著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.24-30, 2011

It has been shown that people under threat to self-worth exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward minority outgroups (e.g., African Americans in North America) (Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, & Dunn, 1998). But it has not been shown that people under such threat exhibit negative implicit attitudes toward outgroups which are not likely to be negatively evaluated (e.g., women). We conducted an experiment to examine whether male participants under threat to self-worth would exhibit implicit ingroup bias related to gender by using Implicit Association Tests (IATs.) Participants received either self-image threatening feedback about initial tests or no feedback (threat vs. non-threat). They then completed gender attitude IATs. The results showed that participants exhibited stronger implicit ingroup biases related to gender in the threat condition than in the nonthreat condition. The role of threat to self-worth in men's implicit gender attitude is discussed.
著者
野田 理世
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.199-210, 2010

This study investigates the impact of mood on category-consistent/inconsistent information processing by comparison of data collected immediately after an experiment and a time lapse. In two experiments, no impact of mood was observed in recall rate immediately after the experiment among participants induced into a positive mood, regardless of the consistency of category information. However, a greater recall rate was observed for category-consistent information in the time lapse condition. On the other hand, no substantial impact of mood was found, regardless of time lapse, in the negative mood. The results showed the significant impact of mood on category-information coding styles, depending on the strength of the unit connections of the category-consistent/inconsistent information.
著者
山岸 明子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.285-294, 2007

The purpose of this study was to reexamine the developmental feature of considering others' feelings and not considering one's duty to a group, based on Yamagishi's article which analyzed the promise concept in contemporary schoolchildren in Tokyo. The investigation was conducted in Nagano prefecture. A questionnaire was used to ask children in second, fourth and sixth grades whether they would keep or break promises in 4 scenarios in which various contextual factors against keeping these promises were included, adding 2 new situations to clarify the developmental feature. The fourth and sixth grade respondents were also asked to state reasons. The results were as follows: 1) the same tendency was found in both new situations and former ones. 2) the same tendency was found in Nagano, as in Tokyo, indicating no regional difference, 3) when stating reasons, there were many who stated concern for other's feeling (especially in fourth grade), and while many fourth graders felt a sense of duty to a group, there were many sixth graders who responded to promise situations flexibly, coordinating both positions. The findings are discussed with reference to Kohlberg's stage 3 and contextual relativism.
著者
菅 さやか 唐沢 穣 服部 陽介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.21-29, 2009

People often infer the causes of observed actions and events, and explain the causes to others through communication. The present study examined the effects of a communicative goal on the causal explanation of criminal cases. Japanese college students were presented with a criminal case, along with an equal number of potential internal causes and external causes. The extremity of the crime (i.e., murder vs. robbery) was manipulated. Participants were asked to explain what led the protagonist to commit the crime, either in order to help another participant make judgments about the criminal person (i.e., communicative goal condition) or to use the explanation as a basis for their own judgments (i.e., individual goal condition). Participants then responded to a free re- call task. The results revealed that the communicative goal facilitated the use of both internal and external causal information in explanations. Path analyses indicated that causal explanation mediated the effect of the communicative goal on the memory of stimulus information. The importance of communication in the study of causal attribution and related domains were discussed.
著者
桑山 恵真 工藤 恵理子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.109-118, 2010

People are unaware of the psychological processes that attenuate negative feelings, thus resulting in affective forecasting errors. Since people are unaware that these processes work more efficiently during intense negative feelings, they may expect intense negative feelings to last longer than mild ones. This study aimed to elucidate these affective forecasting errors and demonstrate that they occur in the absence of an external need for affect regulation. Additionally, people's predictions of the emotional states of others in the same situation were investigated. Those who only imagined receiving feedback (forecasters) predicted their affective states would be more negative five minutes after very negative feedback than after mildly negative feedback. However, the affective states of those who actually received very negative and mildly negative feedback (experiencers) differed less than those of forecasters and were less negative than the forecasters' predictions. Furthermore, predictions of an average student's feelings indicated that experiencers predicted that an average student's negative affective state would last longer than their own.
著者
垂澤 由美子 広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.12-18, 2006
被引用文献数
1

It has been demonstrated in previous research that the "permeability" of a group boundary influences the members' intention to act collectively as well as their group identity in a subordinate group. In this research, how personal "mobility" of group members affected both in-group collaboration and members' identity was investigated by adopting the "simulated international society game." Each of 344 undergraduates was assigned randomly to one of dominant or subordinate groups with either high or low levels of mobility. Eight games were played in all, and each undergraduate participated in only one of the games. The results indicated that members of both dominant and subordinate groups with low mobility collaborated within their own groups more frequently than those with high mobility. At the same time, members of the subordinate group with low mobility achieved relatively more positive identity than those with high mobility.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.92-102, 2000

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of material possession and social support network on QOL (Quality of Life). In this study, QOL was defined as "the subjective feeling of satisfaction or happiness" and was measured by "the grade of well-being" and "the state of mind and body health." Three hundreds and sixty-five victims of the Great Hanshin Earthquake(105 males, 256 females, and 4 undetermined sex) who lived at temporary houses in Nishinomiya City were asked to complete a questionnaire by personal interview method. The main findingswere as follows: (1) the victims who had lost their important possessions were higher in well-beingscore than ones that did not. On the other hand, the victims who had not lost them were higher inmind and body health score than ones that did. (2) The number of social support network had no effect on well-being score. But the victims who had a large number of social support network stended to be higher in mind and body health score than ones that had a small number of them.
著者
清水 裕 水田 恵三 秋山 学 浦 光博 竹村 和久 西川 正之 松井 豊 宮戸 美樹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-12, 1997
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of our study on the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake was twofold. First, we investigated the operation of the relief shelters, including relief activities. In this part of the study, we focused on the leaders of the shelters. The second purpose of this study was to reveal factors contributing to the effective management of the shelters. About three weeks after the Hanshin Earthquake, we conducted interviews with 32 leaders of the relief shelters and of volunteer workers. We were mainly concerned with the conditions of the emergency facilities, how leaders were selected and what managerial problems they faced. The result of our study showed three types of motivation for becoming leaders. The first occurred naturally as an outcome of their activities; the second by their own choice; and the last because of their regular job positions. These results were analyzed and categorized by the type three quantification analysis. We found that the most effective management of the relief shelters was under leaders chosen by the last method; that is, those who held positions of leadership in their regular jobs.
著者
荒川 歩 菅原 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.133-141, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
23

Focus groups (FGs) led by trial consultants are popular in the USA but not in Japan. Additionally, the effectiveness of this method has not been examined. This study examined the effect of FGs on the Saiban-in system. First, eleven undergraduates participated in FGs, discussing the perception of certain words (e.g., self-defense) and a theme (e.g., how to evaluate a wrongful act when losing self-control because of fear) that were points of dispute in a simulated case. The contents were compared with three law students’ estimation of how undergraduates perceived these topics. Second, a law student wrote a final case argument before and after reading a summary produced by FGs. Third, another set of thirty-one undergraduates participated in one of two conditions (whether based on an FG result or not), read the arguments (sixteen read arguments not based on an FG result; fifteen read arguments based on one), judged the case, reported their confidence in the judgment, and marked the words that affected them. The effect of the FG on the conviction rate was not significant. However, confidence in the not-guilty verdict increased and participants were influenced by the final arguments based on the FG result. This indicates the efficacy of focus groups in writing a final argument mentioned in the deliberation.
著者
大久保 暢俊 下田 俊介 鷹阪 龍太 山田 一成
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.156-163, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
21

The purpose of this study is to investigate consumer attitudes towards shopping in Japan. Factor analyses of data by 1,286 nonprobability online panels in a Web survey (in 2014) confirmed a hypothesized two-factor structure (the hedonic and utilitarian), but although the hedonic subscale had enough internal consistency, the utilitarian subscale had relatively low internal consistency. The correlations of the scores on consumer attitudes towards shopping with other measures, such as bargain orientation, impulsive buying tendency, and frugality, provided support for the criterion validity of each subscale. In many cases, these relationships were not affected by variables such as gender, life stage, and household income. Implications for the two-dimensional model of Japanese consumer attitudes towards shopping are discussed.
著者
豊沢 純子 竹橋 洋毅
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.200-209, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
16

This study examined the relationship between speed and accuracy in police calls for service, verbal behavior (listener, communicator), and communication structure (adjacency pairs, turn-taking). Forty participants were randomly assigned to either the role of reporter or police officer, and asked to communicate based on a scenario of snatching by using the mobile phone. The results showed that verbal behavior were positively correlated with accuracy and negatively correlated with speed. Communication structure were positively correlated with accuracy and not correlated with speed. However, adjacency pairs were positively related with speed accuracy. The way of intervention to facilitate forming adjacency pairs was discussed.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.108-120, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
40

This study was conducted to examine a model in which the relationships between adult attachment dimensions as beliefs and expectations about self and others and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by social images. A Social Image Scale was developed in a pilot study and Study 1. Participants in Study 2 comprised 571 undergraduates, 590 late-adolescent workers, and 397 early-adult workers. The results showed that there were mean differences on several variables among these three groups. However, correlational analysis revealed that anxiety and avoidance were significantly negatively related to goal-directedness and hopefulness in all three groups. Moreover, the results of a multiple-group analysis of the model revealed that the relationships between anxiety and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by negative social images, and the relationships between avoidance and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by positive and negative social images in the three groups.
著者
金政 祐司 浅野 良輔 古村 健太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.1-15, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
1

This study was conducted to reveal the commonalities and differences between the effects of attachment anxiety and narcissism on adjustment. Therefore, the hypothetical models in which both attachment anxiety and narcissism affect intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment through senses of acceptance and rejection by other people and partners were examined. Participants were 580 undergraduates in Study 1 and 582 couples aged between their twenties and their fifties in Study 2. The results showed that both attachment anxiety and narcissism increased aggression toward other people and partners as low interpersonal adjustment, and these effects toward aggression were mediated by senses of acceptance by other people and partners. In addition, attachment anxiety increased depression as low intrapersonal adjustment, but narcissism inhibited depression, and these effects were mediated by senses of acceptance by other people and partners.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.188-198, 2010-03-20 (Released:2017-02-20)
被引用文献数
2

Recently, consumer complaints and consumer claims have become a major social issue. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological mechanism of complaining behavior with reference to the theory of aggressive behavior in social psychology. Two hundred and fifteen participants (106 males, 109 females) who lived in Japan were asked to complete a questionnaire by the mail survey method. After a covariance structure analysis, the proposed model was found to fit the data very well. The main findings were as follows: (1) High levels of self-esteem and the self-control of emotion led to having a positive attitude for complaining behavior. (2) Attitudes toward complaining behavior and dissatisfaction with products had a direct effect on actual complaining behavior. Furthermore, dissatisfaction with products was affected by the differences between the expectations for products and the performances of products. (3) Complaining behavior led to a decrease in consumer dissatisfaction. This result indicated the existence of a "cathartic effect."
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992-02-25 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
谷口 淳一 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.11-22, 2008

The present study tried to reveal whether self-presentations in dating relationships are self-verifying or self-enhancing, by examining the relationships among (1) self-view, (2) the desired evaluation and (3) the assumed evaluation from the dating partner. Participants were 156 undergraduates (60 males, 96 females) in dating relationships. The main findings were as follows: 1) Participants expected evaluations from their partners that are more positive than their own. 2) Participants assumed they would be given such evaluations from their partners and perceived the evaluations to be accurate. 3) As their "passion" for the partner became stronger, participants expected evaluations from their partners to be more self-enhancing on a dimension that was important to their relationship. 4) As their "intimacy" deepened, participants expected evaluations from their partners in a self-enhancing way. In addition, participants perceived their partners' evaluations to be highly accurate on a dimension that was important to their relationship. The result of this study supported the strategic self-verification model (Bosson & Swann, 2001) and suggested that both motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification work in dating relationships.
著者
武田 美亜 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.57-64, 2010

We examined whether Japanese dating couples have cynical intuitions about how their partners assess responsibility and whether the strength of this "naive cynicism" varies with the intimacy of the relationship. Thirty-eight undergraduates and their dating partners rated their own responsibility for six desirable and six undesirable joint activities and predicted their partner's self-ratings. They expected their partners to overestimate responsibility for desirable activities and underestimate responsibility for undesirable activities. In addition, this tendency was at least a result of their expectation that their partner's allocation of responsibility would be motivationally biased. Although partners in a more intimate relationship appeared to expect their partner's allocation of responsibility to be more biased, whether this tendency was found because of an assumption that their partner was more biased or because of the stronger self-effacing tendency of more intimate partners was not clear. Results were discussed in terms of judgmental bias in self versus others.