著者
松井 豊 山本 真理子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.9-14, 1985

Male students differing in the degree of their self-esteem rated the impressions of ten female photographs and made a choice of their dating partner. The rating scales included 19 personality and appearance traits, liking scales, and the subjects' fear of rejection. Four factors emerged as a result of a factor analysis of the 19 personality and appearance traits: homeliness, physical attractiveness, liveliness, and individuality. The findings were as follows : (a) liking for females was not only determined by their physical attractiveness but also by their homeliness ; (b) subject's self-esteem did not influence whom they choose as his date ; (c) liking of the high self-esteem subjects (HSE) were influenced more strongly by the physical attractiveness of the female than the low self-esteem subjects (LSE); (d) only the LSE was attracted more to females with high individuality; (e) LSE's liking score was strongly influenced by fear-of-rejection score. These findings suggest that the matching hypothesis should take into account factors other than physical attractiveness, i.e. desirable personality traits judged from the appearance of the other sex and also the self-esteem of the subject.
著者
竹橋 洋毅 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.50-57, 2008

Guided by the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective feeling of affect and the automatic processing of affective information. After the manipulation of goal framing (promotion focus vs. prevention focus), 32 participants were asked to indicate their affective state and to engage in a modified Stroop task. Results indicated that goal framing did not influence subjective feeling but influenced the speed of color naming in the Stroop task; participants in the prevention condition responded more slowly toward loss-related words (quiescence and agitation) than gain-related words (cheerfulness and dejection), whereas participants in the promotion condition responded toward gain-related words as slowly as toward loss-related words. These results suggest that goal framing heightens the activation of particular affective representations and the activations influence performance on a Stroop task automatically. The effects of automatic processing of affective information on subjective feeling and the process of self-regulation are discussed.
著者
高橋 尚也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.97-108, 2010

In Japan, activities to prevent crime by citizens have been encouraged, but are not developing well. Two studies were carried out to examine factors regulating citizen participation in activities to prevent crime in Edogawa ward. In a survey interview of 15 leaders of activity to prevent crime (Study 1), it was suggested that attachment to city, attitude towards activities to prevent crime, indirect support from administration, and mutually beneficial relations with administration led to development of these activities. In a survey of 141 randomly sampled adults (Study 2), people who participated in activities to prevent crime accounted for 14.2% of the total. Among men, participation was determined by the number of organizational affiliations in the community. Intention to participate was promoted by advanced age and high levels of political interest. In women, participation was determined by youth, number of schoolchildren in the family, and communication with neighbors. Intention to participate was restrained by low levels of political interest and absence of high-school children in the family. Implications for activities to prevent crime were discussed from the viewpoint of gender and benefit from activity.
著者
中西 大輔 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.193-199, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
23

Using evolutionary simulation, Yokota and Nakanishi (2012) have shown that majority syncing (generalized tit-for-tat strategy) is an adaptive strategy in intergroup conflict situations. When intergroup conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and ensure their behavior conforms to other members’ cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. This finding is supported by multi-group selection theory and by cultural group selection theory. However, this model addresses only majority-syncing as a social influence strategy. The current study introduced a minority-syncing strategy to Yokota and Nakanishi’s (2012) model. There were four conditions: Majority-syncing (agents conformed to the majority, but not to the minority), no conformity (agents did not conform), minority-syncing (agents conformed to the minority, but not to the majority), and mixed (both majority- and minority-syncing strategies were used). Computer simulation revealed that the cooperation rate decreased when minority-syncing was introduced. The cooperation rate of the no-conformity condition was higher than of both the minority and the mixed conditions. We discuss the implications of minority-syncing.
著者
中谷内 一也 Cvetkovich George
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.259-268, 2008
被引用文献数
2

The degree of trust in risk managers heavily influences the public's acceptance of new technologies. The present study examined factors affecting public trust in risk managers, integrating the salient value similarity (SVS) model and the traditional view of trust. A thousand residents in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures participated in a survey that investigated public trust in the government offices responsible for the decision to approve a genetically modified rice that claims to inhibit pollen allergies. In the high interest group, giving moral meaning to the outcomes of the decision was found to be a powerful predictor of trust. Perceived agreement in values between individuals and the regulators was also found to influence trust in decisions, as predicted by the SVS model. On the other hand, as expected with the traditional perspective on trust, a perception of procedural competency and a belief in the fairness of the risk managers were found to be powerful predictors of trust in the low interest group. Implications of these results for the practice of risk management were discussed.
著者
江利川 滋 山田 一成 川端 美樹 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.267-273, 2007
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affinity for television and its viewing. Data was based on a random sample of 682 people in the Tokyo metropolitan area, with a 65.0 percent response rate. Study 1 developed a Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), confirmed its reliability and validity, and found that the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors. Study 2 showed that affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned viewing and non-concentrated television viewing. In addition, Study 2 found that viewing of entertainment programs was positively correlated to TAS score, while news program viewing was not. These results were consistent with the finding of Rubin (1984) that TAS is positively correlated with ritualized television viewing and not with instrumental viewing.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.274-284, 2007

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between early adult attachment styles, self-perceptions and other's-perceptions (participants' impressions from their close friends) in friendships, and also to examine the effects of attachment styles and discrepancies between participants and their friends in terms of self-perceptions on evaluations of their relationships. Participants, 210 undergraduates, were asked to pair with their same-sex close friend in class and answered several questions. Results showed that "avoidance" attachment dimension was generally negatively related to positive self-perceptions in friendships. Also, similar tendencies were obtained on other's-perceptions. Moreover, the discrepancies between participants and their friends in terms of evaluations of their relationships increased as "avoidance" dimension increased. These results suggest that "avoidance" dimension is related to low levels of adjustment in the friendships. In addition, the discrepancies between self-perceptions of "sociability" were positively and those of "attractiveness" were negatively related to the discrepancies between evaluations of relationships.
著者
糟谷 知香江
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.10-22, 2007

This paper explores phases of peer relations between Japanese Bolivians and non-Japanese Bolivians(grades 1-8) at an ethnically mixed school located in the Republic of Bolivia. At the school, studies consisting of participant and systematic observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and a questionnaire were conducted several times between 1994 and 1997. There were 55 Japanese Bolivians and 109 non-Japanese Bolivians at the school in 1997, when the main data for the paper were gathered. The author noted that Japanese Bolivians had Japanese classes and, through the classes, shared various experiences. Not all the shared experiences revolved uniquely around Japanese culture, but the classes and shared experiences furthered communication and other activities within the group. The experiences reinforced the solidarity of the Japanese Bolivians and separated them from the non-Japanese Bolivians. That is to say, the shared experiences of the Japanese Bolivians created further boundaries between the ethnic groups.
著者
山崎 瑞紀 高木 彩 池田 謙一 堀井 秀之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.77-86, 2008

The present study examined the determinants of public trust in railroad companies. The constructs studied were as follows: trust in companies, familiarity toward companies, recognition of company values, perceived frequency of traffic accidents, perceived involuntary risk, perceived function as watchdogs of other institutions, and perception of safety measures. We conducted a survey in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and obtained answers from 1,081 respondents. The postulated model was tested using structural equation modeling procedures. The results indicated that the proposed model fits the data very well. It was shown that perceived function as watchdogs, perception of safety measures, recognition of company values, and familiarity had direct effects on trust.
著者
町 一誠 樋口 匡貴 深田 博己
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.173-186, 2006

This study aims to examine the effects of a speaker's use of dialect on the impression given by that person. The experimental conditions were as follows : (1) the speaker used a common language and a dialect with appropriate code-switching according to the situation; (2) the speaker used the same, but with inappropriate code-switching; (3) the speaker consistently used a common language; and (4) the speaker consistently used dialect. The subjects consisted of two hundred and eighty undergraduate students, some of whom were native speakers of the dialect while others were not. The experiment revealed that the impression given by and the interpersonal attractiveness of a speaker who used a common language and a dialect with appropriate code-switching according to the situation were more favorable. On the other hand, the impression given by and the interpersonal attractiveness of a speaker with inappropriate code-switching were less favorable. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of the evaluation of the dialects in Japan.
著者
石井 辰典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.133-142, 2009

This research examined the hypothesis that the strength of the linkage between self-representation and other-representation varies as a function of the significance of the other people involved in the linkage by analysis of the task facilitation paradigm (Klein et al., 1992) and analysis using an implicit effect of self-representation (Smith et al., 1999). An experiment using friends and fathers for the target persons was conducted with 51 participants. As a result, the strength of the linkage between self-with-father-representation and father-representation varied as a function of the degree of significance of the father. On the other hand, there was a strong linkage between self-with-friend-representation and friend-representation even though the degree of significance of the friend was low. It was thought that these results differ because the meaning of significance was different for father and friend. Moreover, we found a linkage between the father-representation and self-with-friend-representation. The results suggest that further examinations of the factors which determine self-other representation linkage are necessary.
著者
勝谷 紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.213-225, 2006

This research investigated how reassurance-seeking related to coping behaviors for negative life events, rejection by significant others, and depression. In study 1,107 students filled out a questionnaire to examine the relationships between reassurance-seeking and different coping behaviors. The results showed that reassurance-seeking related to significant-other-aided coping behaviors and non-interpersonal coping behaviors. In study 2, the author examined whether coping behaviors based on reassurance-seeking related to depression through rejection by significant other by 2 wave data. One hundred and sixty students answered questionnaires twice after 3 months. The results indicated that reassurance-seeking behavior and non-interpersonal relief behavior related to Time 2 depression through rejection by significant others. The implications for roles of reassurance-seeking on the occurrence and maintenance of depression are discussed.
著者
石黒 格 村上 史朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.33-44, 2007

Self-effacement has become an important topic in cross-cultural social psychology. However, descriptive characteristics of self-effacement have rarely been investigated. Based on representative network survey data, this study examined to whom Japanese people efface themselves. The results indicated as follows: 1) people tend to efface themselves to their neighbors or mere acquaintances more than to their spouses, colleagues, or best friends; 2) the duration of the relationship correlated negatively with self-effacement; 3) the relationship between psychological intimacy and self-effacement shaped reversed-U; and 4) people tend to efface themselves to maintain or attenuate their status difference, i.e., people efface themselves more to colleagues when the people considered those colleagues to be superior to them, and also to best friends when they considered those friends to be inferior to them.
著者
志岐 裕子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.189-197, 2006
被引用文献数
1

This study had two purposes:(1) to investigate the effects of coviewers on participants' responses to humor, and (2) to investigate the effects of expectations of the role of entertainers on participants' perceptions of humor. One hundred and forty undergraduate student participants were asked to answer a questionnaire, imaging they were in the situations presented. In the case of aggressive humor, participants answered that they would perceive it to be funnier when they watched it with a friend rather than with an acquaintance. In the case of sexual humor, they answered that they would consider it to be funnier if they watched it with a friend or a person of same sex rather than with an acquaintance or a person of the opposite sex. Participants also indicated that they would moderate their responses more with an acquaintance or a person of the opposite sex, than with a friend or a person of the same sex. Lastly, participants reported that humor stimuli were funnier when performed by more familiar entertainers.
著者
谷口 淳一 山 祐嗣 川崎 弥生 堀下 智子 西岡 美和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.226-232, 2006

Shafir (1993) found that people select an alternative which is positive on some dimensions and negative on others more often than one with average dimensions. We applied his methodology to the choice of a person. It is argued that Japanese people prefer a person with an average disposition. But is it that they really prefer this or that they believe that others do? We presented a scenario where two persons wanted to join a party with your group. One was positive on some dimensions and negative on others, whereas the other had an average disposition. One hundred and seven female students were asked to choose one of the two persons, and 113 female students were asked to reject one of the two. They were also asked to infer which person the other members of their group would choose or reject. The results were that our participants chose and rejected the person with positive and negative dimensions in the self-decision condition, whereas they inferred that other members would choose the average person. These imply that self-critical bias may reflect an adaptive strategy as to the selection of persons.
著者
高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.119-129, 2007

Ambivalent sexism theory suggests that there are two forms of sexism : hostile sexism toward non-traditional women and benevolent sexism toward traditional women. Based on the finding that the threat to self motivates self-affirmation, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice, this study investigated how that threat had an impact on the two above-mentioned forms of prejudice toward women. In study 1, it was predicted that, under the threat, hostile sexists among the male participants were less likely than the nonsexist male participants to evaluate a career-woman favorably on a warmth dimension. This hypothesis was supported. In study 2, it was predicted that, under the threat, the benevolent sexists among the male and female participants were more likely than the nonsexist participants to evaluate a homemaker-oriented woman favorably. On the contrary, when the less benevolent sexist male and female participants felt threatened, they were less likely than the sexist participants to evaluate the women favorably on a warmth dimension. The possibility that the way of expressing gender-prejudiced attitudes became diversified was discussed.
著者
野寺 綾 唐沢 かおり 沼崎 誠 高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.195-201, 2007

The purpose of this study is to examine the promoting effect of a fear of death on the activation of gender role stereotypes. Terror management theory proposes that when mortality is salient, people heighten the tendency to support their cultural worldview. Since stereotypes are considered to represent cultural worldview, a fear of death should increase the responses consistent with the stereotype. In this study, the activation of stereotypes regarding gender roles (e.g., "Housekeeping is a job for women.") was measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were 48 male undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that the participants who completed the questionnaire implying mortality had a larger IAT effect than those who completed the questionnaire unrelated to mortality, and that death-related anxiety led to the activation of gender role stereotypes. It is claimed that terror management theory has theoretical value for studies on stereotype activation, as well as a function in justifying a system such as gender role in stereotype activation.
著者
鈴木 公啓
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.45-56, 2014-08-18

Body image disturbance and body image discrepancy considered as factors of body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness were investigated. Participants were presented with new figural stimuli (contour drawings/silhouettes) ranging from thin to heavy developed based on real and objective data-human body size measurements and 3-D image data. Results indicated that female participants overestimated their body size, though the degree of overestimation is not particularly large. It is suggested that competition with members of the same sex generates body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness. Furthermore, participants rated ideal body size thinner than their perceived body size. It was found that the differences between perceived body size and ideal body size relate to body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.188-198, 2010

Recently, consumer complaints and consumer claims have become a major social issue. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological mechanism of complaining behavior with reference to the theory of aggressive behavior in social psychology. Two hundred and fifteen participants (106 males, 109 females) who lived in Japan were asked to complete a questionnaire by the mail survey method. After a covariance structure analysis, the proposed model was found to fit the data very well. The main findings were as follows: (1) High levels of self-esteem and the self-control of emotion led to having a positive attitude for complaining behavior. (2) Attitudes toward complaining behavior and dissatisfaction with products had a direct effect on actual complaining behavior. Furthermore, dissatisfaction with products was affected by the differences between the expectations for products and the performances of products. (3) Complaining behavior led to a decrease in consumer dissatisfaction. This result indicated the existence of a "cathartic effect."
著者
阿部 晋吾 高木 修
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.12-20, 2005

In this study, we asked participants (229 students, 87 male and 142 female) to describe experiences both in which they expressed anger to someone and in which someone expressed anger to them, and examined whether there were differences between expressing and expressed positions in the determinants of the interpersonal effects of anger expression. The results showed that, while the justice evaluation of anger expression by persons who expressed anger did not exert any influence on interpersonal effects, the justice evaluation of those who were expressed anger to had statistically significant influences on interpersonal effects. We suggested from this that the more justified the anger-expressed person evaluates the anger expression as, the more positive the interpersonal effects tend to become. It was also found that the strength and direction of the influences of expressing anger on interpersonal effects differed between anger-expressing and anger-expressed positions.