- 生薬學雜誌 : shoyakugaku zasshi : the Japanese journal of pharmacognosy (ISSN:13499114)
- vol.67, no.2, pp.41-58, 2013-08-20
The gallipot found as the heirloom of the Mito-Tokugawa family has the unclear label "Usaien" and contains a small amount of dry black preparation. It is historically clear that Ieyasu Tokugawa, who was the founder of the Edo Shogunate, used it. Fortunately, the "Korean Wazaikyokuho", which was a formulary of natural medicines, has been found as one of the valuable possessions of Kunozan Toshogu, where Ieyasu Tokugawa is enshrined and the formulary contains the "Usaien" formula. It is of interest to reveal the components of the preparation from the viewpoints of historiography and pharmacognosy. Therefore, by utilizing the "Usaien" formula as a clue, we started microscopic analyses to reveal the crude drug components of the historical dry black preparation. First we found this preparation contained a lot of pollens which were thought to be of multiple origins. This indicated the preparation was a kind of honey paste. Furthermore, the successive analyses on the basis of the morphological characteristics of elements of the crude drugs led to the identification of 52 crude drugs (herbal origins: 35, animal origins: 14 and minerals: 3) as the components. The reference formula in the "Korean Wazaikyokuho" consisted of 58 crude drugs and of them 2 volatile ones, 2 sarcous ones, mercury and calomel have remained unidentified, because of difficulty of confirmation by microscopic analyses or insufficient information the origin of their crude drugs. Since most of the crude drug components of the "Usaien" formula were identified in the dry black preparation, we thought the shogun, Ieyasu Tokugawa, used the formula for his health care.