著者
杉谷 陽子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.234-244, 2007
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to verify that people feel more at ease using Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) compared to other media because of higher self-presentation efficacy. The reason for this may be the lack of nonverbal cues in CMC: it can help people present themselves in a preferred way. To test this hypothesis, I conducted two experiments. The experimental hypothesis of Study 1 was as follows: when people strongly want to make a good impression on others, they feel it is easier to communicate without nonverbal cues than with them. Conversely, when people are unconcerned about the impression they make on others, the amount of nonverbal cues does not influence the level of ease that people feel. The results partially supported the hypothesis. In Study 2, I scrutinized the process of the phenomenon observed in Study 1. The model was: the lack of nonverbal cues in CMC raises self-presentation efficacy, therefore, people feel more at ease during CMC. The result of path analysis significantly supported this assumption.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.58-71, 2006

The development of social capital in an online community was investigated by creating survey data of online game players. The results showed that the frequency of collective communication, the homogeneity of members, and the openness of the online community had positive effects on trust, while the size of community and community hierarchy had negative effects. This shows that participation in online communities can create social capital. Furthermore, the results showed that online social capital influences real-life behavior. For example, reciprocity online facilitated offline social participation, even after controlling for offline social capital and other real-life determinants. These results demonstrate the positive contribution of collective online communication to a democratic social system.
著者
下村 英雄 堀 洋元
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.93-105, 2004
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated the uses and impacts of information sources, such as web sites, alumni and friends, during college student job hunting. Forty-nine college students (27 males, 22 females) were surveyed longitudinally regarding the information they sought for. This information was categorized into four types: company characteristics, company impression, job hunting methods, and self during job hunting. Results showed that there was a specific information medium that enabled the participants to acquire the required information easily. In particular, participants indicated that the information obtained from alumni was useful, as well as generally fruitful. However, web sites and friends were not particularly effective information sources with regard to obtaining desired results.
著者
相川 充 佐藤 正二 佐藤 容子 高山 巌
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.44-55, 1993
被引用文献数
4

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the degree of self-reported loneliness and the conversational skills observed in the interaction between strangers. The subjects were 48 university students who obtained high, medium, or low scores on the Japanese version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each of these three groups included 8 males and 8 females students. The interpersonal interactions between the subjects and the confederate of the same sex were recorded by video cameras. These records were analyzed quantitatively by the raters who were blind to the subject's state of loneliness. Other raters made the qualitative analysis of the subject's conversational skills. The subjects also rated themselves and the confederate during the conversation. The results revealed some unique characteristics of highly lonely students in terms of quality but not in terms of quantity. The highly lonely students tended to lack the social skills indispensable to establish intimate interpersonal relationships. They also tended to negatively rate both themselves and the other party following interpersonal interactions.
著者
杉浦 仁美 坂田 桐子 清水 裕士
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.75-85, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2

This study examined if Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) might differ depending on the outgroup with which one's own group is compared. SDO was divided into two factors: “Group-based dominance” and “Equality.” We predicted that Group-based dominance would be high when one's own is compared with a relatively low status outgroup, whereas Equality would be high when one's own group was compared with a relatively high status outgroup. Furthermore, we predicted that this tendency would be apparent in members whose intragroup status was close to the outgroup. University students participated in an experiment that manipulated intergroup status by changing the outgroup status, and its effect on SDO, as well as intragroup status was examined. Results of Study 1 indicated no effect of intergroup and intragroup status on SDO. However in Study 2, by improving the SDO scale, we obtained results that supported our predictions. That is, Group-based dominance scores of low intragroup status members increased when compared with a low status group, whereas Equality scores of high intragroup status members increased when compared with a high status group.
著者
横井 良典 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.16-25, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
45

This study examined trust in artificial intelligence in medical care and identified its determinants. Studies on risk perception have found that perceived ability, integrity, and value similarity determine trust in risk managers. Further, engineering studies on trust in artificial intelligence have suggested that perceived ability and integrity determine trust. However, few researchers have examined whether perceived value similarity affects trust in artificial intelligence. We employed a situation assumption method and focused on the shared policy of medical treatment. In Study 1 (n=165), the results revealed that the shared policy of medical treatment enhanced participants’ trust in artificial intelligence, as it did in humans. In addition, artificial intelligence was less trusted than humans were. Study 2 (n=139) replicated the experiment conducted in Study 1 by improving items for manipulation check. The results of Study 2 mostly reproduced those of Study 1. Empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
著者
三浦 麻子 楠見 孝 小倉 加奈代
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.10-21, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
23

This study examined chronological changes in attitudes towards foodstuffs from the areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, using citizens’ data (n=1,752) from the panel surveys conducted in 4 waves between September 2011 and March 2014. Using the dual process theory of decision-making, the study attempts an empirical examination that includes the interaction of two factors: (1) anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident, which is hypothesized to lead to negative emotional decision-making following the formation of relevant attitudes, and (2) knowledge, higher-order literacy, and critical thinking, which are hypothesized to promote logical decision-making. Until three years after the nuclear accident, there was no large chronological variation in either anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident or attitudes toward foodstuffs from affected areas. The tendency regarding the latter was particularly strong in areas far from the location of the disaster. Negative attitudes regarding foodstuffs from affected areas were reduced through the possession of appropriate knowledge regarding the effects of radiation on the human body. However, the belief of possessing such knowledge may, conversely, hinder careful consideration with appropriate understanding.
著者
白岩 祐子 荻原 ゆかり 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.41-50, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of the sentencing decision for a fictional murder case in which a member of the victim's family participates. Previous research indicates that people see others as more influenced by a victim's statements than themselves, and we focused on whether this asymmetric cognition makes the sentence more lenient or not. The scenario experiment targeting 147 undergraduate students revealed that the majority of participants viewed others as more affected by the victim's statements, and further found that this asymmetric cognition tended to restrain punishment. Attitudes against the victim participant system lead to denying the impact on the self. These results could support the idea that negative attitudes toward the victim participant system have punishment control through asymmetric cognition. Previous studies concerning judicial decisions focused on the assumption that victim participation arouses the judges' compassion towards the victims, resulting in more uncompassionate sentences for the defendant. On the other hand, this study suggests that victim participation could result in a lenient sentence for the defendant.
著者
小杉 素子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.151-160, 2012

This study clarifies why information providers conceal risk information in a continual relationship with asymmetric information, even though it possibly causes damage to the provider in long-term interaction. In an experiment, participants were divided into pairs of "provider" and "receiver," and they interacted repeatedly. The results of the experiment were as follows, (1) Information asymmetry possibly elicited risk aversion in receivers, and the providers' expectation of the degree of this risk aversion influenced the behavior of the providers. (2) Concealing risk information generated benefit as long as the receivers did not detect it, but once they learned of it, they became more risk averse and decreased trust in the provider. The providers, however, did not change their behavior, continuing to conceal the risk information instead of becoming honest. These results suggest certain circumstances in which concealing risk information might benefit providers in the short term and could prevent damage caused by a receiver's risk-averse behavior in the long term.
著者
塩谷 尚正 中原 洪二郎 土田 昭司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.113-119, 2013

Previous studies have shown the positive effects of collective efficacy on community collective actions. As a predictor of collective efficacy, while behavioral social connectedness has shown a positive effect in some studies, the effect of cognitive social connectedness is little known. In this study, the perceived intragroup relationship (Yuki, 2003) was applied in order to investigate the relation among perceived intragroup relationship, collective efficacy, and the intention of participating in community development. We distributed questionnaires to 500 citizens and analyzed data that were collected from 121 respondents. The result of correlation analysis showed a positive relation among the intention of participating, collective efficacy, intragroup relational cognition, and behavioral social connectedness. Furthermore, a determinate process model of the intention to participate was examined using path analysis. The results indicate that perceived intragroup relationship has a positive correlation with social connectedness behavior and a positive effect on collective efficacy, but social connectedness behavior does not have a significant effect on collective efficacy.
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.48-57, 2006

With the twin method, we tested the theory of general trust. Among data collected on 1,040 twins, data from 328 pairs of identical twins and 103 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins were analyzed to examine genetic and environmental influences on the general trust level. A univariate genetic analysis showed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 36% and 64% of the phenotypic variance of general trust respectively, while shared environmental factors did not contribute to it. This supports the argument that the general trust level is set responding to individual social circumstances, not by familial circumstances. A substantial degree of correlation between general trust and extraversion suggested that high trusters were more extraverted, which could support the emancipation theory of trust. Finally, a multivariate genetic analysis demonstrated that there is no genetic factor contributing specifically to general trust. All the genetic factors were shared by general trust and other personality traits, i.e., hostility, positive emotions, warmth, and altruism. The results suggested that heritability of general trust observed with the univariate analysis was a "reactive heritability" from personality traits. The implication of the data from the evolutionary psychological viewpoint is discussed.
著者
高田 利武
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.140-163, 2008

The Japanese school lunch system is considered to be a product of the interdependent view of the self derived from Japanese culture, in the sense that it gives weight to children eating the same food at the same place as their peers in order to bring about a mutually close relationship. The latest form of school lunch is the so-called "interactive lunch," where children have lunch with not only their peers but also with the principal, teachers, office staff, and even sometimes with residents of the school area. In the present study, three surveys of schoolchildren were conducted to clarify the effects of the interactive school lunch on their cognition and attitude toward school lunch. It was found that children provided with an interactive lunch generally showed a more favorable attitude to school lunch than their counterparts who were not so provided, and that these effects of an interactive lunch depend on the length of the period for which the service continues. It was also suggested that children internalize an interdependent view of the self through their experiences of school lunch.
著者
元吉 忠寛 高尾 堅司 池田 三郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.209-220, 2008
被引用文献数
3

This study examined factors which influence the extent to which citizens prepare for natural disasters. A questionnaire-based survey was administered to residents (N=849) living in the greater Nagoya area. The items were devised to probe for residents' attitudes toward disaster preparedness, perceived flood and seismic risk, their commitment to the community, and concerns about society. The study revealed that both household and community disaster preparedness were affected by the individual's subjective norm regarding preparation, the perceived benefit of protective courses of action, and general concern about natural disasters. Commitment to the community and concerns about society were the only strong predictors of community-based disaster preparedness. By contrast, perceived flood and seismic risks were weak predictors.
著者
稲増 一憲 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.42-52, 2009
被引用文献数
1

This research combines the quantitative content analysis of election coverage and survey data analysis to demonstrate the effect of TV shows on democratic politics in Japan. First, we classified 31 private TV shows into two categories-"hard news" and "soft news"-via the quantitative content analysis of coverage of the 2007 election. Secondly, we examined the effects of the programs on interest in the 2007 election as well as political involvement using the Asian barometer 2/CSES3 dataset. The results show that: 1) exposure to "hard news" positively correlated with interest in the election as well as political involvement, 2) exposure to "soft news" had a positive correlation with interest in the election only among less-informed people. This study reveals the importance of quantitative content-based classification to distinguish the particular effects of TV shows on democratic politics in response to diversifying forms of political news coverage.
著者
大薗 博記 森本 裕子 中嶋 智史 小宮 あすか 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.65-72, 2010
被引用文献数
2

How do we come to trust strangers? Previous studies have shown that participants trust smiling faces more than they trust nonsmiling faces. In daily communication, both facial and linguistic information are typically presented simultaneously. In this context, what kind of person will be judged as more trustworthy? In our experiment, 52 individuals participated as donors in a Trust Game involving many partners. Prior to the game, participants were shown photographs of their partners' faces (smiling/nonsmiling) as well as answers to questions indicating their partners' level of trustworthiness (neutral/somewhat trustworthy/trustworthy). Participants then decided how much money to give to each partner. The results showed that more trust was placed in partners providing trustworthy answers than in those providing neutral answers. Smiling female partners were trusted more than nonsmiling female partners. In addition, smiling partners were less trusted than nonsmiling partners only when the answers were trustworthy. These results suggest that individuals displaying too many signs of trustworthiness can actually be viewed with distrust.
著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.189-199, 2009

In this study, we focused on the effect of the information of others' memories and of the delay of recognition on conformable eyewitness memories to others. A2 (delay: no delay vs. one week) ×2 (experimental group vs. control group) experimental design was employed (both factors were between-subjects variables), and experiments were carried out by four participants per session (a total of 85 participants). First, in a recognition task about a video clip, participants in the experimental group were shown "false responses by others." After that, participants undertook a similar recognition task and a Remember/Know judgment task about these items. As a result, the participants that took the task after one week showed a higher conformity response rate to the false responses others' than participants that took the task immediately after encoding. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group showed a higher Remember-judgment rate in wrong answers than participants in the control group. These results suggest that even though testimony taken from an eyewitness group may be concrete and clear, it is possible that it does not reflect his/her true experience exactly.
著者
大坂 紘子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.1-10, 2008

This research examines the patterns of the life course of middle-aged and aged women after they have participated in volunteer activities. In addition, it also analyzes the functions of helper networks and helper-helped relationships in situations requiring the resolution of negative events. The following findings were drawn based on interviews with 21 volunteers and participant observations: 1) As with occupational activities, volunteering provides the opportunities for the target partic-ipants to participate in various social roles outside of their home environments. 2) The helper networks and helper-helped relationships could complement each other in such ways that the helper networks were found instrumental in resolving the negative events that had stemmed from helper-helped relationships, and vice versa.
著者
山崎 真理子 水野 邦夫 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.173-180, 2007

The modeling effect on eating means that the more models eat the more participants eat. Herman, Polivy, & Roth (2003) proposed that participants make the amount of food they consume conform to the consumption of others in order to avoid being seen by others as eating excessively. In this study, in order to create a situation in which participants believe no one can know how much they eat, we did not use the usual model. Instead, feigned leftover food was shown to participants before the tasting test. This leftover food (in amounts large or small) was expected to give participants information on how much other participants had eaten. In one condition, participants were misled to believe that the experimenter could not find out how much food the participants had consumed; in another condition, they were not misled. In the former condition, regardless of how much others eat, participants should eat as much as they like, believing that no one can learn of the amount, they consume. Contrary to the prediction, the modeling effect arose in both conditions. These results indicate that the modeling effect cannot be explained entirely by self-presentational concern regarding others.
著者
花井 友美 小口 孝司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.131-139, 2008

In this study, we examined how the patterns of emoticons and emotional word marks appeared in CMC, especially in e-mail exchanges. A text-mining analysis was used in the study. Eighteen university students were requested to exchange e-mails over a period of two weeks with unknown correspondents who were, in fact, cooperating in the experiment. One hundred and forty-one e-mails thus obtained were analyzed. A text-mining software "True Teller" extracted 4,125 words of 257 kinds for further analysis. As a result, various emotional expressions that appeared in the CMC as well as in Face-to-Face communication were clarified. In addition, emoticons were seen to appear frequently in the early stages of communication and had the effect of softening tense relationships between e-mailers.
著者
羽鳥 剛史 藤井 聡
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.87-97, 2008
被引用文献数
2

Regional subsistence can be improved if and only if at least one local resident exhibits altruistic and cooperative behavior. This is known as the volunteer's dilemma. This study aimed to examine the social conditions that encourage such pro-social behavior in a local community. For this purpose, a mechanism creating altruistic behavior is modeled that is based upon the idea of multilevel selection in evolutionary theory. We present a dynamic model including both group selection and individual selection. We derive analytical solutions from the model in order to investigate the conditions under which altruistic behavior can emerge. A numerical analysis of time-dependent solutions is conducted using the Runge-Kutta method. Stationary solutions of the dynamic model are then analytically derived. The result indicates that group selection could be an important force to encourage altruistic behavior. Finally, based on the analysis, measures that promote voluntary pro-social behavior are discussed.