The time lags of the emergences of nationwide Yami-ichi shows the possibility of the indirect propagation more than natural generation in each cities. Though the famous cases of big cities have tended to be covered in previous study, this paper could trace the nationwide and various cases. Also though the violent cases around the terminal station in Tokyo have tended to be covered, this paper could trace familiar and common cases in every 23 wards including the suburbs. Secondly, various types of involvements made by GHQ and governments were clarified. They got involved with all of the process such as not only crackdown but also installation for their selves from the birth to death of Yami-ichi, and their types and level of involvements were very various. We are going to advance the research about the characteristic cases which were shown in this study in the future. Also expanding the survey to the cities which had a population of less than 45, 000 people could be found. The formation of Yami-ichi seemed to need a certain level of population and the hinterland. So we are thinking that we can clarify the forming conditions of Yami-ichi and their critical points by finding the city where Yami-ichi couldn't form and examining the conditions of them.