著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.36-45, 2010
被引用文献数
2

In this study, we examined crime control in local communities through interpretations mainly from social capital. Using data obtained from a mail survey in an urban area, we investigated the effects of cooperative behaviors promoted by individual-level or macro-level social capital in neighborhoods on the number of respondents' crime victimizations. The results show that the network size of cooperative acquaintances at the individual level promotes the number of respondents' cooperative behaviors. Moreover, having a neighborhood where greeting and standing talking are frequent promotes respondents' cooperative behaviors. It is also suggested that cooperative behaviors aggregated at the macro level have an inhibitory effect on the number of victimizations in terms of "burglaries of the communities."
著者
三浦 麻子 川浦 康至
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.153-160, 2009
被引用文献数
1 2

This study focused on an online knowledge-sharing community, in which information was exchanged and accumulated actively in the community based on the question-and-answer interaction of users. We examined its characteristics by text mining, one of the most effective methods for the content analysis of enormous quantities of text-based data. Based on an analysis of posted questions and answers, the same gender difference as in previous studies on interpersonal communicative discourse was found. Female users tended to post questions and answers related to their interpersonal relationships. Based on an analysis of their perspectives on the community, it was suggested that many users positively evaluated the usefulness of the community and did not hesitate to post questions and answers. These attitudes of users toward the community should lead to their positive evaluation of both the overall community and the communication made there, as pointed out by Miura and Kawaura (2008).
著者
丹波 秀夫 小杉 正太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.116-125, 2006

This study investigated the impact of social skills on the life events experienced by university undergraduates (n=429). Segrin (2001) advocated a social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis which states that social skills reduce the experiences of life events. On the contrary, Tanaka, Yonehara, and Kosugi (2003) showed that social skills increased the experiences of life events, therefore, it may also be possible to posit a social skills surplus stress generation hypothesis. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, in which the explanatory variables were the components of social skills, and criterion variables were the experiences of life events, it was clear that the components of social skills principally influenced the experiences of life events related to interpersonal relationships. Specifically, trouble-shooting skills decreased life event experiences, while communication-skills increased them. Therefore, it is suggested that both of the above hypotheses are based on the influences of the different components of social skills on life event experiences.
著者
伊東 秀章
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.163-171, 1997
被引用文献数
1 9

More people are choosing to remain single in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intention to marry and various psychological factors, using Ajzen & Madden's (1986) theory of planned behavior, which has received the most attention among the models of the attitude-behavior relation. The results show psychological factors such as general attitudes toward marriage, loss of freedom felt by marriage, perceived behavioral control, individualism, and impressions of parents' marital relationships are related to a person's willingness to marry. However, subjective norm and gender-role orientation are not related. In conclusion, more people will remain single because psychological motivation for marriage will decrease.
著者
高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.119-129, 2007

Ambivalent sexism theory suggests that there are two forms of sexism : hostile sexism toward non-traditional women and benevolent sexism toward traditional women. Based on the finding that the threat to self motivates self-affirmation, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice, this study investigated how that threat had an impact on the two above-mentioned forms of prejudice toward women. In study 1, it was predicted that, under the threat, hostile sexists among the male participants were less likely than the nonsexist male participants to evaluate a career-woman favorably on a warmth dimension. This hypothesis was supported. In study 2, it was predicted that, under the threat, the benevolent sexists among the male and female participants were more likely than the nonsexist participants to evaluate a homemaker-oriented woman favorably. On the contrary, when the less benevolent sexist male and female participants felt threatened, they were less likely than the sexist participants to evaluate the women favorably on a warmth dimension. The possibility that the way of expressing gender-prejudiced attitudes became diversified was discussed.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0932, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
3

This study focuses on “satisficing” (answering behaviors in which participants do not devote appropriate attentional resources to the survey (Krosnick, 1991)) in an online survey and aims to investigate, via various indices, to what extent these behaviors are observed among students whose participation was solicited by the researchers in their universities. This study also aims to explore effective techniques to detect individuals who show satisficing tendencies as efficiently and accurately as possible. Online surveys were carried out at nine universities. Generally speaking, the predictive capability of various types of detection indices was not high. Though direct comparison with online survey panels was impossible because of differences in measurement methodology, the satisficing tendencies of university students were generally low. Our findings show that when using university students as samples for a study, researchers need not be “too intent” on detecting satisficing tendencies, and that it was more important to control the answering environment, depending on the content of the survey.
著者
竹中 一平 落合 萌子 松井 豊
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.135-148, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
34

In modern society, the filtering of illegal or harmful content on the Internet is necessary for the healthy development of young people. However, the mental damage that Internet filtering workers may suffer has been overlooked. We examined occupational stress and related factors among Internet filtering workers in Japan. Workers (N=160) in a company providing a web-content filtering service completed a questionnaire. The percentage of all respondents with high-risk Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) scores was 10.4% and with high-risk General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores was 47.0%. These results indicated that rates of mental damage among Internet filtering workers were as high as those of firefighters and journalists. IES-R and GHQ-12 scores were used as the dependent variables in the quantification method (Type 1). The results showed that these scores related to stress responses in the aftermath of witnessing traumatic illegal or harmful content, emotional empathy, and so on.
著者
高木 彩 小森 めぐみ
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.126-134, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
29

This study distinguished between subjective and objective knowledge of scientific technology whose influence on health is yet to be defined, and explored the effect of each type of knowledge on risk perception. A web-based survey among the Japanese population (N=1,110) was conducted. It assessed the subjective and objective knowledge of electromagnetic field (EMF), interest in EMF, risk perception, and trust on the related organizations. The results indicated that respondents’ objective knowledge about EMF was generally poor. Their subjective knowledge and objective knowledge were significantly correlated, but the strength of correlation was moderate. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant subjective×objective knowledge interaction on risk perception. While objective knowledge consistently attenuated risk perception, subjective knowledge boosted risk perception only when respondents’ objective knowledge level was low. The possibility of the potential influence of reputation of EMF on the boosted subjective knowledge about EMF was discussed.
著者
秋保 亮太 縄田 健悟 池田 浩 山口 裕幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.67-77, 2018-11-30 (Released:2018-12-15)
参考文献数
29

Implicit coordination is attracting attention from the viewpoint of the efficiency of team activities. Factors affecting implicit coordination have not been clarified because the empirical research that has been done is insufficient. This study investigated the effect of team after-event review and shared mental model on implicit coordination through a laboratory experiment. We conducted the experiment using a coordinating task. 144 students teamed up in pairs, with 72 teams participating. We found that team after-event review promoted team performance of implicit coordination. However, shared mental model had no relevance to team after-event review or team performance of implicit coordination. Our findings will help to understand the efficiency of team activities.
著者
常岡 充子 高野 陽太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.93-100, 2012

The purpose of this experiment was to examine a causal relation between perspective-taking and verbal aggression. A participant conducted verbal communication through a computer with another supposed participant (actually, a computer program). Half of the participants first performed a task that was designed to activate perspective-taking, whereas the other half first performed a different task that was designed not to activate perspective-taking. In verbal communication, it was found that those who had not activated perspective-taking increased the number of instances of verbal aggression as the alleged counterpart became more aggressive, whereas those who had activated perspective-taking did not. This finding suggests that activation of perspective-taking has the effect of suppressing an increase in verbal aggression toward a person who increases verbal aggression.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
中原 純
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.180-186, 2014

This study aims to verify the hypothesized intrapersonal process, grounded in the activity theory of aging, whereby the activities of elderly people at Japan's Silver Human Resource Centers have a positive impact on their life satisfaction by developing a positive role identity and self-esteem. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 279 elderly people belonging to the Silver Human Resource Center of I City. Path analysis showed significant relationships between frequency of activities at the center and role identity as a worker at the center, role identity and self-esteem, and self-esteem and life satisfaction. The findings validate the activity theory of aging.
著者
大薗 博記 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.77-86, 2013

Trustworthiness can be judged through smiles, because smiling is difficult to fake. On the other hand, linguistic information, which is easier to fake, is also a signal of a person's trustworthiness; persons claiming to be trustworthy will probably be punished if their lie is exposed. We examined the punishments given to unfair persons who expressed their trustworthiness through linguistic information or facial expressions. In the experiment, all the participants played the Trust Game, wherein they were assigned as donors; 67 participants in Experiment 1 were exposed to their partner's linguistic information (responses to the questionnaire: trustworthy/neutral), and 100 participants in Experiment 2 were shown their partner's face (smile/no smile). They then decided the amount of endowment to give to their partners. After hearing their partner's decision (regarding fair/unfair allocation), they had an opportunity to punish an unfair partner and deduct money from the partner's share. Results show that liars caught through linguistic information were punished severely, but those caught through facial expressions were not. The different mechanisms between processing linguistic information and facial expressions were discussed.
著者
白岩 祐子 宮本 聡介 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.109-117, 2012

Previous studies on attribution judgments concerning crime victims have commonly used the term "responsibility" to measure the negative implications regarding victims. However, responsibility is a concept that should be placed upon offenders, not victims. Victims have frequently been judged negatively, but the use of "responsibility" potentially inhibits the accurate understanding of such negative implications. Additionally, in judicial practice, "responsibility" is basically a term attributed to offenders. We therefore observed a certain shortcoming in the current research framework attributing responsibility to victims. Through judicial decisions and interviews with victims, we derived other labels supposedly containing negative victim judgments ("carelessness" and "fault") , and, together with the label "responsibility," considered whether people evaluate the victims using such labels. Moreover, to confirm whether these labels point to qualitatively distinct concepts, we examined their relationships with causal attribution. The results revealed that respondents rated the victim significantly lower on responsibility than the other negative labels, and we also found different prognostic factors for the labels. The implications of the study were discussed.
著者
樋口 収 原島 雅之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.185-192, 2012

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of construal level and achievement goal on predictions of how long it would take to complete an academic task. According to Construal Level Theory (Liberman & Trope, 2008; Trope & Liberman, 2010), when we predict the distant future (i.e., we construe the future in abstract features) , those predictions are based on abstract information. We hypothesized that participants who reported a stronger achievement goal predicted that they would spend a greater amount of time on the task when they construed the task abstractly. Two experiments tested the hypothesis. First, we assessed a participant's achievement goals. Then, we manipulated their construal level (e.g., the deadlines for submission of an essay: experiment 1), and asked them to estimate the amount of study time required. The results of the two experiments supported our hypothesis. The role of construal level on predictions is discussed.
著者
渡辺 匠 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.83-92, 2012

This research deals with determinants of perception of social consensus between the self and ingroup in the minimal group paradigm. Specifically, we predicted that ingroup projection would shield the individual from threats because connection with ingroup members could provide comfort and validate self-concepts. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the manipulation of self-threat invokes enhanced ingroup projection, whereas outgroup projection was not affected by threats to the self. These results are consistent with the previous literature that ingroup members are judged to be similar to the self. Adding to these findings, our data imply that when people are under threat, they tend to project their own traits onto ingroup members for the purpose of self-protection. The findings are discussed within the context of the potential use of self-ingroup relationships as self-defense mechanisms.
著者
後藤 崇志 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.125-136, 2013

The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout among employees with different degrees of autonomy. We conducted a panel survey among 424 employees. The results revealed that 1) autonomy affected the relationship between controlling emotional sensations and burnout. Controlling emotional sensations increased burnout among employees with low autonomy, but not among those with high autonomy. Moreover, the results revealed that 2) autonomy did not affect the relationship between other self-control behaviors and burnout. We discussed why a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout and how autonomy affected it, by referring to the process of self-control based on the Limited Resource Model, cognitive control, and physiological underpinnings.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘 土肥 伊都子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.27-38, 2000

"Extended self" is defined as "the aggregation of all obiects that people regard as a part of themselves; for example, their body parts, parents, friends, pet animals, job, social roles, etc." The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the emotional reaction of involuntary loss of the extended self, that is, "material possessions" and 2) to examine the structure of "extended self" and its relation to the values attached to the possessions. We collected samples from the victims of the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake (209 university students) and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (87 university students). The questionnaire asked them to describe what kind of favorite possessions they lost, the emotions when they lost them, the values they attached to the possessions and to what extent they regarded the external objects as a part of themselves. The results showed both similarities and differences between the victims of two earthquakes. The main findings were as follows: 1) Most victims of both earthquakes showed a similar emotional reaction, that is, "sadness" to the loss of important possessions. 2) For the values they attached to their lost possessions, "functional value," "emotional value," "self-presentational value," and "symbolic value of relationship" were extracted. 3) The more emotional value the victims of the Hanshin Earthquake gave to their possessions, on the other hand, the more self-presentational value the victims of the Northridge Earthquake gave to their possessions, the more the victims of both earthquake regarded their possession as a part of extended self.
著者
川西 千弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.221-232, 2008

This study investigated how the mind state of a discloser, when self-disclosure of negative contents occurred, might vary with the acceptance or rejection of the recipient, the intimacy of the discloser and the recipient, and the self-esteem of the discloser. A questionnaire investigation using the "scene-assuming" method was conducted among 134 women university students. The main results were as follows; (1) The mind state of the discloser was positive when the recipient was accepted rather than refused; (2) In many dimensions, such as "impression aggravation concern," irrespective of acceptance or rejection, the discloser's mind state when the recipient was the best friend was more positive than in cases where the recipient was just an acquaintance. But in terms of difference from self-disclosure immediately to feedback by the recipient, the discloser's mental damage as a result of rejection was more serious when incurred by the best friend than by an acquaintance; (3) In a dimension such as "waning confidence" or "mutual trust of the future," the mind state of low self-esteem disclosers was more negative than that of high self-esteem disclosers, regardless of acceptance or rejection by the recipient.
著者
中島 誠 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.98-107, 2008

This research investigated the motives behind helping and exploitive behaviors from the perspective of the Equity with the World (EwW) hypothesis, which claims that people will maintain equity in trans-relational relationships. It was hypothesized that (a) people redress inequity even from third parties, and (b) in comparison with monetary issues, when the exchange resource involves helping out, over-rewarded people offer more resources to others, while the under-rewarded are less likely to exploit others. In addition, (c) people redress inequity more strongly with interested parties. A total of 343 college students completed a questionnaire that contained two hypothetical situations. In each of these situations, respondents were initially either given resources, or had resources exploited from them, and were then asked about subsequent situations. The evaluation of the first interaction and their intent toward offering resources to third parties were assessed. The results generally supported the hypotheses. However, the second hypothesis was not supported. They were less exploitive when they were under-rewarded regarding money allocation. Differences in the method of restoring inequity regarding the resources were discussed in terms of generalized exchange.