著者
加藤 仁 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.14033, (Released:2016-01-15)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4 1

Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i.e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison). We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.
著者
加藤 仁 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.1, pp.1-11, 2016 (Released:2016-04-25)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4 1

Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i.e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison). We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.
著者
白木 優馬 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.15040, (Released:2016-09-10)
参考文献数
26

We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a quid pro quo (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.
著者
佐藤 有紀 五十嵐 祐
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.93-100, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
37

This study investigated the effect of a player’s regulatory focus on his/her preference for cooperation and prosociality in a social dilemma situation. After the manipulation of regulatory focus, participants chose cooperation (remaining silent) or defection (betrayal) in simultaneous and sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) tasks based on a traditional scenario of prison sentence rewards. Participants in the prevention focus condition showed more defection than did those in the promotion focus and the control conditions. In the sequential PD task, a greater number of participants in the prevention focus condition used an egoistic strategy (i.e., consistent defection) as the second movers than did those in the promotion focus and the control conditions, who tended to use a conditional cooperation strategy. These findings suggest that prevention-focused players show a less strong preference for cooperation and behave more selfishly when the pay-off matrix is loss-framed.
著者
浅野 良輔 五十嵐 祐 塚本 早織
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.69-79, 2014-04-25 (Released:2014-04-15)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
3 4

Hedonia (seeking pleasure and relaxation) and eudaimonia (seeking to improve oneself in congruence with one’s values) uniquely contribute to well-being. The authors developed and tested the construct validity of a Japanese version of the Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale that had been originally developed in North America. Drawing on the theoretical and empirical evidence from research on emotion, we proposed that people would pursue well-being in three different directions: pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. In Study 1, we used the original HEMA scale to examine the Japanese attainment of well-being. The results supported the hypothesized three-factor model. Study 2 revealed that the Japanese version of the HEMA scale measured pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. Each of these subscales showed statistically sufficient internal consistency. There was no gender difference in any of these measures. Scores on the scale systematically corresponded with external criterion variables, such as life satisfaction, affect, Ryff’s psychological well-being, social support, and lifestyle. Implications for psychological research and public policies that cover the topic of the pursuit of well-being are discussed.
著者
玉井 颯一 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17338, (Released:2019-02-28)
参考文献数
31

Ostracism is a contradicted social action because it has been widely adopted as a legal sanction but is also considered to be excessive enforcement. In the present study, we conducted a scenario-based experiment to examine the psychological process underlying the endorsement of ostracism in school settings. We focused on three general rationales to justify the sanction: a general prevention to protect public welfare (utilitarianism); a counter to deviance from social norms (retributivism); and a type of education to rehabilitate a perpetrator (moral education). The results showed that utilitarianism was more effective in justifying ostracism than retributivism or moral education. Further, preferences towards ostracism based in utilitarianism were less susceptible to influence from others. These findings indicate people’s general preference for the protection of public welfare over the segregation of wrongdoers.
著者
玉井 颯一 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.2, pp.187-193, 2019 (Released:2019-06-27)
参考文献数
31

Ostracism is a contradicted social action because it has been widely adopted as a legal sanction but is also considered to be excessive enforcement. In the present study, we conducted a scenario-based experiment to examine the psychological process underlying the endorsement of ostracism in school settings. We focused on three general rationales to justify the sanction: a general prevention to protect public welfare (utilitarianism); a counter to deviance from social norms (retributivism); and a type of education to rehabilitate a perpetrator (moral education). The results showed that utilitarianism was more effective in justifying ostracism than retributivism or moral education. Further, preferences towards ostracism based in utilitarianism were less susceptible to influence from others. These findings indicate people’s general preference for the protection of public welfare over the segregation of wrongdoers.
著者
星野 浩通 五十嵐 祐太 宮川 道夫 前田 義信
出版者
一般社団法人 電気学会
雑誌
電気学会論文誌. C, 電子・情報・システム部門誌 = The transactions of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. C, A publication of Electronics, Information and Systems Society (ISSN:03854221)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.132, no.3, pp.384-390, 2012-03-01
参考文献数
15

We have developed a rehabilitation tool used for treatment of patients suffering from hemiplegia and evaluation of the paralysis-stage. The tool consists of a PC and button switches for a computer game so that it is not expensive, available in anywhere, and possible to get a change of air in the patients. In this study, we have evaluated behavior indices such as an operation time to play with the games both in healthy young students and patients with paralysis. From experimental results, it was shown that the recorded behavioral indices showed the strong dependence on the motion control function of a subject. Preceding evaluation of effectiveness in rehabilitation of the developed tool, possible application of the tool in evaluation of the motion control function of the patients with hemiplegia was discussed in this paper.
著者
玉井 颯一 五十嵐 祐 TAMAI Ryuichi IGARASHI Tasuku
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, pp.77-84, 2014

Ostracism, the act of ignoring, exclusion and rejection, occurs across the life span and has been documented as harmful and powerful not only for the ostracized member, but also for the ostracizing member and the observers. To ostracize others, individuals vary in the extent to which they evaluate ostracism as an effective and just method to promote group solidarity and efficiency. In this study, we developed and validated the Legitimacy of Ostracism Scale (LOS) that measures one's tendency to accept ostracizing someone from a group as a legitimate action to increase group benefits. Japanese undergraduates (n = 513) completed a questionnaire including LOS (10 items), Machiavellianism, vigilance, relational models, and prevention focus. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single-factor structure with seven items (α = .832). Confirmatory factor analysis on 7-item LOS also indicated that the data best fit a single-factor model. As theoretically predicted, LOS was positively correlated with Machiavellianism, vigilance, orientations for authority ranking and equality matching, and prevention focus. These results demonstrate the high reliability and validity of the 7-item LOS. Further studies need to show that LOS indicates one's actual propensity to ostracize others.
著者
浅野 良輔 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.14401, (Released:2015-09-15)
参考文献数
107
被引用文献数
7 3

Dyadic relationships play a pivotal role in mental health and well-being. Although individual-level factors such as self-esteem and attachment style have been widely studied, the psychological constructs shared and emerging in dyadic relationships have not been explored adequately. This article introduces a novel approach called “individual-dyad dynamics” for understanding mental health and well-being, and provides an overview of dyadic data analysis methods. The approach examines processes involved in dyadic relationships at both the individual and dyad level. Utilizing the tenets of social cognitive theory and social capital theory, we propose that shared relational efficacy, which refers to two individuals having common efficacy expectations and subjectively experiencing commonality in expectations, is distinguishable from perceived relational efficacy. The article discusses the nature of shared relational efficacy from both theoretical (i.e., self-efficacy and shared reality) and analytical (i.e., multilevel structural equation modeling) perspectives. We summarize past empirical research providing preliminary support for this approach and outline implications and future directions regarding dyadic relationship studies.
著者
五十嵐 祐介 平野 和宏 鈴木 壽彦 田中 真希 石川 明菜 姉崎 由佳 樋口 謙次 中山 恭秀 安保 雅博
出版者
公益社団法人 日本理学療法士協会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.48100131, 2013 (Released:2013-06-20)

【目的】変形性膝関節症(以下膝OA)は整形外科疾患において代表的な疾患であり、関節軟骨の変性や骨棘形成など様々な臨床症状を呈する。膝OAの増悪には多くの因子が関与しており、主に肥満や膝関節の安定性、膝関節屈曲及び伸展筋力、膝関節のアライメント、歩行時におけるlateral thrustなどとされている。一方、膝OAの進行予防に関する因子として、膝OA患者の歩行や階段昇降などの動作時に膝関節屈曲筋力と伸展筋力の比であるH/Q (ハムストリングス/大腿四頭筋)比を筋電図で検討した結果、各筋のバランスが膝OA進行予防に重要であるとの指摘がされている。しかし、膝OAの増悪因子と考えられるlateral thrustと膝関節屈曲筋力、伸展筋力のバランスを表すH/Q比との関連を検討した報告は見当たらない。そこで今回、当大学附属4病院にて共通で使用している人工膝関節全置換術患者に対する評価表から、術前評価のデータを使用し、後方視的にlateral thrustとH/Q比との関係を検討することとした。【方法】対象は2010年4月から2012年8月までに当大学附属4病院において膝OA患者で人工膝関節全置換術の術前評価を実施した199肢(男性:33肢、女性:166肢、平均年齢74.1±7.3歳)とした。測定下肢は手術予定側及び非手術予定側に関わらず膝OAの診断がされている下肢とした。筋力の測定はHand-Held Dynamomater (ANIMA社製μ-tas)を使用し、端座位時に膝関節屈曲60°の姿勢で膝関節伸展と屈曲が計測できるよう専用の測定台を作成し、ベルトにて下肢を測定台に固定した状態で伸展と屈曲を各々2回測定した。測定値は2回測定したうち最大値を下腿長にてトルク換算し体重で除した値を使用した。また、lateral thrustの有無は各担当理学療法士が歩行観察により評価した。統計学的処理はlateral thrust有群(以下LT有群)と無群(以下LT無群)の2群に分け屈曲筋力、伸展筋力、H/Q比をそれぞれ対応のないt検定にて比較した。【倫理的配慮】本研究は、当大学倫理審査委員会の承諾を得て施行した。【結果】LT有群95肢(男性:22肢、女性:73肢、平均年齢74.1±7.4歳、平均伸展筋力99.9±42.2Nm/kg、平均屈曲筋力30.1±15.83Nm/kg、平均H/Q比0.34±0.23)、LT無群104肢(男性:11肢、女性:93肢、平均年齢74.5±6.5歳、平均伸展筋力95.5±47.9 Nm/kg、平均屈曲筋力35.4±21.5 Nm/kg、平均H/Q比0.44±0.38)となり、屈曲筋力とH/Q比において2群間に有意差を認めた(p<.05)。【考察】LT有群は、LT無群と比較し屈曲筋力及びH/Q比にて有意に低値を示した。lateral thrustに対し筋力の要因を検討したものでは、大腿四頭筋の最大筋力値が高いほどlateral thrustが出現しにくいという報告や、一方で大腿四頭筋の最大筋力値はlateral thrustの出現に関与しないという報告もあり、筋力の観点からは統一した見解は未だ示されていない。今回の結果にて有意差は認められなかったが伸展筋力ではLT有群の平均値がLT無群よりも高値であったことや、屈曲筋力にて有意差が認められたことは先行研究と同様の傾向を示すものはなく、lateral thrustを単一の筋力のみで検討するには難しいのではないかと考える。本研究でlateral thrustとH/Q比において有意差が認められたことより、各筋力の最大値以外にも比による筋力のバランスという観点も重要であり、lateral thrustが出現している膝OA患者に対するトレーニングとして、最大筋力のみでなく主動作筋と拮抗筋のバランスを考慮したアプローチも重要であると考える。今後はlateral thrustとH/Q比の関係を更に検討するために、歩行時における各筋の活動状態やlateral thrustの程度、立脚期における膝関節内反モーメントなどの評価にて考察を深めていきたい。【理学療法学研究としての意義】本研究の結果より、最大筋力でのH/Q比がlateral thrustの出現に関与する一因である可能性が示唆され、理学療法研究として意義のあることと考える。今後、更に考察を深めていくことでlateral thrust の制動に効果的なH/Q比の検討につなげていきたい。
著者
玉井 颯一 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
2019

<p>Ostracism is a contradicted social action because it has been widely adopted as a legal sanction but is also considered to be excessive enforcement. In the present study, we conducted a scenario-based experiment to examine the psychological process underlying the endorsement of ostracism in school settings. We focused on three general rationales to justify the sanction: a general prevention to protect public welfare (utilitarianism); a counter to deviance from social norms (retributivism); and a type of education to rehabilitate a perpetrator (moral education). The results showed that utilitarianism was more effective in justifying ostracism than retributivism or moral education. Further, preferences towards ostracism based in utilitarianism were less susceptible to influence from others. These findings indicate people's general preference for the protection of public welfare over the segregation of wrongdoers.</p>
著者
白木 優馬 五十嵐 祐 SHIRAKI Yuma IGARASHI Tasuku
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, pp.97-106, 2015-12-28

The development of Information Technology has unraveled a new form of employment, crowdsourcing. With the spread of crowdsourcing, psychological researchers began collecting data with crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing enables them to collect data from a wider range of people in a shorter timespan relative to the conventional methods. Although the application of crowdsourcing has gained popularity in foreign psychological research in recent times, Japanese researchers have not yet tapped this resource. Therefore, this paper presents the available framework of crowdsourcing service for Japanese researchers and its usage aiming for the spread of crowdsourcing in Japanese psychological research. Furthermore, we underline the required precautionary measures while collecting data using crowdsourcing.
著者
白木 優馬 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.5, pp.474-484, 2016

<p>We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a <i>quid pro quo</i> (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.</p>
著者
樽井 この美 五十嵐 祐 タルイ コノミ イガラシ タスク Tarui Konomi Igarashi Tasuku
出版者
大阪大学大学院人間科学研究科対人社会心理学研究室
雑誌
対人社会心理学研究 = Japanese journal of interpersonal and social psychology (ISSN:13462857)
巻号頁・発行日
no.16, pp.33-39, 2016-03

本研究は、集団討議場面において集団成員が問題解決に寄与する言動をしないことを沈黙として捉え、集団内での沈黙を抑制する要因について検討した。集団内の圧力への屈服、ネガティブなフィードバックへの恐れ、現状維持といった沈黙の要因は、制御焦点(Higgins,1997)のうち予防焦点と関連すると考えられることから、本研究では、集団討議場面において、予防焦点の優勢な個人の発言時間が促進焦点の優勢な個人よりも短くなると予測し、隠れたプロフィール課題を用いて3名集団での集団討議実験を行った。分析の結果、制御焦点の操作によって発言時間に有意な差はみられなかった。その一方で、促進焦点が優勢となっている場合、特性的な予防焦点が発言と関連しており、特性的予防焦点と、促進焦点のプライミングの交互作用が発言に影響する可能性が示唆された。This study investigated psychological factors that decrease in-group silence.Silence is regarded as behaving passively or doing nothing to influence group decision making in a group,and lead by in-group pressure,threats of getting negative feedback,and status quo. Based on the regulatory focus theory,this study used a hidden profile task in a group with three members and predicted that a minority member in the group primed with prevention focus is likely to speak shorter than those with promotion focus. Results showed that no significant differences were found between promotion focus and prevention focus priming.On the other hand,trait prevention focus of the minorities increased an illocutionally act in the promotion-focused condition.Implication of the result interpreted by the impact of activated motivation on the avoidance of criticism for passive involvements in group tasks among people with chronic prevention focus.
著者
佐藤 有紀 五十嵐 祐 吉田 俊和 SATO Yuki IGARASHI Tasuku YOSHIDA Toshikazu
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, pp.39-47, 2013-12-27 (Released:2014-03-06)

Today, most Japanese corporations implement a merit pay or pay-for-performance system in order to enhance job performance. This study investigated the effect of pay-for-performance system on employees’ preference for organizational citizenship behavior using the hypothetical Prisoner’s Dilemma. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), we focused on reward expectation for performance (e.g., promotion) and performance pressure (e.g., fears of failure), both of which presumably affect employees’ approach motivation in a different way. We hypothesized that employees’ reward expectation for performance increases their preference for organizational citizenship behavior while performance pressure decreases it. Three hundred and nineteen Japanese employees completed a take-home questionnaire; however, we only examined 175 of those (126 men and 49 women) who were working under management by objectives. Logistic regression analysis confirmed our hypotheses, suggesting that under pressure employees prioritize their individualized objectives rather than cooperate with others for a common goal. Expectation for reward increased employees’ preference for cooperative behavior when a situation calls for dealing with a coworker’s favor. Furthermore, these results were seen only for employees under pay-for-performance system such that those under the traditional system showed the reverse trend. Future studies should examine situational factors as well as each employee’s approach motivation.
著者
浅野 良輔 五十嵐 祐 塚本 早織
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.69-79, 2014
被引用文献数
4

Hedonia (seeking pleasure and relaxation) and eudaimonia (seeking to improve oneself in congruence with one's values) uniquely contribute to well-being. The authors developed and tested the construct validity of a Japanese version of the Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale that had been originally developed in North America. Drawing on the theoretical and empirical evidence from research on emotion, we proposed that people would pursue well-being in three different directions: pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. In Study 1, we used the original HEMA scale to examine the Japanese attainment of well-being. The results supported the hypothesized three-factor model. Study 2 revealed that the Japanese version of the HEMA scale measured pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. Each of these subscales showed statistically sufficient internal consistency. There was no gender difference in any of these measures. Scores on the scale systematically corresponded with external criterion variables, such as life satisfaction, affect, Ryff's psychological well-being, social support, and lifestyle. Implications for psychological research and public policies that cover the topic of the pursuit of well-being are discussed.