著者
塩谷 尚正 中原 洪二郎 土田 昭司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.113-119, 2013

Previous studies have shown the positive effects of collective efficacy on community collective actions. As a predictor of collective efficacy, while behavioral social connectedness has shown a positive effect in some studies, the effect of cognitive social connectedness is little known. In this study, the perceived intragroup relationship (Yuki, 2003) was applied in order to investigate the relation among perceived intragroup relationship, collective efficacy, and the intention of participating in community development. We distributed questionnaires to 500 citizens and analyzed data that were collected from 121 respondents. The result of correlation analysis showed a positive relation among the intention of participating, collective efficacy, intragroup relational cognition, and behavioral social connectedness. Furthermore, a determinate process model of the intention to participate was examined using path analysis. The results indicate that perceived intragroup relationship has a positive correlation with social connectedness behavior and a positive effect on collective efficacy, but social connectedness behavior does not have a significant effect on collective efficacy.
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.48-57, 2006

With the twin method, we tested the theory of general trust. Among data collected on 1,040 twins, data from 328 pairs of identical twins and 103 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins were analyzed to examine genetic and environmental influences on the general trust level. A univariate genetic analysis showed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 36% and 64% of the phenotypic variance of general trust respectively, while shared environmental factors did not contribute to it. This supports the argument that the general trust level is set responding to individual social circumstances, not by familial circumstances. A substantial degree of correlation between general trust and extraversion suggested that high trusters were more extraverted, which could support the emancipation theory of trust. Finally, a multivariate genetic analysis demonstrated that there is no genetic factor contributing specifically to general trust. All the genetic factors were shared by general trust and other personality traits, i.e., hostility, positive emotions, warmth, and altruism. The results suggested that heritability of general trust observed with the univariate analysis was a "reactive heritability" from personality traits. The implication of the data from the evolutionary psychological viewpoint is discussed.
著者
高田 利武
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.140-163, 2008

The Japanese school lunch system is considered to be a product of the interdependent view of the self derived from Japanese culture, in the sense that it gives weight to children eating the same food at the same place as their peers in order to bring about a mutually close relationship. The latest form of school lunch is the so-called "interactive lunch," where children have lunch with not only their peers but also with the principal, teachers, office staff, and even sometimes with residents of the school area. In the present study, three surveys of schoolchildren were conducted to clarify the effects of the interactive school lunch on their cognition and attitude toward school lunch. It was found that children provided with an interactive lunch generally showed a more favorable attitude to school lunch than their counterparts who were not so provided, and that these effects of an interactive lunch depend on the length of the period for which the service continues. It was also suggested that children internalize an interdependent view of the self through their experiences of school lunch.
著者
元吉 忠寛 高尾 堅司 池田 三郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.209-220, 2008
被引用文献数
3

This study examined factors which influence the extent to which citizens prepare for natural disasters. A questionnaire-based survey was administered to residents (N=849) living in the greater Nagoya area. The items were devised to probe for residents' attitudes toward disaster preparedness, perceived flood and seismic risk, their commitment to the community, and concerns about society. The study revealed that both household and community disaster preparedness were affected by the individual's subjective norm regarding preparation, the perceived benefit of protective courses of action, and general concern about natural disasters. Commitment to the community and concerns about society were the only strong predictors of community-based disaster preparedness. By contrast, perceived flood and seismic risks were weak predictors.
著者
稲増 一憲 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.42-52, 2009
被引用文献数
1

This research combines the quantitative content analysis of election coverage and survey data analysis to demonstrate the effect of TV shows on democratic politics in Japan. First, we classified 31 private TV shows into two categories-"hard news" and "soft news"-via the quantitative content analysis of coverage of the 2007 election. Secondly, we examined the effects of the programs on interest in the 2007 election as well as political involvement using the Asian barometer 2/CSES3 dataset. The results show that: 1) exposure to "hard news" positively correlated with interest in the election as well as political involvement, 2) exposure to "soft news" had a positive correlation with interest in the election only among less-informed people. This study reveals the importance of quantitative content-based classification to distinguish the particular effects of TV shows on democratic politics in response to diversifying forms of political news coverage.
著者
大薗 博記 森本 裕子 中嶋 智史 小宮 あすか 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.65-72, 2010
被引用文献数
2

How do we come to trust strangers? Previous studies have shown that participants trust smiling faces more than they trust nonsmiling faces. In daily communication, both facial and linguistic information are typically presented simultaneously. In this context, what kind of person will be judged as more trustworthy? In our experiment, 52 individuals participated as donors in a Trust Game involving many partners. Prior to the game, participants were shown photographs of their partners' faces (smiling/nonsmiling) as well as answers to questions indicating their partners' level of trustworthiness (neutral/somewhat trustworthy/trustworthy). Participants then decided how much money to give to each partner. The results showed that more trust was placed in partners providing trustworthy answers than in those providing neutral answers. Smiling female partners were trusted more than nonsmiling female partners. In addition, smiling partners were less trusted than nonsmiling partners only when the answers were trustworthy. These results suggest that individuals displaying too many signs of trustworthiness can actually be viewed with distrust.
著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.189-199, 2009

In this study, we focused on the effect of the information of others' memories and of the delay of recognition on conformable eyewitness memories to others. A2 (delay: no delay vs. one week) ×2 (experimental group vs. control group) experimental design was employed (both factors were between-subjects variables), and experiments were carried out by four participants per session (a total of 85 participants). First, in a recognition task about a video clip, participants in the experimental group were shown "false responses by others." After that, participants undertook a similar recognition task and a Remember/Know judgment task about these items. As a result, the participants that took the task after one week showed a higher conformity response rate to the false responses others' than participants that took the task immediately after encoding. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group showed a higher Remember-judgment rate in wrong answers than participants in the control group. These results suggest that even though testimony taken from an eyewitness group may be concrete and clear, it is possible that it does not reflect his/her true experience exactly.
著者
大坂 紘子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.1-10, 2008

This research examines the patterns of the life course of middle-aged and aged women after they have participated in volunteer activities. In addition, it also analyzes the functions of helper networks and helper-helped relationships in situations requiring the resolution of negative events. The following findings were drawn based on interviews with 21 volunteers and participant observations: 1) As with occupational activities, volunteering provides the opportunities for the target partic-ipants to participate in various social roles outside of their home environments. 2) The helper networks and helper-helped relationships could complement each other in such ways that the helper networks were found instrumental in resolving the negative events that had stemmed from helper-helped relationships, and vice versa.
著者
山崎 真理子 水野 邦夫 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.173-180, 2007

The modeling effect on eating means that the more models eat the more participants eat. Herman, Polivy, & Roth (2003) proposed that participants make the amount of food they consume conform to the consumption of others in order to avoid being seen by others as eating excessively. In this study, in order to create a situation in which participants believe no one can know how much they eat, we did not use the usual model. Instead, feigned leftover food was shown to participants before the tasting test. This leftover food (in amounts large or small) was expected to give participants information on how much other participants had eaten. In one condition, participants were misled to believe that the experimenter could not find out how much food the participants had consumed; in another condition, they were not misled. In the former condition, regardless of how much others eat, participants should eat as much as they like, believing that no one can learn of the amount, they consume. Contrary to the prediction, the modeling effect arose in both conditions. These results indicate that the modeling effect cannot be explained entirely by self-presentational concern regarding others.
著者
花井 友美 小口 孝司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.131-139, 2008

In this study, we examined how the patterns of emoticons and emotional word marks appeared in CMC, especially in e-mail exchanges. A text-mining analysis was used in the study. Eighteen university students were requested to exchange e-mails over a period of two weeks with unknown correspondents who were, in fact, cooperating in the experiment. One hundred and forty-one e-mails thus obtained were analyzed. A text-mining software "True Teller" extracted 4,125 words of 257 kinds for further analysis. As a result, various emotional expressions that appeared in the CMC as well as in Face-to-Face communication were clarified. In addition, emoticons were seen to appear frequently in the early stages of communication and had the effect of softening tense relationships between e-mailers.
著者
羽鳥 剛史 藤井 聡
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.87-97, 2008
被引用文献数
2

Regional subsistence can be improved if and only if at least one local resident exhibits altruistic and cooperative behavior. This is known as the volunteer's dilemma. This study aimed to examine the social conditions that encourage such pro-social behavior in a local community. For this purpose, a mechanism creating altruistic behavior is modeled that is based upon the idea of multilevel selection in evolutionary theory. We present a dynamic model including both group selection and individual selection. We derive analytical solutions from the model in order to investigate the conditions under which altruistic behavior can emerge. A numerical analysis of time-dependent solutions is conducted using the Runge-Kutta method. Stationary solutions of the dynamic model are then analytically derived. The result indicates that group selection could be an important force to encourage altruistic behavior. Finally, based on the analysis, measures that promote voluntary pro-social behavior are discussed.
著者
上瀬 由美子 堀 洋元 岡本 浩一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.25-35, 2010

The present research investigated relations between perceived occupational stigma and their attributes, the coping strategies of those affected by occupational stigma, and the effects of perceived stigma on global and occupational self-esteem mediated by coping strategies. Data from 501 respondents, a representative set of data stratified by age and gender, showed that (a) approximately 10% of the respondents perceived themselves as occupationally stigmatized, (b) low-income men, especially young or contingent workers, were apt to show awareness of their occupational stigma, (c) five coping strategies in particular (Re-evaluation, Group identification, Social comparison, Attribution of discrimination, and Disengagement) were common, (d) group identification positively enhanced occupational self-esteem in persons who perceived occupational stigma strongly. Lastly, the characteristics of the coping strategies and issues for further research were discussed.
著者
立脇 洋介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.21-31, 2005

The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of negative feelings caused by negative events in opposite-sex relationships, and the relation between negative feelings and sex difference, relationship with partner, coping behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Three hundred and fifty-six undergraduates responded to a questionnaire asking about their relationships with their partners, negative events, negative feelings, their coping behaviors, relationship satisfaction and a love scale. Negative feelings were classified into affiliation-dissatisfaction and aggressive/refusal feelings. Affiliation-dissatisfaction was composed of sadness, anxiety and so on. It was caused by distance from partners, and did not influence the relationship satisfaction of lovers. The aggressive/refusal feelings were composed of irritation, anger and so on. They were caused by interference from partners. The more frequently they occurred, the lower relationship satisfaction was.
著者
加藤 司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.171-180, 2005

The main purpose of the present study was to elaborate on coping behavior toward romantic break-ups, and to examine the relationship between coping and mental health. First, in order to establish the items for this study, a pilot survey of 950 undergraduates was conducted in order to collect free responses describing coping behavior toward romantic break-ups. Second, 455 undergraduate students completed scales for assessing coping behavior, the extent of romantic love toward the ex-partner, and mental health (duration of recovery period from the break-up, and the resulting distress). Factor analysis of the coping items produced six factors : Regret, Grudge, Dissolving Relationship, Positive Reappraisal, Displacement, and Distraction. Structural equation modeling was conducted, suggesting that coping behavior influenced mental health even after the effects of the recovery period were controlled. It was also found that Regret and Grudge/Dissolving Relationship influenced mental health negatively.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.16-25, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
21

This study investigated factors leading to normative behavior, focusing on residential mobility and reputation estimation. As people in societies with high levels of residential mobility have many chances to build new relationships, it is important for them to establish positive reputations and extend their human resources. However, the incentive to develop a positive reputation may vary depending on the needs and abilities of those engaged in relationship-building. We hypothesized that in societies with high levels of residential mobility, only those who need to build and are capable of building new relationships would follow social norms, when they think it will help to earn a positive reputation from others. On the other hand, people in societies with low levels of residential mobility have few opportunities to build new relationships and thus they may try to avoid negative reputations in order to maintain their current relationships. We hypothesized that in societies with low levels of residential mobility, people would overestimate the possibility of acquiring negative reputations when they deviate from social norms, and they would therefore follow the norms to avoid ending up with negative reputations. The hypotheses were supported by our online survey, in which we focused on normative aspects of participation in community activities.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.167-177, 2010

The purposes of this study were to develop an animism scale for adults and to examine the relationship between animistic thinking and the "memorial service for dolls" in terms of voluntary loss. In this study, animism was defined as the tendency to regard inanimate objects as living, and to regard objects in nature as gods. Questionnaires were given to 395 people who had held a memorial service for dolls and 204 people who had not. The results of the factor analysis indicated that this animism scale consisted of three factors: the apotheosis of natural products, the parts of possessors, and the anthropomorphication of possessions. Animism was more prevalent in the following groups of individuals: a) those who held a memorial service for dolls, b) female individuals, and c) younger individuals, that is, individuals aged 39 and under. The third result in particular was discussed in terms of the influences of video games and the media rather than the traditional Japanese polytheistic religion of Shinto. Furthermore, participants were asked about psychological changes after they finished holding a memorial service for dolls. As a result, some people who held a memorial service for dolls felt grief and guilt, although they voluntarily parted with their dolls.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
2

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of neya-ko (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their neya-oya (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the neya custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the neya custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders’ lives, the neya custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.
著者
今在 慶一朗 内山 博之 今在 景子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013

According to traditional corrective education, sincere and emotional interaction is effective in changing prisoners' personalities. However, some recent studies insist that certain psychological operations such as counseling are not effective and occasionally have a negative effect on rehabilitation. In this study, on the other hand, we predicted that keeping public order by treating prisoners with fairness is effective. We asked prisoners to rate staff at their correctional institution, to describe their attitude toward decisions made there, and to give their view of public order in society. We found that fair treatment of prisoners promotes acceptance of investigation results regarding violations or punishments, volition of rehabilitation after release, and internalization of public order. Furthermore, we confirmed that fairness by staff indicates to prisoners that public order within the institution is being maintained.
著者
熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.200-207, 2009

In intergroup conflict a third party sometimes intervenes aggressively into the interactions between the concerned parties, escalating the conflicts. We hypothesized that the third party will become aggressive if they perceive that a fellow member of their group, with whom they strongly identified themselves, is harmed by the other group and that the perception of harm is more definitely determined by unfairness than by the objective severity of the harm. Group identification was manipulated by cooperative ingroup activities. Half of the participants observed that an ingroup fellow member was harmed by an outgroup member based on unfair evaluation, while the others observed that the harm was given based on fair evaluation. They were then given a chance to retaliate against the harm-doer by creating unpleasant noises. The results indicated that both aggressive motivation and behaviors were increased by unfair harm only when participants strongly identified with the ingroup. The group identification did not affect the perception of unfairness. These results suggest that symbolic or psychological harm affects third-party aggression.
著者
道家 瑠見子 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.104-110, 2007

The research into decision-making has shown that people express less regret in a repeating choice than in a switching choice (i.e., the status quo effect). However, recent research has suggested that when a prior experience was negative, less regret was expressed in a switching choice than in a repeating choice (i.e., the reversal of the status quo effect). We conducted a replication using different scenarios to examine the conditions in which those effects would occur. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the valence (positive, negative) of a prior experience and asked the participants to rate how much regret they thought the decision-maker would have felt. As predicted, the status quo effect occurred in the positive-experience condition, and the reversal of it occurred in the negative-experience condition. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the levels of the decision-maker's responsibility. The results suggested that a stronger reversal effect was observed in the high responsibility condition. The limitation and the implication of these findings for regret research are discussed.