著者
宮川 裕基 谷口 淳一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1630, (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
38

This research explored whether self-compassion buffers people against perceived threat in the face of job rejection and enables them to invest their internal resources in job hunting again. It also examined whether intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting moderates the relation of self-compassion to the reinvestment of resources. In Study 1, a total of 153 Japanese undergraduates responded to a hypothetical scene about being rejected at a job interview for a sought-after company. Results indicated that self-compassion was negatively related to perceived threat and that the positive relation of self-compassion to resource reinvestment in job hunting was significant only among those high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting. In Study 2, a total of 50 job-hunting students recalled their own job rejections and reported on how they had coped with them. Results replicated the main findings of Study 1, indicating that self-compassionate people are less likely to overestimate threat from their rejection and that they are more likely to reinvest their internal resources in job hunting when they are high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward it.
著者
田村 美恵
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.26-33, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
21

The present study examined how the meta-stereotype information presented by outgroup members affects intergroup attitudes, as well as ingroup members’ perceptions of their group. Participants were given either positive or negative meta-stereotype information, which could be either consistent or inconsistent with their own self-views (ingroup stereotypes). As predicted, those provided with positive meta-stereotype information rated outgroup members favorably. Moreover, they regarded their own group more positively when the positive meta-stereotype information was inconsistent with ingroup stereotypes. On the other hand, participants presented with negative meta-stereotype information regarded the outgroup members unfavorably. This tendency was salient when the meta-stereotype information was incongruent with ingroup stereotypes. Negative meta-stereotypes information, however, did not influence the ingroup members’ perception of their own group. We discussed the impact of meta-stereotype information on intergroup relations, as well as the direction of further research.
著者
小宮 あすか 渡部 幹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.111-117, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)

Researchers have recently shown that regret functions to lead appropriate behaviors not to repeat the same failure again. Previous studies also argued that emotions have "functions of expression" in addition to such "functions of experience," but how expressing regret functions has not been sufficiently investigated. In the present article, we first reviewed the relations across remorse, guilt, and regret, and then reexamined a hypothesis suggested by Van Kleef et al. (2006) that expressing interpersonal regret signals future behavioral change and interpersonal sensitivity, and thus facilitates the construction of relationships. Supporting our predictions, the results showed that persons who indicated interpersonal regret were more likely to be judged trustworthy and were more desired as partners than persons who did not. We discuss the functions of experiencing and expressing regret.
著者
石井 辰典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.133-142, 2009-11-30 (Released:2017-02-20)

This research examined the hypothesis that the strength of the linkage between self-representation and other-representation varies as a function of the significance of the other people involved in the linkage by analysis of the task facilitation paradigm (Klein et al., 1992) and analysis using an implicit effect of self-representation (Smith et al., 1999). An experiment using friends and fathers for the target persons was conducted with 51 participants. As a result, the strength of the linkage between self-with-father-representation and father-representation varied as a function of the degree of significance of the father. On the other hand, there was a strong linkage between self-with-friend-representation and friend-representation even though the degree of significance of the friend was low. It was thought that these results differ because the meaning of significance was different for father and friend. Moreover, we found a linkage between the father-representation and self-with-friend-representation. The results suggest that further examinations of the factors which determine self-other representation linkage are necessary.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013-03-31 (Released:2017-03-03)

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
塩谷 芳也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.157-169, 2014-03-17 (Released:2017-02-28)

Th purpose of the study is to examine the impact of received social support on the mental health of victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. An Internet survey was conducted on September 9, 2011. Participants were victims of the disaster aged 18-69 years who lived in Miyagi prefecture (N=1,000). Depression was measured using the Japanese version of K6. Types and times of social support received within one month from the earthquake were measured. Samples were divided into lightly damaged victims (n=781) and severely damaged victims (n=219). Statistical analyses showed that cases who received "psychological encour-agement" tend to have depression after half a year of the earthquake only in the case of lightly damaged victims. Controlling for stressful events such as the death of family members and depression in the one month following the earthquake, psychological encouragement maintained a significant effect on depression for half a year from the earthquake. The mechanism that produced this correlation was explained in terms of the ambiguous and unstable identity of lightly damaged victims of the disaster.
著者
杉山 幸子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.13-21, 1993

Two hundred and ten members of a Japanese new religion. Mahikari, responded to a 6-page questionnaire. First, a factor analysis was performed to identify four dimensions of religiosity: belief, religious behavior, experiences, and the affective bonds of membership. Secondly, factor scores were subjected to ANACOVA to examine the effects of sex, age and the length of membership on each dimension. The results indicated that women had more religious experiences than men, and that people became more active in their religious behavior with age. In addition, youths were more affected than adults, and many late adolescent males had doubts about the teachings. The length of membership in Mahikari, on the other hand, was shown to have a positive effect on behavior.
著者
原田 耕太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.104-110, 2013

It is expected in existing theories that bias suppression, known to be a procedural justice norm (Leventhal, 1980), has a positive influence on perceived fairness and that egocentric bias causes perceivers to make a positive response to favorable outcomes more than to unfavorable ones. In addition, we tend to exhibit egocentric bias when unfavorable outcomes emerge; an interaction between the favorability of an outcome and egocentric bias is therefore to be expected. That is, perceived fairness would be lower in unfavorable outcome without bias suppression than in others. For the sake of meeting expectations, we have availed ourselves of modified scenarios from Study 1 of De Cremer (2004). Sixty undergraduate students participated in this study, of whom 55 were analyzed. Almost all of the results are to meet expectations. It can be considered that procedural justice might be superior to egocentric bias in perceived fairness; however, the influence of egocentric bias should not be disregarded.
著者
佐藤 浩輔 大沼 進
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013

The current study investigates the influence of social factors, such as self-interest and involvement, on trust and its determinants, in the context of public decision-making in government, through two scenario experiments. In both experiments, participants' involvement (high/low) and, subsequent interest in the high-involvement condition (agreed/opposed) were manipulated and two trust models were compared: a traditional model, which regards expectation about intention and competence as the component of trust; and an SVS model, which regards perceived salient value similarity as the primary determinant of trust. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) conflict of interest diminishes trust and value similarity; 2) expectation of the government's intention consistently predicts trust in government, regardless of self-interest. The results supported both hypotheses. Implications of value similarity in the context of public decision-making are discussed.
著者
宮崎 弦太 池上 知子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.219-226, 2011

From the perspectives of interdependence theory and sociometer theory, we tested the hypothesis that greater costs of relationship loss lead to heightened sensitivity to rejection cues and to increased motivation to behave in more relationship-constructive ways. We conducted a questionnaire study in which 319 undergraduates listed activities they shared with their closest same-sex friend and indicated how they would feel and behave if they were rejected. As predicted, a greater amount of shared activities with a friend led individuals to experience stronger negative self-relevant feelings following imaginary rejection by that friend, which in turn generally promoted relationship-constructive behaviors (and inhibited relationship-destructive ones). The results suggest that state self-esteem effectively functions as a relationship maintenance mechanism.
著者
石黒 格 安野 智子 柴内 康文
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.114-123, 2000

Nowak & Latane (1994) conducted computer simulation of adaptive agent bound to network structure and found "consolidation" and "clustering". They claimed minority could remain in the system by clustering. They ignored, however, people living in modern society have global information about the system they live in. What will be changed, or not changed, when all agents in Latane et al.'s simulation have global information about the system and adapt to it? Our study examined this point by adding the "fifth agent" as the "generalized other", which represented global information about the ratio of minority and majority, to Latane et al.'s simulation. We found clustering appear only when the majority initially dominated the system in number. And we also found that the system stay chaotic under the condition that minority initially occupied considerable area of the system. These findings imply that homogeneous global information promotes not homogeneous but heterogeneous society.
著者
杉本 助男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.27-34, 1986
被引用文献数
1

Mental processes of twelve subjects who underwent thee days of sensory restriction were analyzed upon their self-reports and behaviors emitted during the experiment. Five categories of subject's reaction to the environment of sensory restriction, thinking and fantasy, perceptual experience, emotional state, emitted behavior and posture, and alpha frequencies of EEG, could be better information to estimate the degree of subject's mental deterioration. In order to search the critical point of tolerance for sensory restriction, three types of reaction style, emotion expression, regression-stability and reality coping, were classified. It was suggested that occurrence of impulsive emotion for emotion expression style, recollection of child days in a half-day long for regression-stability style and strong expression of unplesant emotion for reality coping style might be critical for sensory restriction.
著者
油尾 聡子 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.32-40, 2012

This study examined whether the norm of reciprocity, which implies that people feel compelled to return favors, plays a role in deterring inconsiderate behavior. We predicted that both gratitude messages, such as "Thank you for parking your bike in a straight line," and knowledge of the sender's identity facilitate reciprocation and thus deter inconsiderate behavior. Participants (N=191) were randomly assigned to read one of four descriptions. These descriptions reflected a 2 (messages: gratitude vs. prohibition)×2 (sender identity: clear vs. ambiguous) between-participants design. The participants subsequently rated the extent to which they were likely to engage in inconsiderate behavior in a given situation. As predicted, when the sender's identity was clear, the participants exposed to a gratitude message tended to refrain from inconsiderate behavior by invoking the norm of reciprocity. We also discuss the effectiveness and implications of the norm of reciprocity as a deterrent of inconsiderate behavior.
著者
三隅 二不二 渥美 公秀 矢守 克也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.11-22, 1989-03-15 (Released:2016-11-23)

The inhabitants' response before and after a landslide disaster was examined. The disaster was characterized by the following three distinctive features. First, in one of the damaged areas, the inhabitants were given, a week in advance, an instruction to evacuate because of an eventual landslide. However, no landslide occurred then. Second, in another damaged area, where no pre-instruction were given, there were 26 victims, while no person was victimized to death in the area mentioned above. Third, some inhabitants constituted a committee to cope with the disaster. We conducted a series of research using face-to-face interview and questionnaire method. 145 of the 241 inhabitants answered the questionnaire. The results showed three major points. First, the instruction for evacuation in the case of pre-landslide, was perceived positively by the inhabitants. Second, some interpersonal networks formed by the inhabitants had much positive effects on their coping with the disaster. Third, the inhabitants tended to believe that the landslide was due more to technical and organizational reasons after and before the disaster than to natural ones.
著者
山中 祥子 山 祐嗣 余語 真夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.101-108, 2012
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated implicit attitudes toward high-fat foods among female undergraduate students. The existence of conflict between implicit negative attitudes and approach attitudes toward high-fat foods was predicted. Implicit attitudes were measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). This test has two attribute categories: positive-negative and approach-avoidance. In Experiment 1, food stimuli were presented using words. The results showed an implicit negative attitude toward high-fat foods, but no approach attitude. In Experiment 2, pictures were used as food stimuli. Here, the results showed both an implicit negative attitude and an implicit approach attitude toward high-fat food. However, no difference was seen in implicit attitude toward high-fat foods between the group with high intention of intake restraint and the group with low intention. These results partly supported the prediction for this study. The relationships of implicit negative attitudes and implicit approach attitudes toward high-fat foods, and eating behavior, were discussed.
著者
碓井 真史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.85-91, 1992
被引用文献数
2

The effects of perceived competence and self-determination on intrinsic motivation were investigated. Perceived competence was manipulated by positive or neative verbal feedback. Self-deterermination was manipulated by "cognitive priming questionnaires" (Porac & Meindl, 1982). The subjects were 54 university students. Each subject was randomly assigned to one condition of a two (perceived competence: positive or negative) × three (self-determination: high, control, or low) design. The results showed a significant correlation between perceived competence and intrinsic motivation, but no correlation when there was no self-determination. These results were discussed in cognitive evaluation theory and self-determination theory.
著者
渡辺 聡
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.172-179, 1992

When consumers buy certain products, they sometimes seek information about the product class and sometimes not. Many literatures have shown that consumers make less effort to acquire information when they are less involved with the product class. Then, if information seeking by word-of-mouth is easier and costs less than information seeking by mass media, those consumers who are less involved with the product class will depend upon word-of-mouth more than the more involved consumers. This study examined this hypothesis by giving questionaires to 214 female college or university students. The product class chosen here was cosmetics. The results showed that information seeking by word-of-mouth is an easier way to aquire information, and that if consumers are less involved with the product class, they depend more upon word-of-mouth for getting information about the product clans.
著者
田中 大貴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.21-24, 2013

Whether people punish an unfair partner has been investigated using the ultimatum game, in which a proposer makes an offer of how to divide a fixed amount of money between him/herself and a responder, and the responder decides whether to accept or reject the proposer's offer. Previous studies have revealed that it is the proposer's unfair intention, rather than the unfair offer itself, that increases the rejection rate. However, all of the previous studies employed the strategy method, wherein the responders had to decide whether to reject various offers before examining the proposer's actual offer. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether the effect of unfair intention would be replicated when the responders made their decision upon receipt of the proposer's offer. Accordingly, in the present study, participants received an unfair offer (i.e., the proposer would take 90% of the resource) that was made intentionally or unintentionally, and then decided whether to accept it. The result showed that the unfair offer was rejected more frequently in the intention condition than the no-intention condition.