著者
鈴木 直人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.17-25, 2004
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the cognitive basis of self-effacing behavior among the Japanese. Based on the premises that self-effacement among the Japanese is a form of "default self-presentation," we predicted that Japanese self-effacement will dissipate when actual self-evaluation is required. The experiment (n = 110) consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, participants took a "cognitive ability test" that consisted of 20 questions. In Phase 2, they were asked to judge if their performance on the test was above or below the average performance level in their school. In the bonus condition, participants were rewarded for making a correct judgment in their performance. In the fixed-reward condition, no reward was provided for making a correct judgment. The results from experiments 1 and 2, taken together, indicate that self-effacement observed in the fixed-reward condition was not confirmed in the bonus condition. These results suggest that self-effacement among the Japanese is a strategy for self-presentation, which they switch on and off depending on the situation.
著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.115-125, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
27

The present study examined how leaders’ evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their “implicit theories” (e.g., Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member’s performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member’s next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.
著者
宮川 裕基 谷口 淳一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.103-114, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
38

This research explored whether self-compassion buffers people against perceived threat in the face of job rejection and enables them to invest their internal resources in job hunting again. It also examined whether intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting moderates the relation of self-compassion to the reinvestment of resources. In Study 1, a total of 153 Japanese undergraduates responded to a hypothetical scene about being rejected at a job interview for a sought-after company. Results indicated that self-compassion was negatively related to perceived threat and that the positive relation of self-compassion to resource reinvestment in job hunting was significant only among those high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward job hunting. In Study 2, a total of 50 job-hunting students recalled their own job rejections and reported on how they had coped with them. Results replicated the main findings of Study 1, indicating that self-compassionate people are less likely to overestimate threat from their rejection and that they are more likely to reinvest their internal resources in job hunting when they are high in intrinsic-improvement orientation toward it.
著者
中村 早希 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1738, (Released:2019-02-12)
参考文献数
28

This study examines the attitude change process based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) in persuasion among two individuals holding different opinions, as the simplest situation of multiple directions of persuasion by different sources. Participants with restricted or unrestricted cognitive resources were asked their attitudes after reading two different persuasive messages: one was a persuasion from in-group member with weak arguments and the other was from out-group member with strong arguments. Cognitive resources were manipulated with a dual task (Study 1) and time constraints (Study 2) to allow either heuristic or systematic processes to predominate. Both studies showed participants were more likely to form their attitudes in response to the persuasion from in-group member, which had positive heuristic cues, with weak arguments under a restricted condition than under an unrestricted condition. This provides evidence that the HSM can explain the attitude change process under multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.
著者
秋保 亮太 縄田 健悟 池田 浩 山口 裕幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1705, (Released:2018-11-10)
参考文献数
29

Implicit coordination is attracting attention from the viewpoint of the efficiency of team activities. Factors affecting implicit coordination have not been clarified because the empirical research that has been done is insufficient. This study investigated the effect of team after-event review and shared mental model on implicit coordination through a laboratory experiment. We conducted the experiment using a coordinating task. 144 students teamed up in pairs, with 72 teams participating. We found that team after-event review promoted team performance of implicit coordination. However, shared mental model had no relevance to team after-event review or team performance of implicit coordination. Our findings will help to understand the efficiency of team activities.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
48

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner’s group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
三浦 麻子 川浦 康至
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.233-245, 2008
被引用文献数
10

Web-based knowledge-sharing communities, which are supported by countless voluntary Internet users, are in widespread use today. We explored a number of characteristics of interpersonal communication among participants based on their questioning and answering behaviors. A questionnaire survey on participants of Yahoo! Chiebukuro, one of the most popular knowledge-sharing communities in Japan, was conducted, and access data of their behavior in the community were collected. Based on 7,989 survey samples and access data, we found that there were several significant differences in their behavior and motivation based on their participation style, question content, and gender. Results also suggested that information was exchanged and accumulated actively in the community and interpersonal communication of community participants was developed by an aggressive need for information acquisition and subsequent social support.
著者
上原 俊介 中川 知宏 国佐 勇輔 岩淵 絵里 田村 達 森 丈弓
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.158-168, 2013

Anger at the violation of a moral standard has been called moral outrage. However, recent research found that only when the victim of a moral violation was oneself (or a member of one's group) did it evoke strong anger. This suggests that the violation of a moral standard itself does not elicit anger, and such anger may be evidence of personal anger evoked by harm to oneself (or a member of one's group). In our study, we assume that moral outrage may be evoked when the likelihood of restoring fairness (e.g., compensation) is expected. We conducted three experiments in which Japanese university students read a newspaper report (fictitious) depicting an abduction case. For half of the participants, the abducted victim was Japanese; for the other half, Slovenian. After reading the news story, they were asked to report the intensity of the feelings of anger and whether the abduction was morally wrong. We found that the report evoked considerable anger only when the abducted victim was Japanese, regardless of whether restoring fairness was actually expected. This indicated that the reported anger provided evidence only of personal anger, not of moral outrage; thus, the likelihood of restoring fairness is not a determinant of moral outrage. These findings imply that personal anger, rather than moral outrage, is more prevalent in social life.
著者
及川 昌典 及川 晴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.40-46, 2013

The role of emotional suppression and expression in the affective priming effect was addressed by examining the consequences of expressing one's emotions toward the primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP: Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). Consistent with previous findings, pleasant or unpleasant picture primes influenced subsequent evaluations of unrelated neutral targets, despite blatant warning to ignore the primes. Interestingly, however, the affective priming effect disappeared when participants expressed their affective responses toward the primes. Moreover, the effect of negative emotional expression was moderated by individual differences in self-rumination. These findings suggest that an affective priming effect ensues when affect is kept unexpressed.
著者
川浦 康至 山下 清美 川上 善郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.133-143, 1999
被引用文献数
12

Thies research was conducted to examine the psychological implications of the people who post their diaries on the internet (i.e., Webdiaries). Web diary authors, compared with normal diary authors, are thought to feel better function of self-disclosure and interpersonal communication. Out of 1,529 surveyed subjects 377 valid responses (24.7%) were received. As a result, our hypothesis, "the higher their self-consciousness are, or the more positive feedback they received, the higher they value their diaries, increasing level of gratification and intention to continue the Web diary" was basically verified. To write a web diary is a kind of opportunity to develop communication with others. In conclusion, writing a Web diary is an act of self-recognition through communication with others.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.11-20, 2009

This study was conducted to reveal the commonality between mother-child and romantic dyads in early adults, based on the relationships between early adult attachment dimensions, emotional experiences in the relationships, and evaluation of the relationships. Participants were 209 pairs of early adults and their mothers, and 103 romantic couples in early adulthood. The main results were as follows: in both relationships, attachment anxiety was positively correlated to one's own and one's partner's negative emotion in the relationship and negatively related to one's own and one's partner's evaluation of relationships. But attachment avoidance was only related to one's own negative and positive emotion in those relationships. Moreover, the relations between attachment anxiety and one's own and one's partner's evaluation of relationships were mediated by one's own and one's partner's negative emotion respectively in both relationships. The results were discussed in terms of the self-fulfilling prophecy of attachment styles.
著者
森本 裕子 渡部 幹 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.108-119, 2008

We investigated how differently people punish a free-rider in three experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to examine how individual levels of trust and self-fairness influence their punishing behavior in a 5-person social dilemma. The results showed that trustful and unfair people, as well as distrustful and fair people, punish a free-rider more. To account for these results, we carried out a vignette-type study in Experiment 2, in which participants rated how likely they were to engage in a variety of punishing behaviors that typically happen in the real world. A factor analysis indicated that people usually assign two different types of meanings to punishing behaviors. One is "Vengeance," which unfair people, regardless of their levels of trust, tend to inflict; the other is "Warning," which tends to be favored by fair people. The results of Experiment 3, another vignette study, showed that observers also consider Vengeance as unfair and Warning fair. These findings imply that participants assigned one of the two meanings to their punishments in Experiment 1 depending on their levels of trust.
著者
船越 理沙 田崎 勝也 潮村 公弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.180-188, 2013

The present study investigated the cultural equivalence of Self-Monitoring Scales (Snyder, 1974) through an examination of differential item functioning (DIF) using structural equation modeling. The data were collected in Japan (n=211) and the US (n=171). Factorial analyses were conducted on three factors of Self-Monitoring Scales: Extraversion, Other-Directedness, and Acting. DIF analyses were then conducted between the Japan and US data on five items in Extraversion, four items in Other-Directedness, and four items in Acting. The results showed that partial factorial invariance was confirmed in both the Extraversion and Acting factors, and strong factorial invariance was detected in the Other-Directedness factor; therefore, each factor of the Self-Monitoring Scales showed reasonable evidence for their cultural equivalence. Based on the results of the DIF analyses and factor mean comparisons between the Japan and US data, the cross-cultural validity of these scales was discussed.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.16-25, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
21

This study investigated factors leading to normative behavior, focusing on residential mobility and reputation estimation. As people in societies with high levels of residential mobility have many chances to build new relationships, it is important for them to establish positive reputations and extend their human resources. However, the incentive to develop a positive reputation may vary depending on the needs and abilities of those engaged in relationship-building. We hypothesized that in societies with high levels of residential mobility, only those who need to build and are capable of building new relationships would follow social norms, when they think it will help to earn a positive reputation from others. On the other hand, people in societies with low levels of residential mobility have few opportunities to build new relationships and thus they may try to avoid negative reputations in order to maintain their current relationships. We hypothesized that in societies with low levels of residential mobility, people would overestimate the possibility of acquiring negative reputations when they deviate from social norms, and they would therefore follow the norms to avoid ending up with negative reputations. The hypotheses were supported by our online survey, in which we focused on normative aspects of participation in community activities.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.101-111, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
4

The present study aimed to examine the antecedent conditions of pluralistic ignorance and its consequences, especially on individuals’ micro processes. Japanese college students participated in a laboratory experiment and met their partners in another room, these actually being confederates. They were asked to do some choice tasks regarding their preferences of gummy candy flavors. Next, they were led to believe that their partners made choices identical to theirs, and estimated the partners’ preferences. They were then asked to choose one flavor as a reward for themselves and their partners, and to evaluate their preferences again. The result suggested a process of the occurrence and consequences of pluralistic ignorance as follows: (1) People tend to see the choices made by others as reflections of their preferences, even when their own identical choices are made to eliminate dislikable alternatives. (2) They tend to take action as group members to meet others’ preferences, even when those are different from their own preferences. (3) When confronted with the inconsistency between their actions and preferences, people are motivated to justify their actions by changing their preferences.
著者
趙 善英 松本 芳之 木村 裕
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.1-12, 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of recalled parental childrearing behaviors on self-esteem in Japanese and South Korean undergraduate students from the viewpoints of behavior analysis. The participants were 201 Japanese students and 206 Korean students. The results showed that the more they recalled that their parents spoke positively about their relatives to others and the more they recalled that they were praised by their parents when they spoke positively about their relatives to others of childhood, the more they were likely in both countries to speak positively about their relatives to others. Furthermore, they were more likely to have high self-esteem. The results also showed that the larger the difference between present self-evaluation and self-evaluation spoken to others, the lower the self-esteem in Japan. On the other hand, the more they had experience of being praised and the more they recalled that they were praised by their parents when they spoke positively about their relatives to others of childhood, the higher the self-esteem in Korea.
著者
江利川 滋 山田 一成
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.112-119, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
11

The purpose of this study is to test whether multiple-answer formats (MA) and forced-choice formats (FC) produce similar results in Web surveys. Data were based on a Web survey of 1,559 Japanese adults in the Tokyo metropolitan area in March 2010. The results revealed the following: (1) Respondents endorse fewer options and take less time to answer in MA than in FC. (2) For MA respondents, options are more likely to be endorsed when they appear in the first half of a list than in the second half. These findings suggest that MA may encourage weak satisficing response strategies. In addition, these tendencies can be seen not only in attitudinal questions (judgment-type questions), but also behavioral questions (recall-type questions). However, the differences between FC and MA are greater in attitudinal questions than in behavioral questions.
著者
縄田 健悟 山口 裕幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.167-177, 2011
被引用文献数
1

When an outgroup member's behavior proves harmful for an ingroup member, a member of the victim's group sometimes retaliates against a member of the perpetrator's group. This phenomenon is called intergroup vicarious retribution. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect on intergroup vicarious retribution of being observed by ingroup members (ingroup audience effect). In this study, we allowed the winner of a one-on-one match to impose a fine on the loser in order to manipulate and measure aggression. It was found that participants imposed a bigger fine on an outgroup member when observed by ingroup members than when they were not. Path analysis revealed that being observed by ingroup members has an effect on the fine imposed on the outgroup member through expected admiration from ingroup members and the motivation of retaliation only in the condition of being informed about harm. Being observed by ingroup members enhances the expectations of gaining admiration from ingroup members and intergroup vicarious retribution occurs to a higher degree. The findings of this study suggest that intra-group processes, such as being observed by ingroup members, escalate intergroup conflict.
著者
中谷内 一也 島田 貴仁
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.34-44, 2008

The purpose of the present study was to compare the perceived risk of crimes between the lay public and experts. A hypothesis of the lay public's risk perception was deduced using the weight function of prospect theory. It was expected that the lay public would overestimate the number of personal injury crimes, which are statistically low, and underestimate the number of property crimes, which are statistically higher. Experts, on the other hand, were expected to correctly estimate the number of crimes in each category. One hundred and sixty undergraduate students and 259 police officers estimated an average annual number for each of 18 crimes. The results supported the hypothesis, revealing that the public overestimated the number of personal injury crimes, which rarely occur, and underestimated the number of property crimes, which occur frequently. Implications of these results for experts and how they communicate with the lay public regarding crime prevention were discussed.