著者
下村 裕子 徳本 廣子 関田 節子 佐竹 元吉 徳川 斉正 徳川 眞木 合田 幸広
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 : shoyakugaku zasshi : the Japanese journal of pharmacognosy (ISSN:13499114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.41-58, 2013-08-20
参考文献数
79

The gallipot found as the heirloom of the Mito-Tokugawa family has the unclear label "Usaien" and contains a small amount of dry black preparation. It is historically clear that Ieyasu Tokugawa, who was the founder of the Edo Shogunate, used it. Fortunately, the "Korean Wazaikyokuho", which was a formulary of natural medicines, has been found as one of the valuable possessions of Kunozan Toshogu, where Ieyasu Tokugawa is enshrined and the formulary contains the "Usaien" formula. It is of interest to reveal the components of the preparation from the viewpoints of historiography and pharmacognosy. Therefore, by utilizing the "Usaien" formula as a clue, we started microscopic analyses to reveal the crude drug components of the historical dry black preparation. First we found this preparation contained a lot of pollens which were thought to be of multiple origins. This indicated the preparation was a kind of honey paste. Furthermore, the successive analyses on the basis of the morphological characteristics of elements of the crude drugs led to the identification of 52 crude drugs (herbal origins: 35, animal origins: 14 and minerals: 3) as the components. The reference formula in the "Korean Wazaikyokuho" consisted of 58 crude drugs and of them 2 volatile ones, 2 sarcous ones, mercury and calomel have remained unidentified, because of difficulty of confirmation by microscopic analyses or insufficient information the origin of their crude drugs. Since most of the crude drug components of the "Usaien" formula were identified in the dry black preparation, we thought the shogun, Ieyasu Tokugawa, used the formula for his health care.
著者
小曽戸 洋
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13499114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.68-78, 2007-08-20

Crude drugs are natural products which over the years of human experience have come to be regarded as medicine. Of course, if one does not understand their history, one cannot understand their significance as medicine. Since crude drugs exist because of the experience of human beings, the sciences of pharmacopoeia and natural products are inherently different. In the study of crude drugs it is therefore important to consider their history as well. Since the middle of the 20th century, there have been a series of archaeological discoveries in China and Japan relating to traditional pharmacopoeia. These discoveries are important historical data, which provide reliable information about the origins of the pharmacopoeia. Regrettably however, this new knowledge, brought to light by these recent discoveries, is not reflected in the "Commentary of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia". This paper contains new knowledge about the 100 kinds of crude drugs listed in the "Japanese Pharmacopoeia Fifteenth Edition".
著者
Miyazaki,Sena
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 : shoyakugaku zasshi : the Japanese journal of pharmacognosy
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, 2014-08-20

Kaempferide (1), kaempferide 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (3) and (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) were isolated from the aerial parts and kaempferide (1), kaempferol 3-O-methyl ether (5) and adenosine (6) were isolated from the rhizomes of Roscoea purpurea Sm. (Family: Zingiberaceae). All these compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant.
著者
ツェンク M. H. 田端 守
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.2, pp.86-102, 1996-04-20
被引用文献数
2

This review includes the history of opium in Europe, China, and Japan, isolation of morphine, and subsequent synthesis of heroin, and the re-evaluation of morphine as an unsurpassed analgesic, with reference to its medicinal, cultural and political impacts upon human societies. Also, the emphases are made on the drug abuse, narcotics control problems and medical treatment of drug addicts. Furthermore, the review refers to the latest information about the whole process of morphine biosynthesis and the present situation of opium production.
著者
三巻 祥浩 指田 豊 安達 得夫 吉成 清 YOSHIHIRO MIMAKI YUTAKA SASHIDA TOKUO ADACHI KIYOSHI YOSHINARI 東京薬科大学 東京薬科大学 東京薬科大学 東京薬科大学 Tokyo College of Pharmacy Tokyo College of Pharmacy Tokyo College of Pharmacy Tokyo College of Pharmacy
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 = Natural medicines (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.86-91, 1994-03-20

Barks of Prunns lannesiana var. speciosa, P. maximowiczii, P. apetala, P. pendula forma ascendens and P. yedoensis of the subgenus Cerasus, and P. laurocerasus and P. spinulosa of the subgenus Laurocerasus were assayed for their constituents. The barks of the Cerasus plants were formed to be rich in flavonoids and their glucosides, and to contain 5, 4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone 5-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (sakuranin) as a common flavonoid. On the other hand, no flavonoid was detected in the barks of the Padus and Laurocerasus plants, but they both contained cyanogenic glucosides as a common component. The difference of the constituents observed between the barks of the Cerasus plants and those of the Padus and Laurocerasus was well correlated to the taxonomic theory proposed by T. T. Yu (1984).
著者
久保 道徳 山崎 美保 松田 秀秋 我藤 伸樹 小谷 竜也
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.22-27, 2005-02-20

The effect of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (Japanese apricot concentrate, Ume-ekisu) on improving blood fluidity was examined. Whole blood passage time measured by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN) of the Japanese apricot concentrate (200 mg/kg, p.o.)-treated rats was shorter than that of the non-treated control rats. Thus Japanese apricot concentrate showed an improving effect on rat blood fluidity. Furthermore, it was found that the Japanese apricot concentrate showed inhibitory effects on the collagen-, arachidonic acid- and ADP-induced platelet aggregations and on the thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Citric acid and mumefural were identified as the main platelet aggregation inhibitory principles of Japanese apricot concentrate.
著者
難波 恒雄 菊池 徹 御影 雅幸 門田 重利 小松 かつ子 清水 岑夫 富森 毅
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.1, pp.35-42, 1987-03-20

Cinnamomum verum J. S. PRESL of family Lauraceae is one of the important cultivated medicinal plants in Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri-Lanka. The bark of the tree, "CINNAMOMI VERI CORTEX," KURUNDUPOTU in Singhalese, is known to be a famous spice under the name of Cinnamon. Besides, KURUNDUPOTU is also an Ayurvedic drug used for dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting, etc. Nowadays, as a spice, Cinnamon is divided commercially into thirteen grades on the bases of differences of the diameter and quantity of Foxing of the Quillings. Among these, we got nine popular grades from the Bureau of Ceylon Standard.To know the qualitical differences of each grade, anatomical and chemical studies of all these were made. Our results showed that higher graded Cinnamon had less mechanical tissues anatomically and contained more essential oils chemically. Moreover, in essential oils, the percentage of cinnamyl acetate was found higher and that of cinnamaldehyde was lower in higher graded ones.スリランカ(Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri-Lanka)における民族医療はアーユルヴェーダ(インド医学)が主流である. スリランカにおいて栽培される代表的なアーユルヴェーダ薬物の一つにKURUNDUPOTU(cinnamon bark の意味のシンハリ名)があり, このものはLauraceaeのCinnamomum verum J. S. PRESL(=C zeylanicum NEES セイロンニッケイ)のコルク層を剥いだ樹皮である. アーユルヴェーダではKURUNDUPOTU は強壮, 健胃, 駆風薬などとして用いられ, また民間的にも頭痛や感冒, 鼻汁, 呼吸器疾患, 下痢などに利用されている2). その産出量は年々増加しており, 大半は香辛料として輸出され, 一部が薬用あるいは料理用に国内で消費されている2). セイロン桂皮についてはすでに太田らにより日本市場品の内部形態3), コロンボおよびスイス市場品とコロンボ近郊などでの栽培品との内部形態による比較研究4)がなされているが, 品質についてはいっさい触れられていない. 現在, セイロン桂皮には商取引上13の等級があり, それらの等級はBureau of Ceylon Standardで規格されている. 等級はAlba, Continental 5 special, Continenta1 5, 同4, 同3, 同2, 同1, Mexican5 special, 同5, 同4, Hamburg 1, 同2, 同3の名称で呼ばれ, これらはQuimng5)の大さやFoxing6)の量で規定されている2). Albaが最高級品とされ, Continentalグループ, Mexicanグループ, Hamburgグループと続くが, Continentalグループの低級品よりはMexicanグループの高級品の方が品質がよいといわれている. これらのグループ名はそれぞれ輸出先国の違いを示しており, Hamburgグループ以外は番号の大きいものが高級品とされている. 今回, 栽培地を調査するとともにこれらの13等級のうち, とくに流通量の多い9等級を入手し, 各等級間の内部形態および精油成分の差異を検討したので報告する. また生薬市場および製薬工場において入手したKURUNDUPOTU等級についても検討した.
著者
川原 信夫 酒井 英二 糸数 七重 佐竹 元吉 合田 幸広
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13499114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.39-50, 2006-02-20
被引用文献数
4

本研究は食肉の風味を形成する食感, 味, 香りについて次の新知見を加えたものである。食肉の熟成による軟化の主原因の一つとみられるアクチン・ミオシン構造体のゆるみ現象が, 筋原線維のMg-ATPase 活性のKCl濃度依存性と最大活性値の増大となって観察されることを示し, おのおのが筋肉酵素カテプシンB, D, H, L, の共同作用とグリセルアルデヒド-3-リン酸脱水素酵素の筋原線維への不可逆的結合で起こることを明らかにした。これに際し, 骨格筋カテプシンB, D, Hの高純度精製法を確立した。カテプシンLは新規酵素として発見したもので, 他所で同時期に発見された肝臓の新規酵素との類似性から, 両酵素はカテプシンLと命名された。食肉の熟成中に遊離アミノ酸が増加し, 味と加熱香気の向上に寄与する。この遊離アミノ酸の増加はおもに筋肉中性アミノペプチダーゼ類の作用によることを示し, 4個以上のアミノ酸からなるペプチドはおもに新たに発見したアミノペプチダーゼCとHの共同作用によって分解されることを明らかにした。わが国では黒毛和牛の脂肪が赤身によく交雑した霜降り肉が最もおいしいと評価されている。その主原因は該牛肉を酸素共存下で熟成後, 加熱することで生成する脂っぽい甘い芳香 (和牛香と命名) であることを示し, 本香を構成する香気成分を明らかにした。各種の食肉を食したときの畜種の判別に寄与する官能的主因子は香りであり, 味の寄与はきわめて小さいことを示した。
著者
寺澤 捷年
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.85-96, 1987-06-20
被引用文献数
24

The concept of "Hie-sho" (chillphobia) was reviewed with special reference to its diagnostic criteria, occurrence patho-physiological aspects and treatments. Questionnaire studies revealed that about 70% of female and about 50% of male patients visiting our clinic were suffering from "Hie-sho." This disorder was investigated patho-physiologically by using ultra-red thermography, core temperature thermography, and the microscopic video system. The results showed tha "Hie-sho" was closely related to disturbance of micro-circulation and its regulatory system. In traditional Kampoh medicine, "Hie-sho" has been interpreted as imbalance between three important factors, i.e., vital energy, blood and water. The cognition of the imbalance and the relevant Kampoh treatments were also reviewed in detail.
著者
沢田 徳之助 山原 條二 島津 早苗 太田 利夫
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.11-16, 1971-06-20

The contents of coloring matter and essential oil from the root of Curucuma domestica (C. longa) and the fungistatic action of them are tested. Essential oil shows a high effect against Aspergillus niger IFO. 6341, Penicillium citrinum IFO. 6352, Chaetomium globosum IFO. 6347 and Neurospora crassa IFO. 4596.
著者
康 廷国 川村 智子 呉 曉蘭 田中 俊弘
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
Natural medicines = 生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.178-185, 2000
参考文献数
13

One third of samples of Arctii Fructus, commercially obtained in China, were found to be adulterated with fruits of five other species, Arctium tomentosum, Onopordum acanthium, Aucklandia lappa and Silybum marianum of the family Compositae, possessing achenes, and Amorpha fruticosa of the family Leguminosae possessing a legume. Ar. tomentosum fruit was the most frequent adulterant. These five fruits were distinguished from the fruit of Arctium lappa, the original Arctii Fructus, by the macroscopic morphological characteristics such as the size, color, presence or absence of ridge, spots and pits, remains of the style and pappus scar circle at one end, and by the microscopic characteristics such as outline of outer pericarp, presence or absence and the shape of crystals in the epicarp and endocarp, presence or absence of oil sac in the mesocarp, size and color of the palisade cells in the outer seed coat, presence or absence and the shape of crystals in the inner seed coat and cotyledon.
著者
加藤 正博 稲葉 美代志 板鼻 秀信 大原 英治 中村 好一 上里 新一 井上 博之 藤多 哲朗
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.4, pp.288-292, 1990
被引用文献数
2

Twentythree crude drugs and related plants were examined for their anticoccidial activity by the use of the experimental coccidiosis in chicken. The activity was found in the dry leaves and calyxes of some Hydrangea plants. As the active components of H. macrophylla subsp. macrophylla forma macrophylla, febrifugines were isolated which have been known to be contained in Dichroa febrifuga and H. umbellata. However, although the febrifugines in the latter two plants were reported to be mainly trans, in the H. macrophylla plants, cis-febrifugine was found to be a major component and the trans-counterpart, a minor component. Furthermore, the cis-isomer showed no anticoccidial activity in chicken even at the concentration level of 25 times the effective dose (3 ppm, IE=100) of the trans-isomer.
著者
木島,孝夫
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, 1987-12-20

Methanol extracts of Myrobalan (1), knots of Wisteria brachybotrys (2), fruits of Trapa japonica (3) and Coix seed (4) were assayed for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activations by a short term in vitro assay in which lymphoblastoid cells (Raji) latently infected with EBV were used. The EBV activation by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and teleocidin B was inhibited markedly by 1 and 2 but only weakly by 3. Coix seed (4) was found to show a significant in vitro cytotoxic effect on the Raji cells. The methanolic extracts from four mixtures of the crude drugs i.e., 1 and 4, 2 and 3, 2 and 4, and 2, 3 and 4, gave more enhanced inhibitory effects on EBV activation, with less cytotoxicity. These inhibitory effects on EBV activation suggested that these crude drugs possess antitumor promoting activities.
著者
小松 かつ子 伊藤 親 劉 王萍 難波 恒雄
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
Natural medicines = 生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.137-147, 1995
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1

The Chinese crude drugs "Huajiao (花椒)" and "Jiaomu (椒目)," and the Japanese crude drug "Sansho (山椒)" are derived from mature fruit of genus Zanthoxylum plants of the Rutaceae family. "Huajiao" and "Sansho," are prepared from the pericarp, and used as an aromatic stomachic and "Jiaomu," is from the seed, and used as a diuretic. A market survey of these crude drugs in China and Japan, showed that there are samples of apparently different external morphologies, suggesting that there are samples of different botanical origins. To clarify the original plants of such crude drugs, a pharmacognostical study was made. This paper deals with the origins of "Sansho" in the Japanese market. Comparative anatomical studies were performed mainly on the pericarps and seeds of Z. piperitum, two kinds of Z. piperitum f. inerme (Asakura-zansho and Budo-zansho), Z. armatum var. subtrifoliatum, Fagara mantchurica, F. ailanthoides by optical and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that they could be distinguished from each other by the following characteristics: in the pericarp, the length of equatorial circumference, thickness of pericarps and endocarps, diameters of oil sacs, micro figure of cuticle and the number of epidermal cells over oil sacs on surface view; in the seed, the diameters of epidermal cells on surface view, the rate of inner sclereid layers in the outer seed coat, etc. The commercial samples examined were identified as a mixture of slightly immature pericarps of Budo-zansho and Asakura-zansho in a ratio of 9 : 1 or 6 : 4, a mixture of slightly immature pericarps of Z. piperitum, Budo-zansho and Asakura-zansho in a ratio of 8 : 1 : 1, or mature pericarps of Z. piperitum only.
著者
堀井 聰 野口 友昭 松井 勇作 渡辺 順明 後藤 実
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.91-94, 1960

In the course of studies on antibiotic components of plants, an antibacterial pigment was isolated from the outer bark of the root of "Tsuru-ume-modoki" (Celastrus orbiculatus THUNB.) after finding that a 50 % methanolic extract of the root of the plant had antibacterial activity. The pigment was identified as celastrol, which had been isolated from the root bark of Celastrus scandens by O. Gisvold. Further the pigment was found to have not only antibacterial but also antifungal and antitumor activities. Investgation was also carried out on some plants of the genera Tripterygium and Euonymus.
著者
雷 振環 矢原 正治 台 宝山 田 瑞華 滝口 靖憲 野原 稔弘
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
Natural medicines = 生薬學雜誌 (ISSN:13403443)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.4, pp.475-477, 1995
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
2

From the leaves of Poacynum hendersonii, six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as quercetin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, syringaresinol and (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-glucoside, by direct comparison with the authentic samples.
著者
渡辺 武 後藤 実
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.35-37, 1953-01-01

The quantitative determination of essential oil and cinnamic adlehyde was caried out on the leaves, bark of trunks, bark of branches, bark of roots of the Cinnamomum Loureirii Nees (Lauraceae) collected in Wakayama and Kagosima prefecture in Japan, and on the Cassia barks collected abroad (and brought to the market in Japan.) The determination was effected acordig to the method provided in J. P. V. with scant material a satisfactory result was obtained by the use of the essential oil extracting apparatus devided by the present authors or micro cassia flask. The quantity of essential oil and cinnamic aldehyde the collection. But as far as the bark of roots is concerned, the quantity compares favoures favourably with that of the Cinnamornum Cassia Blume, if the bark is fresh or stored in good condition. The refore, the bark of roots of the Cinnamoum Ioureirii Nees collected in Japan is valuable as vegetable drug.
著者
益富 寿之助
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.17-19, 1957-12-25
著者
御影 雅幸 李 奉柱 朴 鐘喜 難波 恒雄
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.336-341, 1991-12-20

「Jad Na Mu Ip」は韓国で淋疾や梅毒の治療薬として用いられる民間薬である. Jad は海松子, Na Mu は木, Ip は葉の意味であるから, その基源は一般にマツ科のPinus koraiensis SIEB. et ZUCC. チョウセンゴヨウの葉であるとされている2)がいまだ確証はない. Pinus 属植物は韓国にはチョウセンゴヨウのほか P. parviflora ヒメコマツ, P. pumila ハイマツ, P. bungeana シロマツ, P. densiflora アカマツ, P. thunbergii クロマツなど形態の類似するものが分布しているので3), 今回「Jad Na Mu Ip」の原植物を知る目的で市場調査を行い, 入手した商品および Pinus 属植物7種の葉を比較組織学的に検討した. その結果, 現在市販されている「Jad Na Mu Ip」はチョウセンゴヨウの葉であることを確証した. なおP. armandi タカネゴヨウは中国に産する種であるが, 形状がチョウセンゴヨウに似ているので参考のため検討した. Pinus 属植物の葉の組織分類学的研究に関しては, 土井ら4)が基本的形態を詳細に報告するとともに変種や雑種を含めた80数種について検索表を提出し, また早田ら5)がチョウセンゴヨウやヒメコマツの組織図を示しているので, 本論文では記載を最小限に止めた. The Korean folk medicine "Jad Na Mu Ip" has been used to cure gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Though the crude drug has generally been said to be the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB. et ZUCC. of the Pinaceae family, the scientific confirmation has not been made yet. Recent commercial "Jad Na Mu Ip" certainly seems to be the leaves of a Pinus plant. Therefore, to identify the botanical origin of this crude drug, the leaves of seven species of the genus Pinus growing in Korea, Japan and China, including P. koraiensis, were examined anatomically. The result shows the botanical origin of "Jad Na Mu Ip" is P. koraiensis.
著者
井上 和秀 池永 敏彦 大橋 裕
出版者
日本生薬学会
雑誌
生薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00374377)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.99-105, 1977-06-20

山口県秋吉台で採取したセンブリSwertia japonica MAKINO種子を1ヵ月おきに60日間低温(2°湿潤状態)で処理し,1975年2月から4月まで月1回は種した.また,対照として無処理(室内保存)種子を1974年12月から1975年4月まで月1回低温処理と各月の同じ日には種した.試験は鉢を用いて,ファイロンハウス内でおこなった.1)発芽は2月まきでよく,4月まきはひじょうに悪かった.2)発芽への低温処理の効果は3月まきと4月まきにあらわれ,発芽はよくなかった.3)生存個体数は1月〜3月まきで多かったが,なかでも2月まきがやや多くなる傾向があった.4)生長への低温処理の効果は3月まきと4月まきの1年生植物にあらわれたが,1年生の終わり頃からなくなり始め,2年生植物にはまったくみられなかった.5)鉢あたりの収量は4月まき無処理で少なかったが,あとの区間には差がなかった.6)暖地でのは種適期は1月〜2月といえるが,なかでも2月が最適時期といえそうであった.