著者
菅 さやか 唐沢 穣 服部 陽介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.21-29, 2009

People often infer the causes of observed actions and events, and explain the causes to others through communication. The present study examined the effects of a communicative goal on the causal explanation of criminal cases. Japanese college students were presented with a criminal case, along with an equal number of potential internal causes and external causes. The extremity of the crime (i.e., murder vs. robbery) was manipulated. Participants were asked to explain what led the protagonist to commit the crime, either in order to help another participant make judgments about the criminal person (i.e., communicative goal condition) or to use the explanation as a basis for their own judgments (i.e., individual goal condition). Participants then responded to a free re- call task. The results revealed that the communicative goal facilitated the use of both internal and external causal information in explanations. Path analyses indicated that causal explanation mediated the effect of the communicative goal on the memory of stimulus information. The importance of communication in the study of causal attribution and related domains were discussed.
著者
桑山 恵真 工藤 恵理子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.109-118, 2010

People are unaware of the psychological processes that attenuate negative feelings, thus resulting in affective forecasting errors. Since people are unaware that these processes work more efficiently during intense negative feelings, they may expect intense negative feelings to last longer than mild ones. This study aimed to elucidate these affective forecasting errors and demonstrate that they occur in the absence of an external need for affect regulation. Additionally, people's predictions of the emotional states of others in the same situation were investigated. Those who only imagined receiving feedback (forecasters) predicted their affective states would be more negative five minutes after very negative feedback than after mildly negative feedback. However, the affective states of those who actually received very negative and mildly negative feedback (experiencers) differed less than those of forecasters and were less negative than the forecasters' predictions. Furthermore, predictions of an average student's feelings indicated that experiencers predicted that an average student's negative affective state would last longer than their own.
著者
垂澤 由美子 広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.12-18, 2006
被引用文献数
1

It has been demonstrated in previous research that the "permeability" of a group boundary influences the members' intention to act collectively as well as their group identity in a subordinate group. In this research, how personal "mobility" of group members affected both in-group collaboration and members' identity was investigated by adopting the "simulated international society game." Each of 344 undergraduates was assigned randomly to one of dominant or subordinate groups with either high or low levels of mobility. Eight games were played in all, and each undergraduate participated in only one of the games. The results indicated that members of both dominant and subordinate groups with low mobility collaborated within their own groups more frequently than those with high mobility. At the same time, members of the subordinate group with low mobility achieved relatively more positive identity than those with high mobility.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.92-102, 2000

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of material possession and social support network on QOL (Quality of Life). In this study, QOL was defined as "the subjective feeling of satisfaction or happiness" and was measured by "the grade of well-being" and "the state of mind and body health." Three hundreds and sixty-five victims of the Great Hanshin Earthquake(105 males, 256 females, and 4 undetermined sex) who lived at temporary houses in Nishinomiya City were asked to complete a questionnaire by personal interview method. The main findingswere as follows: (1) the victims who had lost their important possessions were higher in well-beingscore than ones that did not. On the other hand, the victims who had not lost them were higher inmind and body health score than ones that did. (2) The number of social support network had no effect on well-being score. But the victims who had a large number of social support network stended to be higher in mind and body health score than ones that had a small number of them.
著者
清水 裕 水田 恵三 秋山 学 浦 光博 竹村 和久 西川 正之 松井 豊 宮戸 美樹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-12, 1997
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of our study on the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake was twofold. First, we investigated the operation of the relief shelters, including relief activities. In this part of the study, we focused on the leaders of the shelters. The second purpose of this study was to reveal factors contributing to the effective management of the shelters. About three weeks after the Hanshin Earthquake, we conducted interviews with 32 leaders of the relief shelters and of volunteer workers. We were mainly concerned with the conditions of the emergency facilities, how leaders were selected and what managerial problems they faced. The result of our study showed three types of motivation for becoming leaders. The first occurred naturally as an outcome of their activities; the second by their own choice; and the last because of their regular job positions. These results were analyzed and categorized by the type three quantification analysis. We found that the most effective management of the relief shelters was under leaders chosen by the last method; that is, those who held positions of leadership in their regular jobs.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.188-198, 2010-03-20 (Released:2017-02-20)
被引用文献数
2

Recently, consumer complaints and consumer claims have become a major social issue. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological mechanism of complaining behavior with reference to the theory of aggressive behavior in social psychology. Two hundred and fifteen participants (106 males, 109 females) who lived in Japan were asked to complete a questionnaire by the mail survey method. After a covariance structure analysis, the proposed model was found to fit the data very well. The main findings were as follows: (1) High levels of self-esteem and the self-control of emotion led to having a positive attitude for complaining behavior. (2) Attitudes toward complaining behavior and dissatisfaction with products had a direct effect on actual complaining behavior. Furthermore, dissatisfaction with products was affected by the differences between the expectations for products and the performances of products. (3) Complaining behavior led to a decrease in consumer dissatisfaction. This result indicated the existence of a "cathartic effect."
著者
上野 行良
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.112-120, 1992-03-10 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
6

Humor phenomenon can be defined in terms of expression and perception of funny stimuli, such as jokes. Various studies of humor phenomenon are reviewd, and types of humor are categorized in this paper. First, theories and hypotheses on humor are briefly reviewd; the theories discussed are superiority theory, incogruity theory, theories by Freud and Berlyne, theoretical thinking in humanistic psychology, and stress-moderating hypothesis. Each theory along with related studies is examined and characterized in terms of the humor phenomenon framework. It is suggested that the past research in the field has focused mainly on three subjects: 1) motivation behind expression of humorous stimuli, 2) cognitive processes for perceiving such stimuli, and 3) psychological consequences of humor perception. Finally, a new classification scheme for humor in terms of motivation is proposed, with categories of playful, aggressive and support-relief humor, for clear and coherent understanding.
著者
高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.119-129, 2007

Ambivalent sexism theory suggests that there are two forms of sexism : hostile sexism toward non-traditional women and benevolent sexism toward traditional women. Based on the finding that the threat to self motivates self-affirmation, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice, this study investigated how that threat had an impact on the two above-mentioned forms of prejudice toward women. In study 1, it was predicted that, under the threat, hostile sexists among the male participants were less likely than the nonsexist male participants to evaluate a career-woman favorably on a warmth dimension. This hypothesis was supported. In study 2, it was predicted that, under the threat, the benevolent sexists among the male and female participants were more likely than the nonsexist participants to evaluate a homemaker-oriented woman favorably. On the contrary, when the less benevolent sexist male and female participants felt threatened, they were less likely than the sexist participants to evaluate the women favorably on a warmth dimension. The possibility that the way of expressing gender-prejudiced attitudes became diversified was discussed.
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992-02-25 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
杉浦 仁美 坂田 桐子 清水 裕士
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.75-85, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
29

This study examined if Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) might differ depending on the outgroup with which one's own group is compared. SDO was divided into two factors: “Group-based dominance” and “Equality.” We predicted that Group-based dominance would be high when one's own is compared with a relatively low status outgroup, whereas Equality would be high when one's own group was compared with a relatively high status outgroup. Furthermore, we predicted that this tendency would be apparent in members whose intragroup status was close to the outgroup. University students participated in an experiment that manipulated intergroup status by changing the outgroup status, and its effect on SDO, as well as intragroup status was examined. Results of Study 1 indicated no effect of intergroup and intragroup status on SDO. However in Study 2, by improving the SDO scale, we obtained results that supported our predictions. That is, Group-based dominance scores of low intragroup status members increased when compared with a low status group, whereas Equality scores of high intragroup status members increased when compared with a high status group.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors—“negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” “support for quake-hit areas,” and “radiation anxieties”—and reason (System 2) factors—“knowledge-based judgment” and “rational decision”—based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors “negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” and “radiation anxieties” were integrated as “anxiety over radiation and nuclear power.” The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while “support for quake-hit areas” is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
谷口 淳一 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.11-22, 2008

The present study tried to reveal whether self-presentations in dating relationships are self-verifying or self-enhancing, by examining the relationships among (1) self-view, (2) the desired evaluation and (3) the assumed evaluation from the dating partner. Participants were 156 undergraduates (60 males, 96 females) in dating relationships. The main findings were as follows: 1) Participants expected evaluations from their partners that are more positive than their own. 2) Participants assumed they would be given such evaluations from their partners and perceived the evaluations to be accurate. 3) As their "passion" for the partner became stronger, participants expected evaluations from their partners to be more self-enhancing on a dimension that was important to their relationship. 4) As their "intimacy" deepened, participants expected evaluations from their partners in a self-enhancing way. In addition, participants perceived their partners' evaluations to be highly accurate on a dimension that was important to their relationship. The result of this study supported the strategic self-verification model (Bosson & Swann, 2001) and suggested that both motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification work in dating relationships.
著者
武田 美亜 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.57-64, 2010

We examined whether Japanese dating couples have cynical intuitions about how their partners assess responsibility and whether the strength of this "naive cynicism" varies with the intimacy of the relationship. Thirty-eight undergraduates and their dating partners rated their own responsibility for six desirable and six undesirable joint activities and predicted their partner's self-ratings. They expected their partners to overestimate responsibility for desirable activities and underestimate responsibility for undesirable activities. In addition, this tendency was at least a result of their expectation that their partner's allocation of responsibility would be motivationally biased. Although partners in a more intimate relationship appeared to expect their partner's allocation of responsibility to be more biased, whether this tendency was found because of an assumption that their partner was more biased or because of the stronger self-effacing tendency of more intimate partners was not clear. Results were discussed in terms of judgmental bias in self versus others.
著者
野波 寛 加藤 潤三
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.1-12, 2012

The present study defined legitimacy as approvability of others' or one's own rights to participate in managing commons and proposed two kind of determinants, institutional substance as a reference frame based on such matters as regal norms and perceived substance founded on a subjective estimation of others' or one's own desirability and the like. When an actor's rights to manage commons are established by legality as institutional substance, people will recognize their rights to be structured as a low variability. Therefore, their cognitive process for considering the grounds of the actor's rights besides legality will be disturbed. In this case, it is hypothesized that it becomes difficult for perceived substance such as trustworthiness to act as a determinant of legitimacy as a result of inhibition to attention. To examine the interference effects of institutional substance on perceived substance, a research survey was conducted to measure the evaluations of actors who participate in making policies for the prevention of red-clay flow at Onna village in the islands of Okinawa. The results indicated that the trustworthiness of actors promoted legitimacy when their legality was evaluated as low. We offer a theoretical discussion on the legitimacy of rights and its determinants around the management of commons.
著者
佐藤 達哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.197-208, 1993-03-31 (Released:2016-12-01)

In Japan, not a few Japanese people may believe that blood group polymorphisms of the ABO system are related to personality differences. Blood-typing is regarded here as a lay people's personality theory. The aim of this study is to understand that how people use this theory and that what functions the theory Serves. Subjects are students of a university and those of a nursing-school. 7 hypotheses derived are bellow. 1) this theory is popular among these subjects, 2) most of subjects cannot tell whether this theory is valid or not, 3) when someone begins to talk about the topics, conversations would be maintained for a while, 4) this theory can tell about both individuals and personal relationships. and this theory is useful for both beginning conversations and self-presentation at interpersonal situations, 5) contents of this theory are made of generalizations, 6) guesses of others' blood types are influenced by both theory's criteria and impressions of others, 7) evaluations to minor blood groups (B and AB) are relatively negative. After discussing the validity of blood-typing as a personality theory, the implications of this study are discussed.
著者
浅野 良輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.41-46, 2011

This article investigated how relational efficacy affects emotional experiences in romantic relationships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy expectation of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problem; this concept is based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). Participants were 107 dating heterosexual couples. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling analysis suggested that couples higher in relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. Additionally, it is suggested that partners higher in perceived relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. The implications of the results and their contribution to existing literature are discussed.
著者
村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.113-124, 1996
被引用文献数
2

Many studies of group in social psychology have distinguished "groups" from other aggregates by some peculiar standards and piled up research focusing only on them. In reality, however, there are various aggregates that have many different characteristics. In the course of participant observation and interviewing at a park in early morning, the present study presents an aggregate which exists between group and togetherness situation. The circle of people here had characteristics of a group as follows: 1) it is an organization which has the shared purpose; 2) each member has particular status and role to each other; 3) There are the same norms shared by members. At the same time, however, it also had aspects of a togetherness situation as follows: 1) the membership (whether one is a member or not) is not clear; 2) deviants are not punished; 3) outsiders are not excluded. Based on these findings, the present study tries to document the continuity between group and togetherness situation and to propose a new viewpoint to see a variety of individual's identity which is salient in various aggregates.