著者
星 秋夫 稲葉 裕
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.3, pp.730-736, 1995-08-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
4 5

1898年から1991年までに幕内に入幕した力士664名を対象に,力士の年齢標準化死亡比(SMR)について同時代の日本人男性と比較した。さらに,1898年以降の出生者を対象として死亡率に対する種々の要因の寄与の推定を行った。その結果は以下の通りである。1.力士のSMRはいずれの年次においても有意に高く,年齢階級別にみると,35∼74歳のSMRが有意に高かった。2.Coxの比例ハザードモデルによる解析から力士の死亡率に寄与する要因として,入幕暦年,BMIが抽出された。3.生存率曲線において,入幕暦年の高値群,BMIの低値群はそれぞれ低値群,高値群よりも生存率が高かった。以上の結果から相撲力士の高い死亡率は35∼74歳の高い死亡率によるものと示唆され,力士において,BMIの高値群は死亡のリスクが高いことが明らかとなった。
著者
森重 敏子
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.219-224, 1968-06-30 (Released:2009-09-30)
参考文献数
9

Since 1961, the area of Fukuoka City as well as other areas of Japan has been polluted by radioactive fallout brought about mainly by the fission and fusion bomb test in Red China. In this area periodic measurements of radioactive fallout deposits were measured on the Standard Diet proposed by the Department of Welfare in Japan. In addition measurements were taken on several kind of vegetables (well washed), dairies, row milk, short necked clam and the Tapes Philippiarium. Results obtained from these surveys are as follows:1) The level of radioactivity of the fallout deposited on the vegetables resulting from the 1st, 2nd and 5th tests of the atmic bomb in Red China increased remarkably from 10 times to 200. This is much higher than that of the usual amount of fallout on vegetables. Especially noted was that a somewhat higher level of radioactivity than normal level was maintained for several months during the time of the 5th test.2) Increase and decrease of radioactivity on seasonal vegetables fluctuated approximately with those of the radioactive fallout deposited on the vegetables. The level of radioactivity on the vegetables increased sharply from normal level measured on them after the test.3) Although radioactivity level on the vegetables had increased from the usual level, the level measured on dairy and row milk did not fluctuate remarkably during the test.4) The degree of radioactivity in the short necked clam with shell removed fluctuated considerably more than the usual level, eg. 0.5 to 38.9. However there was no evidence of increase of radioactivity in the clam after the test.5) The degree of radioactivity in the Standard Diet in Japan increased slightly in 1967 compared to that of former years.6) Giant particles of radioactive fallout precipitated on spinach just after the fifth test of the Atomic Bomb in Red China were discovered by means of autoradiography. Removal of these particles could not be completely successfully accomplished with a soapless soap.
著者
津田 敏秀 馬場園 明 三野 善央 松岡 宏明 山本 英二
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.558-568, 1996-07-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
73
被引用文献数
1 2

Changes of causal inference concepts in medicine, especially those having to do with chronic diseases, were reviewed. The review is divided into five sections. First, several articles on the increased academic acceptance of observational research are cited. Second, the definitions of confounder and effect modifier concepts are explained. Third, the debate over the so-called “criteria for causal inference” was discussed. Many articles have pointed out various problems related to the lack of logical bases for standard criteria, however, such criteria continue to be misapplied in Japan. Fourth, the Popperian and verificationist concepts of causal inference are summarized. Lastly, a recent controversy on meta-analysis is explained. Causal inference plays an important role in epidemiologic theory and medicine. However, because this concept has not been well-introduced in Japan, there has been much misuse of the concept, especially when used for conventional criteria.
著者
高橋 美保子 丹後 俊郎
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.3, pp.571-584, 2002-09-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
8 7

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent influenza epidemics on mortality in Japan.Methods: We applied a new definition of excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics and a new estimation method (new method) proposed in our previous paper to the national vital statistics for 1975-1999 (ICD8- ICD10 had been adopted) in Japan. This new method has the advantages of removing a source of random variations in excess mortality and of being applicable to shifting trends in mortality rates from different causes of death in response to the revision of ICD. The monthly rates of death from all causes other than accidents (all causes) and some cause-specific deaths such as pneumonia, malignant neoplasm, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (C. V. D) and diabetes (D. M.) were analyzed by total and by five age groups: 0-4 years, 5-24 years, 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years old or older.Results: The following findings were noted:1. For each epidemic in every other year since 1993, large-scale excess mortality of over 10, 000 deaths was observed and the effect of those epidemics could be frequently detected in mortality even among young persons, i. e., 0-4 years or 5-25 years.2. Excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics influenced mortality by some chronic diseases such as pneumonia, heart disease, C. V. D., D. M., etc. For some epidemic years since 1978, excess mortality rates were detected even in mortality by malignant neoplasm.Conclusions: It has been definitely shown by applying the new method to the national vital statistics for 1975-1999 in Japan that influenza epidemics in recent years exerted an influence on overall mortality, increasing the number of deaths among the elderly and the younger generation. Monitoring of the trends in excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics should be continued.
著者
蓑原 美奈恵 伊藤 宜則 大谷 元彦 佐々木 隆一郎 青木 國雄
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.607-615, 1988-06-05 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
7 2

一地域住民38歳∼84歳の924名のうち,味質脱失者19名を除いた905名を対象とし,滴下法を用いて味覚検査を行った。味質は甘味:精製白糖,塩味:塩化ナトリウム,酸味:酒石酸,苦味:塩酸キニーネの4種に限定し,以下の結果をえた。味覚識別能は4基本味質のいずれも,女性が男性より敏感に識別していた。また,男女とも味覚識別能検査値は,70歳代で最も鈍化し,80歳代ではやや敏感になる傾向など,加齢による変化を認めた。また,総入歯群と義歯なし群や部分入歯群とを比較したが,義歯の状態による味覚識別能に対する影響は認めなかった。喫煙による味覚識別能の影響は,喫煙量(本/日)の増加にともない,男女とも味覚識別能が鈍くなる傾向にあり,味覚識別能における性差は無くなった。塩味,酸味の識別能は喫煙量の増加にともない,男性が女性より敏感に識別し,性差が逆転したが,喫煙量の増加に従い鈍化する傾向は一致した。さらに,味覚識別能に影響を認めた性,年齢を考慮した多変量解析を行った結果,喫煙量の増加にともない味覚識別能は鈍くなる量-反応関係が明らかとなった。その影響の強さは,苦味,酸味,塩味,甘味の順であった。
著者
Hiroyuki FURUYA
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine (ISSN:1342078X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.78-83, 2007 (Released:2007-04-24)
参考文献数
20

Objective: In metropolitan areas in Japan, train commute is very popular that trains are over-crowded with passengers during rush hour. The purpose of this study is to quantify public health risk related to the inhalation of airborne infectious agents in public vehicles during transportation based on a mathematical model. Methods: The reproduction number for the influenza infection in a train (RA) was estimated using a model based on the Wells-Riley model. To estimate the influence of environmental parameters, the duration of exposure and the number of passengers were varied. If an infected person will not use a mask and all susceptible people will wear a mask, a reduction in the risk of transmission could be expected. Results: The estimated probability distribution of RA had a median of 2.22, and the distribution was fitted to a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean of 2.22 and a geometric standard deviation of 1.53, under the condition that there are 150 passengers, and that 13 ventilation cycles per hour, as required by law, are made. If the exposure time is less than 30 min, the risk may be low. The exposure time can increase the risk linearly. The number of passengers also increases the risk. However, RA is fairly insensitive to the number of passengers. Surgical masks are somewhat effective, whereas High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) masks are quite effective. Doubling the rate of ventilation reduces RA to almost 1. Conclusions: Because it is not feasible for all passengers to wear a HEPA mask, and improvement in the ventilation seems to be an effective and feasible means of preventing influenza infection in public trains.
著者
大和田 国夫 田中 平三 伊東 正明 政田 喜代子
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.243-247, 1972-06-28 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
10 5

This paper is concerned with studying the developmental changes which occur in sensitivity to the 4 primary taste qualities viz. sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (quinine sulfate) and salty (sodium chloride).Results are as follows:1. Taste threshold values and difference threshold values for the 4 taste qualities increased with age and showed a peak at the age of 60. These values slightly decreased at the age of 70.2. An increase of salty taste threshold values with aging were more marked than other taste threshold values.3. Either sex failed to reveal significant differences for taste sensitivity.4. Significant differences in taste threshold, especially bitter taste, were observed between smokers and non-smokers.5. False dentures (complete) appeared to influence slightly taste threshold values.
著者
吉葉 繁雄
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.565-572, 1984-06-30 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
10 19

Conus-sting, 55 cases, including 21 fatalities caused by about 20 species of Conus as of Aug. 1982. Among the 21 fatalities, 18 cases were caused by C. geographus. The fatality rate associated with this species has reached 55.3% in Japan and 66.7% in the world. C. geographus is therefore considered to be the most dangerous snail belonging to the genus Conus. This fact is also proven experimentally by comparison of the lethal dose within 1 hour (LD1h) of the venom of this species (CGV) in various animals. Results show the values of LD1h of crude CGV are 1.3mg/kg in mice, 4mg/kg in chickens and 0.09mg/kg in goldfishes. These values represent the lowest value of venoms in various species of Conus examined by the author.However, it is impossible to estimate the lethal dose (even not LD1h) in humans directly by means of experiment. Therefore the lethal dose for humans was estimated by means of 1) examination of the records of Conus-stings in the world and 2) measurement of the quantity of CGV thought to be injected into a victim by the snail.1) From an analysis of the record of Conus-stings collected by Shirai (June 1982) and 3 cases investigated by the author (Sep. 1982) it can be concluded that C. geographus injects in one attack crude CGV in ammount corresponding to LD70 in humans. Consequently, it was fatal in the cases of small men or children stung by large snails and death came within 40 minutes to 5 hours after the sting but larger men stung by smaller snails were saved.2) It has already been proven by the author that C. geographus injects its venom only in the amount charged within a single radular tooth into the victim according to its predatory behavior. As a result of the measurement of the volume of capacity of a single radular tooth from C. geographus in several sizes, the amount of raw crude CGV which would be injected into a human was converted into 0.06 to 0.2mg in dry weight.Thus the lethal dose of CGV in humans was estimated to be 1 to 3μg/kg. However in 2 cases of geographus cone-stings which occured in Okinawa on Jul. 22 and Aug. 17 in 1982, both doses of CGV are presumed to be only 0.2 and 0.5μg/kg respectively according to the estimation in this report. Yet the patients fell into severe paralysis of voluntary movement accompanied by disturbance of speech and dyspnea. They subsequently recovered in a hospital aided by medical treatment.
著者
岸 玲子 池田 聰子 三宅 浩次 内野 栄治
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.6, pp.836-842, 1983-02-28 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
2 2

In order to determine both the distributional variation of heavy metals and the relationship between lead and essential metals in rats poisoned by lead, a study was undertaken using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The cerebral lead concentration increased according to the amount of lead administered. The distribution patterns of lead in seven regions of the brain were significantly different between lead-treated animals and controls. In the latter, the differences in lead concentration among the individual regions were statistically significant, with the lowest levels reported for the cortex. In contrast, the cortex and hippocampus had the higher concentration in rats to which 45μg/g or 90μg/g of lead had been administered. Those given 180μg/g body weight showed uniform accumulations in all cerebral regions.Iron concentrations were highest in the hippocampus, while zinc and copper concentrations were distributed almost uniformly. No statistically signigicant loss of essential elements was recorded from the brains of lead-treated animals, but significant decreases of copper from the liver and of iron from the whole blood were found.
著者
前田 隆子 田中 俊行 大城 等 船川 一彦 能勢 隆之 今井 昭二 林 康久
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.3, pp.781-787, 1990-08-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
2 2

This study reports the contents of Zn and Cu in the breast milk and serum of postpartum mothers, 17 primiparas and 20 multiparas, at one week and at one month after delivery.Results were as follows.1. The mean content of Zn in the breast milk was 5.44μg/ml at 1 week after delivery, and it decreased significantly (p<0.01) to 2.73μg/ml at 1 month after delivery.2. The mean content of Zn in serum was 0.66μg/ml at 1 week, and it increased significantly (p<0.01) to 0.84μg/ml, close to the normal level, at 1 month.3. The milk Zn level at 1 week after delivery was about 8 times as high as the Zn in serum. There was a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation in Zn contents between milk and serum at 1 week after delivery, and there was no significant correlation in Zn contents between milk and serum at 1 month after delivery.4. The mean content of Cu in breast milk was 0.55μg/ml at 1 week after delivery, and it decreased to 0.44μg/ml at 1 month after delivery.5. The mean content of Cu in serum was 2.14μg/ml at 1 week after delivery, and it decreased significantly (p<0.01) to 1.35μg/ml, close to the normal level, at 1 month after delivery.6. Concerning the Cu contents of milk and serum, there was not a significant correlation at 1 week after delivery, but a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation was found at 1 month after delivery.
著者
松島 文子 飯塚 舜介
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.528-534, 2001-07-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
5 6

We measured the aluminum contents in foods and pharmaceuticals, and the aluminum concentrations in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with polarized Zeeman background correction to obtain the daily intake and excretion of aluminum. The daily urinary excretions of aluminum in healthy females were obtained after consuming sea algae, hizikia fusiforme, which has a high aluminum contents. Daily aluminum excretion did not increase after taking hizikia fusiforme. On the other hand, high aluminum excretions were observed after taking an analgesic/antipyretic with a high aluminum contents, compared with the usual daily aluminum excretion (p<0.001), and compared with after taking an analgesic/antipyretic with no aluminum (p<0.0001). We found that the daily urinary excretion of aluminum was not related to the total consumption of aluminum, but depended on the binding state of aluminum consumed.
著者
高西 敏正 木村 直人 伊藤 孝 諸富 嘉男 井谷 徹
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.463-469, 1998-07-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
34

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fluid ingestion and its composition on uric acid metabolism after exercise. Six healthy males volunteered for the study which was comprised of three different experiments; Exp. 1, Exp. 2, and Exp. 3. In all the experiments, subjects performed treadmill exercise (70% VO2max) for 70 minutes respectively. For seven hours after exercise, subjects ingested mineral water at 10°C ad-lib in Exp. 1, 1.5 times the volume of mineral water consumed in the first experiment in Exp. 2, and the same volume of sports drink as in the first experiment in Exp. 3. No significant differences were observed in oxygen uptake and heart rate during exercise among the three experiments, so it was considered that the produced serum uric acid (SUA) levels in the three experiments were about the same level. However, the decrease in SUA, urinary uric acid excretion (UUA), clearance of uric acid (CUA) and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) in Exp. 3, in which the sports drink was consumed instead of mineral water were higher than in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2. On the other hand, no significant differences were found in Exp. 2 and Exp. 3. A significant relationship between UUA and FEUA was found among the three experiments, while there was no correlation between UUA and urine volume.These results show that; 1) the sports drink ingestion can increase the efficiency of recovery from high serum uric acid after exercise, 2) the increase in uric volume due to high mineral water intake does not elevate UUA, and 3) the increase in UUA due to sports drink ingestion was associated with the increase of FEUA.
著者
河野 公一
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.5, pp.852-860, 1994-12-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
6 5

Fluoride, the ionic form of fluorine, is a natural component of the biosphere and 13th most abundant element in the crust of the earth. It is, therefore, found in a wide range of concentrations in virtually all inanimate and living things. Many trace elements perform a definite function in human metabolism and the question of the value of fluoride, always found in the body, has been raised. Much evidence suggesting that the inclusion of fluoride in drinking water has beneficial as well as adverse effects on human health was obtained. Either alone or in combination with calcium and/or vitamin D, it is used in high daily doses for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although organic fluorine compounds are used in medicine and commerce, the inorganic fluorine compounds are of greater importance toxicologically because they are more readily available. The major pathway of fluoride elimination from the human body is via the kidney. When renal function deteriorates, the ability to excrete fluoride markedly decreases, possibly resulting in greater retention of fluoride in the body. At this point, more research is needed to evaluate the effects of physiological variables on the fluoride metabolism in humans.
著者
宮下 道夫
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.3, pp.153-157, 1955-01-01 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
28
著者
入鹿山 且朗 田島 静子 藤木 素士
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.392-400, 1967-06-10 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
3 5

(1) 酸化第二水銀または塩基性硫酸第二水銀とアセトアルデハイドとの反応により, 薄層クロマトグラフィでCH3HgOHと同一Rf値をもつ有機水銀が生成した。この反応液に塩化物を加えるとCH3HgClと同一Rf値をもつ有機水銀が証明された。(2) 酸化第二水銀とアセトアルデハイドより2種の水銀物質を得た。その一つは酢酸第二水銀と同定された。酢酸第二水銀と食塩の混合物を加温してCH3HgClの結晶を得た。
著者
近藤 喜代太郎
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.599-611, 1996-07-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
5 6

Data obtained from all residents, who lived in the Agano river villages where Minamata disease occurred as of June 1965, were used to analyze its incidence patterns and to evaluate validity of the official recognition of the disease. The residents totaled 18, 253 (8, 911 males and 9, 342 females), including 262 (151 males and 111 females) recognized patients and 378 (186 males and 192 females) rejected applicants.Consumption of the contaminated river fish was associated with hair Hg measurements (ppm), but there were few residents who denied the consumption but showed elevated Hg values, probably due to false-negative answers in the census survey in 1965.Incidence rates of the recognized patients increased with the upgrading codes for fish ingestion, but analysis of the association of fish ingestion among the recognized applicants indicated that there were ca. 50% false-positive diagnosis. This analysis showed that The Government made best efforts to help very mild cases despite the fact that such a generous attitude inevitably causes overdiagnosis.Incidence rates of the rejected applicants also showed a dose-response. This is extremely important because a rejection meant that compensation was refused by the polluting company. Protest groups insisted the existence of Minamata disease showing only sensony symptoms. but this concept has not been accepted by the Government and the polluters. The present study disclosed a doseresponse relationship in the rejected cases giving positive ground for the opinions proposed by protest groups.Proportions of such “Hg-associated sensory disorders” (cases with unexplained sensory disorders which are associated with river fish ingestion) were 15-30% among the exposed applicants, 6.6-15% among the all rejected applicants, and 3.9-10% among the unexplained sensory disorders in the regional population.Owing to the river pollution, there was 5-11% increase of the unexplained sensory disorders among the local residents, in addition to recognizable Minamata disease.
著者
伊藤 耕三
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.304-314, 1971-08-28 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
8 15

Nitrogen dioxide is one of the main atmospheric pollutants in many communities. It is emitted in large quantities in the exhaust of automotive engines and is formed when atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen are heated to a high temperature in a flame.Experiments were made to ascertain possible synergistic effects of nitrogen dioxide and influenza virus infection in mice. Young female dd strain mice weighing 15 to 17g were challenged with mouse-adapted type A influenza virus, strain PR 8, two hours after acute and intermittent exposure to 10ppm nitrogen dioxide for two hours daily for one, three and five days. Female I.C.R. strain mice weighing 22 to 25g were also challenged with type A influenza virus after continuous exposure to 0.5 to 1.0ppm nitrogen dioxide for 39 days.Results were as follows;1) Acute and intermittent exposure to 10ppm nitrogen dioxide for two hours daily for five days significantly increased the susceptibility of mice to influenza virus infection as demonstrated by enhanced mortality.2) Extent of interstitial pneumonia was higher in the mice challenged with influenza virus after chronic and continuous exposure and acute and intermittent exposure to nitrogen dioxide than in the infected controls.3) Adenomatous proliferations of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium were marked in the mice challenged with influenza virus after continuous exposure to low levels of nitrogen dioxide.
著者
Masafumi AKISAKA Hidemoto ZAKOUJI Makoto ARIIZUMI
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene) (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.481-489, 1997-07-15 (Released:2009-04-21)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
5 4

To obtain basic data on the bone density of high school girls, the bone density of the right heel was measured in principle and their lifestyles were surveyed. The subjects were 142 girls (15-18years, mean±SD=16.5±0.8years old) of a high school in Nagano Prefecture, who accepted our visiting bone health check. Bone density was measured with an' Achilles' ultrasound bone-densitometer (Lunar Co.) and a self-registered questionnaire on their lifestyles was also employed in this study.The main results were as follows:1. There were no significant correlations between Sitffness and, age, grede, bone fracture, family historiy, and regularity of menstruation. However, Stiffness significantly correlated to the age of menophania (r=-0.191, p=0.002)2. High school girls who belonged to a sports club had significantly higher bone density than other girls. Those who did exercises which consist mainly of jumping, had significantly higher bone density than others who participated in running sports or did no exercise. There were also significant differences in the frequency of exercise and the duration of exercise. Mireover, those who had a regular exercise history had higher bone density than those who had no regular exercise histry, and the mean Siffness of the group that did exercises daily was higher than for those who did not.3. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and food intakes. There also were no significant diffrence for Stiffness concerning intake of calcium-containing food groups. Regarding the cause of weight loss of more than 2kg/month, the mean Stiffness of the group with intense exercise was significantly higher than those in the no-weigh loss group and the group that had reduced dietary intake.4. Regarding the relationships between bone density and the lifestyles of high school girls, a delayed age of menophania had a significantly decreasing effect on Stiffness, whereas three variables of regular exercise habits at present, body weight, and exercise histories had significantly increasing effects on Stiffness in multiple regression analysis.5. It is considered that there may be other important factors in the relationship between bone density and lifestyle of adolescent females who are in a developmental state. Therefore, the measurement of bone density and its assessment need consideration from points of view which are different from those for middle-aged and the elderly people.
著者
戸田 雅裕 森本 兼曩
出版者
The Japanese Society for Hygiene
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.592-596, 2000-01-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
14 17

The fasting month of Ramadan is the ninth lunar month of the Islamic calendar. It is the most important month for Muslims because in which the Qur'an was revealed, and they abstain from food and drink from dawn to sunset to express their gratitude to God. Eating and drinking is permitted only at night, and Muslims typically eat two meals each day, after sunset and just before dawn. People tend to stay up late watching TV with the family, praying or reading the Qur'an.Ramadan teaches Muslims self-restraint and reminds them of the feelings of the impoverished. On the other hand, the biological effects of changes in lifestyle during Ramadan may also be expected.Some studies have reported substantial weight loss, signs of dehydration, raised serum concentrations of uric acid and cholesterol, etc. during Ramadan. However, these changes are unlikely to have much effect on healthy individuals, because generations of Muslims have undertaken fasting year after year. In conclusion, the observance of the Ramadan fast may produce some ill-effects in patients with some disease, e. g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperuricaemia, hyperglycaemia, and heart, liver and kidney disease.