著者
中西 大輔 亀田 達也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.469-476, 2001-02-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
37

Effects of stereotypic beliefs were examined in a group problem solving context, featuring full-fledged, face-to-face interaction. Based on formal analysis of group aggregation processes, it was hypothesized that positive and negative impacts of stereotypic beliefs on task performance in problem solving were larger on the group level than on the individual level. In the present study, data from five-person groups working on a series of problem-solving tasks were used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that stereotypic beliefs indeed exerted “emergent influence” as hypothesized on task performance in the group problem solving. The finding illustrates the importance of socially-shared aspects of stereotypic beliefs, providing a case for the need for “truly social” social-cognition research.
著者
仲嶺 真
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.13331, (Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this study was to examine how women reacted to the approach of an unknown man in town. 105 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the pilot survey. This survey identified six types of judgments made by women when they were approached by an unknown man in town. To investigate the relation between these six types of judgments and the reaction of women to an unknown man, 290 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the main study. The results showed that judgments concerning risks and situation, as well as personality, intentions, and appearance of an unknown man were related to the reactions of women. The importance of judgments about personality of an unknown man and about risk in initiating relationships with males not belonging to the females’ social network are discussed.
著者
田中 光 中條 和光
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18323, (Released:2019-11-15)
参考文献数
14

The study presented here investigated whether tentatively organized categorical representations resulting from learning ad hoc category lists produced false memories as well as whether learning a list with themes (category labels) increased the prevalence of false memories. A sample of university students (N = 48) participated in an experiment using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm, which presented them with word lists consisting of atypical exemplars of ad hoc categories designed to obscure the themes. The participants studied the lists with or without category labels, and then engaged in a recognition test. The lure items for each recognition list were category exemplars that the participants did not learn. The results indicated that false recognition occurred as a result of learning ad hoc category lists and increased when learning a list with category labels. In addition, participants who noticed a theme reported false recognition more frequently than those who did not, even in the condition where labels were not presented. These findings suggest that noticing themes promotes false recognition regardless of the presence of category labels.
著者
澤田 匡人 藤井 勉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.15316, (Released:2016-03-10)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
4

This study focused on the differences between two subtypes of envy known as “benign envy” and “malicious envy” as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result, achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed.
著者
小川 時洋 松田 いづみ 常岡 充子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.4, pp.426-432, 2019 (Released:2019-10-25)
参考文献数
20

Few studies have examined serial physiological variations during the concealed information test (CIT). This study analyzed both pre- and post-stimulus physiological measures from a CIT experiment under knowledgeable and unknowledgeable conditions. The physiological measures assessed in both the pre- and post- stimulus phases included skin conductance level (SCL), normalized pulse volume (NPV), and heart rate (HR). Moreover, skin conductance response (SCR) was assessed in the post-stimulus phase. The results showed that the post-stimulus SCL and SCR and post-stimulus NPV in the knowledgeable condition differed not only between the relevant and irrelevant CIT items but also between the irrelevant items that were presented before and after the relevant items. In both knowledgeable and unknowledgeable conditions, physiological activities and reactivity were higher at early positions than at late ones. However, in the knowledgeable conditions, serial positions of the relevant items modulated this tendency, such that physiological activities were maintained until the relevant item was presented and then declined afterwards. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.6, pp.494-503, 2010 (Released:2012-03-20)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2 2

This study examined the influences of online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life. It was hypothesized that the effects of online gaming would differ depending on the interaction style of the online-gamers. Online-gamers in Japan (n=1 477) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured interaction style during online gaming, the effects of sociability and aggression, as well as social and individual orientation in real life. Factor analysis of the scores for interaction style extracted five factors. Covariance structure analysis indicated that sociable interactions such as “Broadening relations” and “Feeling of belonging” promoted sociability in real life. In addition, “Release from daily hassles” promoted sociability and decreased aggression. In contrast, non-sociable and aggressive interactions decreased sociability and increased aggression. The results also suggested that a social orientation in real life promoted sociable interactions during game playing, while an individual orientation promoted non-sociable and aggressive interactions. These results supported the hypotheses and suggested that online gaming resulted in positive outcomes for those who are socially, but negative outcomes for those who are not.
著者
渡辺 恒夫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.6, pp.478-483, 1998-02-28 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
6 7

Having defined the distinction between hypnagogic imagery and dreams, a preliminary study on the individual differences in the experience of visual hypnagogic imagery was conducted. (1) A questionnaire on visual hypnagogic experience was administered to 796 students. The results suggested that previous researches on the incidence of this experience might have suffered from ambiguous definitions. (2) The Scale of Mental Imagery (Hasegawa, 1992) was administered to 330 of the same students, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to 305 students, and S-A Creativity Test (Sozosei-shinri-kenkyukai, 1969) to 221 students. The frequency of hypnagogic experiences was significantly associated with the scores of “the vividness of mental imagery”, “neuroticism”, and “creativity”. (3) Based on these results, a proposed research problem on hypnagogic imagery was discussed.
著者
奥村 弥生 森田 愛望 青木 多寿子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17343, (Released:2019-07-10)
参考文献数
16

This study aimed to examine the relationship between parents’ involvement in adolescents’ career decision making and its effect on the independence and adaptability of university students. Questionnaires were completed by 180 university students. The results revealed that parents’ involvement was positively related to the dependency and obedience of adolescents, and that decision-making ability was negatively related to obedience. Parents’involvement also decreased decision-responsibility, although it increased decision-making ability. In addition, parents’ involvement was related to students’ satisfaction with university life. First, decision-making ability was positively related to satisfaction with university life. Second, when decision-making ability was high, parents’involvement was not related to satisfaction, while the contrary was also true. When career decision making was difficult, parents’ involvement may have supported better career decision making. In conclusion, it is better that parents are not too involved and encourage decision-making; however, if this is difficult, giving support is better than leaving them alone.
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18206, (Released:2019-09-20)
参考文献数
49

Nostalgia is a sentimental longing for a one’s past. It is an emotion that is known to contribute to multiple adaptabilities. We conducted three studies to develop the Japanese version of the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), which assesses how often people experience nostalgia on a daily basis. Study 1 indicated that the factor structure of the Japanese version and the original version of the SNS are similar and that the Japanese version of the SNS has acceptable test-retest reliability. Study 2 revealed that the factor structure of the Japanese version of the SNS is stable regardless of age. Finally, Study 3 showed that the pattern of correlational relationships of the Japanese version with explicit variables is similar to the original version of the SNS. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the SNS has acceptable validity and reliability.
著者
和田 実
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.4, pp.356-363, 2010 (Released:2011-04-20)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.
著者
中村 敏 大河内 浩人
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17317, (Released:2018-07-14)
参考文献数
13

Verbal descriptions of reinforcement contingencies (rules) often exert control over human behavior. The present study investigated how rules affected behaviors when two participants partially communicated with each other during an experiment. Mouse clicks by undergraduate students produced points depending on a multiple fixedratio 50 differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 10-s schedule. During interruptions in the multiple schedules, participants were asked to describe the schedule contingencies, and then a speaker read the rules to one of a pair of participants (a listener). Discrimination ratios for the listeners were significantly higher than those for participants who were not asked to describe the rules or listened to other’s rules. When both schedules changed to fixedinterval 10-s, all groups were sensitive to schedule changes. The results suggest that the acquisition of scheduleappropriate behavior was affected by instructions even though the instructions were given by individuals other than the experimenter and were imperfect. The results also suggest that the effects of rules and self-rules can be replicated in two-person experiments.
著者
藤木 大介 若杉 佳彦 楞野 祥子 岩本 理沙 島田 英昭
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.4, pp.390-395, 2017-10-25 (Released:2017-10-25)
参考文献数
19

When reading narratives, readers infer the emotions of characters and empathize with them. Emphathic responses can be parallel or reactive. This study, based on the dual-process theory, investigated which emotional responses (i.e., emotion inference, parallel response, or reactive response) in reading are caused by system 1 (unconscious, implicit, automatic, low-effort process) and which depend on system 2 (conscious, explicit, controlled, high-effort process). As cognitive load affects responses influenced by system 2, the effects of working memory load on reading were examined. Participants were divided into two groups based on working memory capacity, and instructed to read narratives under a dual-tasks situation similar to the reading span test. The results revealed no effect of cognitive load on inference of characters’ emotions. However, additional load did affect both types of empathic responses in the low-capacity group. Further, when cognitive load was low, emotion inference correlated with both empathic responses. These results indicate that emotion inference is an automatic process, whereas empathic responses are controlled processes.
著者
尾崎 幸謙
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17004, (Released:2018-03-10)
参考文献数
10

Short-version questionnaires are often used in psychological research dealing with constructs, because the number of questions that the respondent must answer can be reduced. However, because such questionnaires do not include all of the items of the original scale, it is questionable whether the results have sufficient validity. In this research, a separate-version questionnaire was introduced, which can reduce the number of items in the same way as a short-version questionnaire, but is expected to have a higher degree of validity. A statistical comparison was performed between a short-version questionnaire and the introduced separate-version questionnaire, both by simulation and using real data, where the analysis model was a confirmatory factor analysis. The simulation considered the situation where the data used in a scale development study were different for the short-version and separate-version questionnaires. The results showed that the separate-version questionnaire had smaller biases than the short-version questionnaire, which indicates the usefulness of the separate-version questionnaires.
著者
山岡 明奈 湯川 進太郎
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.15057, (Released:2016-09-10)
参考文献数
26

An “incubation period” refers to an individual’s temporary shift away from an unsolved problem, which ultimately facilitates better problem solving. In this study, we experimentally examined whether creative problem solving was facilitated in accordance with the frequency of mind-wandering during an incubation period. Fifty-nine Japanese undergraduate participants (23 men and 36 women) were asked to complete the Unusual Uses Test (UUT) twice; the UUT is a traditional measurement of the various aspects of divergent thinking (including fluency, flexibility, and originality). They were also asked to rate the frequency in which they engaged in mind-wandering during the interval between UUTs, which was considered as the incubation period. The results indicated that participants who reported a higher frequency of mind-wandering during incubation exhibited more creative solutions on the UUT, especially in terms of flexibility and originality, than did those reporting a lower frequency of mind-wandering.
著者
布井 雅人 吉川 左紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.4, pp.364-373, 2016 (Released:2016-10-25)
参考文献数
16

Our preferences are influenced by the presence of others. However, it is unclear how the simultaneous presence of multiple others influences preference judgment. In this study, we presented multiple happy or disgust face images around a target and examined their influence on target preference. In Experiment 1, we presented only happy or disgust faces in order to examine the influence of quantity. In Experiment 2 and 3, we manipulated the ratio of happy or disgust and neutral faces. Findings revealed that the happy face increased the target preference and its effect varied by the ratio of happy faces. On the other hand, the disgust face decreased the target preference only if there was one such face. These results indicate that although the numeric information of others’ facial expressions influences preference judgment, this influence differs with the nature of others’ expressions.
著者
三嶋 博之
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.6, pp.469-475, 1994-02-20 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
6 3

J. J. Gibson (1979/1986) proposed that animals perceive ‘affordances’, which are the functional utilities based on the properties of both the animals and the environment. If this is the case, animals should make judgements about what to do referring to the capability of their own action system. In this study, I examined a perceptual boundary between “stepping-over” and “passing-under” for two groups-the tall group and the short group. Subjects were individually requested to judge whether they would “stepover” or “passunder” a bar presented in front of them which was varied in height. I found that the mean bar-height to leg-length (B/L) ratio at the perceptual action-switching-point is invariant, or 1.07, for each group. This result suggests that animals perceive affordances in controlling action, which means that the environment for animals is structured as to various levels of action.
著者
宮川 知彰
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3-4, pp.289-309, 1943 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
4 2
著者
白木 優馬 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.15040, (Released:2016-09-10)
参考文献数
26

We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a quid pro quo (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.