著者
田中 喜代次 中田 由夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.209-212, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-05-17)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1

Most people who go to fitness clubs or sports gyms for weight control, and many co-medicals and physicians believe that an increase in muscle mass and/or basal metabolic rate (BMR) is possible through a combination of regular exercise and optimal protein intake during weight loss. This seems a myth, and the reasons are discussed in this article. First, muscle mass is quite difficult to quantify. The limitations of body composition measurement should be well understood. Second, increasing muscle mass during weight loss is difficult. This might be attained through strict implementation of a protein-rich, low-carbohydrate diet; high-intensity resistance training; and aerobic exercise for a long duration. However, such a strict regimen is not feasible for most people. Finally, a 1-kg increase in muscle mass corresponds to an increase of only 13 kcal of BMR per day. Thus, an increase in muscle mass of 1 kg is difficult to achieve, while the gained BMR is approximately equivalent to a decrease of 13.5 kcal of BMR according to a 3-kg decrease of adipose tissue. Weight loss, unless through an extremely sophisticated weight control program, contributes to a decrease in BMR. However, it is an accomplished fact that women with significantly less muscle mass and lower BMR live longer than men with more muscle mass and higher BMR, regardless of ethnicity. Maintaining activities of daily living and daily activity function might be more essential.
著者
中野 聡子 奥野 純子 深作 貴子 堀田 和司 藪下 典子 根本 みゆき 田中 喜代次 柳 久子
出版者
日本理学療法士学会
雑誌
理学療法学 (ISSN:02893770)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.6, pp.511-518, 2015-10-20 (Released:2015-10-20)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
7

【目的】介護予防教室参加者の運動継続にかかわる要因を明らかにし,効果的に支援する方法を示すこと。【方法】介護予防教室に参加した65 歳以上の高齢者309 名を対象とし,基本属性,身体機能,社会参加,心理的要因の質問紙調査と,5 m 歩行等の身体機能を測定した。統計学的検討は運動状況別に3 群に分類し比較した。さらに運動継続の有無を従属変数とした多重ロジスティック回帰分析を行った。【結果】運動状況による3 群間の比較では社会参加等で有意差が見られた。運動継続には運動の生活パターンへの組みこみ(OR: 10.04, 95% CI: 3.36–30.03),何回か休んでも再開する自信(以下,Re-SE)(OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.26–4.42)等が関連していた。【結論】介護予防教室参加者が運動を継続するためには,運動を生活パターンに組みこむような行動プランの提示と,Re-SE を高めることが重要であることが明らかとなった。
著者
竹島 伸生 小林 章雄 田中 喜代次 新畑 茂充 渡辺 丈真 鷲見 勝博 鈴木 雅裕 小村 堯 宮原 満男 上田 一博 加藤 孝之
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.5, pp.197-207, 1989-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
3

本研究は, 中高年ランナーに対して自転車エルゴメーター作業を負荷することにより, LTおよびall-out時でのVo2, HR, SBP, DBPを測定し, これらの加齢変化やトレーニング内容などとの関係について検討した.その結果は, 次のように要約できる.1.身長, 体重, %fat, 体格指数は, 年代間で有意な差は認められず, すべての年代のランナーは類似の痩身体型であった.週当りの走行距離時間, 頻度などは個人差が大きいが, 平均値でみると年代間に有意な差は認められなかった.ランナーとしての経験年数も年代間に有意な差は認めちれなかった.しかし, 加齢に伴い走パフォーマンスは著明に低下した.2.年齢とVo2@LTとの間には有意な相関 (r=-0.686) がみられた.しかし, %Vo2max@LTは, 各年代でほぼ同値であり, 年齢との間に一定の関係は認められなかった.3.年齢とHR@LTとの間には有意な相関がみられたが, %HRmax@LTは%Vo2max@LTと同様に年齢とは無関係であった.4.SBP@LT, DBP@LTについては年代間に有意な差は認められず, 年齢との関係は明らかでなかった.5.加齢による変化は, Vo2@LT (0.5ml/kg/min/yr) よりもVo2max (0.7ml/kg/min/yr) の方が大きかった.6.Vo2maxの加齢による変化は, 既報の一般人やランナーと比べて大きかった.しかし, 各年代でのVo2maxは, 一般人に比べ平均で50~60%高く, 例えば70歳代ランナーのVo2maxは一般人の40歳代に相当した.7.Vo2maxとトレーニングの経験年数との間には有意な関係はみられなかったが, ランナーとしてのトレーニング開始年齢とVo2maxとの間には, 有意な相関が認められた.8.HRmaxは, Vo2maxと同様に加齢による低下を示し, 同性同年代の一般人と比べて有意差はみられなかった.9.推定HRmaxと実測したHRmaxとの間には, 有意な相関 (r=0.600) がみられたものの, 個人差が大きく±10拍/分以上の誤差を生じた者が約32%いた.10.SBPmax, DBPmaxは, 年代間で有意な差はみられず, 中高年ランナーにおいては年齢と血圧の関係は明らかでなかった.
著者
奥松 功基 辻本 健彦 若葉 京良 関 晶南 固武 利奈 山内 照夫 平山 智志 小林 裕幸 坂東 裕子 山内 英子 田中 喜代次
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.169-176, 2018-04-01 (Released:2018-03-16)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

It has been reported that physical fitness of breast cancer patients is relatively lower due to the cancer treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, or endocrine therapy. Previous studies have revealed that not only cardiorespiratory fitness but also muscle strength is lower among breast cancer patients than no disease women and these symptoms may aggravate the health-related quality of life. However, there is no study which has focused the physical fitness level in Japanese breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness level and the relationship between exercise habituation and physical fitness level in Japanese breast cancer survivors. Fifty breast cancer survivors participated in this study. Participants were assigned to either exercise habituation group (n=25) or non-exercise group (n=25). We evaluated exercise habituation using an original questionnaire and examined various physical fitness level. Body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat were significantly lower in the exercise habituation group than non-exercise group. T-score of cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly higher in the exercise habituation group than average Japanese women. These results suggested that exercise habituation is relative to body weight and cardiorespiratory fitness level in Japanese breast cancer survivors.
著者
田中 喜代次 中田 由夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.209-212, 2017
被引用文献数
1

<p>Most people who go to fitness clubs or sports gyms for weight control, and many co-medicals and physicians believe that an increase in muscle mass and/or basal metabolic rate (BMR) is possible through a combination of regular exercise and optimal protein intake during weight loss. This seems a myth, and the reasons are discussed in this article. First, muscle mass is quite difficult to quantify. The limitations of body composition measurement should be well understood. Second, increasing muscle mass during weight loss is difficult. This might be attained through strict implementation of a protein-rich, low-carbohydrate diet; high-intensity resistance training; and aerobic exercise for a long duration. However, such a strict regimen is not feasible for most people. Finally, a 1-kg increase in muscle mass corresponds to an increase of only 13 kcal of BMR per day. Thus, an increase in muscle mass of 1 kg is difficult to achieve, while the gained BMR is approximately equivalent to a decrease of 13.5 kcal of BMR according to a 3-kg decrease of adipose tissue. Weight loss, unless through an extremely sophisticated weight control program, contributes to a decrease in BMR. However, it is an accomplished fact that women with significantly less muscle mass and lower BMR live longer than men with more muscle mass and higher BMR, regardless of ethnicity. Maintaining activities of daily living and daily activity function might be more essential.</p>
著者
重松 良祐 中垣内 真樹 岩井 浩一 藪下 典子 新村 由恵 田中 喜代次
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.173-186, 2007-03-10 (Released:2007-06-21)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
7 2

To encourage older adults to participate in exercise, it is important for self-governing bodies to divide them into subgroups according to exercise habit and to determine facts such as what they think about exercise and what type of programs would help them most. In Japan, however, few such schemes have been reported. This study aimed to clarify the process of ascertaining the characteristics of older adults and to establish a challenging means of encouraging continued exercise. The eligible study population was all residents aged 65-69 years living in Isobe town, Mie Prefecture, Japan (n = 675) , 460 (68.1%) responded to our questionnaire during a two-month period (November-December) in 2003. The respondents were divided into subgroups according to exercise frequency: those exercising twice a week or more (21.1%, Group A) , once a week (6.3%, Group B) , once or twice a month (7.6%, Group C) , and no exercise (65.0%, Group D) . Group A exercised because they believed they became healthier or achieved an improved fitness level. Group B undertook exercise as they regarded rapport as important, i.e. making friends at group exercise classes. To the question “Why don't you exercise?” Group C noted the lack of an exercise companion, and Group D noted low motivation. From the responses to “What type of approaches do you look for so that you might start exercise?” Group C suggested approaches such as an invitation to join an exercise class, or an introduction to an exercise instructor, and Group D suggested an exercise program that they could perform at home. Based on these results, a challenge for each group was established: to maintain the exercise frequency (Group A) , to increase awareness of the effects of exercise (Group B) , to participate more in group exercise sessions (Group C) , and to experience an easy-to-use home exercise program (Group D) . Future research is required to ascertain the effects of such challenges on exercise habit in older adults.
著者
大須賀 洋祐 鄭 松伊 金 泰浩 大久保 善郎 金 ウンビ 田中 喜代次
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.407-418, 2015-08-01 (Released:2015-07-27)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
4 1

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an exercise intervention for older married couples on exercise adherence and physical fitness. Thirty-six older married couples and 61 older adults participated in the study as couple and non-couple groups (CG, NCG, respectively). Participants attended an exercise class once a week and performed a home-based exercise program consisting of walking and strength exercise over eight weeks. Exercise adherence was assessed by the rate of non-absentee, walking habits (≥ 2 times/week), and strength exercise habits (≥ 6 items*2 sets/week). Physical fitness was assessed by the Senior Fitness Tests. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to obtain the CG’s odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for non-absentee, walking habits, and strength exercise habits (reference: NCG). Analyses of covariance were used to examine the statistical difference in the degree of change (⊿) for physical fitness between CG and NCG. CG had significantly higher ORs for non-absentee and walking habits compared with NCG but there was no significant difference in the rate of strength exercise habits between the two groups. In regards to ⊿ for physical fitness, significantly higher ⊿ for upper extremity strength was observed in CG than in NCG, while there were no significant differences in ⊿ for other physical fitness items between the two groups. These results suggest that an exercise intervention for older married couples would be more useful to maintain higher participation in exercise program and walking and improving upper extremity strength.
著者
田中 喜代次
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.71_1-71_1, 2016

<p> 日本人の平均寿命が90年の間に男女とも約2倍に延伸し、2016年のWHO発表によると女性86.8歳(世界1位)、男性80.5歳(世界6位)となっている。また、2000年から2015年にかけて世界の平均寿命が5年も長くなっているらしい。寿命の延伸やスポーツ人口の増加とともに、高齢者がlife enjoyment目的や健康増進目的で運動・スポーツに勤しむケースが格段に増えてきている。従来では、心不全、腎不全、肝疾患などに対しては運動を控える指示が出ていたが、最近では推奨される例が多い。運動の医療的効果が過剰に発信されるせいか、アメリカスポーツ医学会(ACSM)はEIM (= Exercise Is Medicine) とまでプロパガンダするようになっている。</p><p> 今回のシンポジウムでは、ワールドマスターズゲームズ2021組織委員である東直也氏にスポーツライフの真髄について熱く語ってもらう予定である。司会の田中喜代次(筑波大学)は、27年にわたる中高年者(有疾患者)の運動習慣化生活の実態、体力の推移、老化抑制効果などを紹介し、かつ自身のスポーツライフの実態について語る予定である。また、吉中(京都学園大学)は、介護予防(フレイル予防、寝たきり予防)に向けて導入している京都式総合介護予防プログラムとレクリエーションの実際についてプレゼンしていただくこととなっている。</p>
著者
重松 良祐 田中 喜代次 大島 秀武 三村 寛一
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.179-187, 1996-02-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
5 1

This study was conducted to determine the effect of exercise training in water (water exercise) in sedentary obese women. Twenty-three women, aged 23-58 years (mean±SD 41.7±11.7), partici pated in this study. Any volunteer with diagnosed disease or taking prescribed medication that might influence the outcome of this study was excluded from participation. The women were allocated either to the exercise group (n =15, weight =65.2±12.3 kg, %body fat=39.2±7.0%) or the control group (n = 8, 62.4±8.3 kg, 34.0±2.4%), respectively. The exercise program consisted of dynamic movements for 60 minutes per session, three days per week for 16 weeks. The exercise intensity was set at approximately 65% of the age-related maximal heart rate. The attendance rate on the program was 89.2±3.0%. The body mass and %body fat of the exercise group decreased significantly by 4.7±1.9 kg (P<0.05) and 3.6±2.4% (P<0.01), respectively, compared with the preexercise values. Significant improvements in their aerobic capacity, trunk flexibility and vertical jump (P<0.05) were also observed. Their energy intake and the amount of other daily physical activity remained essentially unchanged throughout the study. No significant changes in any of the parameters measured occurred, in the control group. These findings indicate that water exercise improved the body composition and physical fitness of obese women.
著者
中塘 二三生 田中 喜代次 羽間 鋭男 前田 如矢
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科學 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.164-172, 1990-06-01
被引用文献数
11 7

Recently, bioelectrical impedance analysis systems(BIA)have become available for determination of human body composition, The validity of BIA has been found to be sufficiently in the American population. However, more work is needed to assess the validity and applicability of BIA to the Japanese population. The purposes of this study were (1) to test the validity of body composition measured by BIA in comparison with the underwater weighing criterion method, and (2) to develop a convenient equation that would reliably predict body composition using BIA and anthropometric measurements in Japanese females. The subjects were 226 Japanese womn and girls aged 11 to 55 years (23.9±8.3). Body impedance was measured using a tetrapolar electrode method, with a localized 800-μA and 50-kHz current injection(Selco SIF-881. The percentage of body fat (%fat) estunated by BIA was significantly correlated with densitometrically determined %fat (r=0.793, Lukaski et al.method;and r=0.800, Segal et al.method). The magnitude of these correlations was substantially higher when compared with r=0.615 found between the skinfold thickness method and the criterion method. Absolute %fat values estimated by BIA were, however, significantly lower than those determined by the criterion method, thereby indicating the need for a more accurate method of assessing Japanese body composition. For this, we propose the use of D=1.1303-0.0726(Wt/2), where D=body density in g/ml, Wt=body weight in kg, R=(R^2+Xc^2)<0.5> in ohms, and Ht=body height in cm. Lean body mass (LBM) and %fat predicted from this equation were correlated significantly (r=0.924 and r=0.799, respedtively) with values determined by densitometry. The standard error of estimates of LBM and %fat resulted in figures of 1.9kg and 3.7%, respectively. Thus we suggest that BIA is valid, convenient, and inexpensive, and that the prediction equation proposed in this study is useful for assessment of body composition in Japanese adult females.
著者
大久保 善郎 清野 諭 藪下 典子 大須賀 洋祐 鄭 松伊 根本 みゆき 金 美芝 フィゲロア ラファエル 田中 喜代次
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.391-400, 2014-08-01 (Released:2014-07-26)
参考文献数
51
被引用文献数
1 2

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the association of habitual exercise with “single fall (= 1)”, “multiple falls (≥ 2)”, and “injurious falls (≥ 1)” among community-dwelling older adults. A total of 1,683 community-dwelling older adults, aged 60-97 years (72.6 +/- 6.6 yr, 512 men and 1,171 women) were included in this study. Habitual exercises continued one year or longer (6.4 +/- 9.5 yr) were classified into twelve types. Exercise components (time, quantity, period of continuity, and number of exercises) were divided with median or tertiles. To assess the association between habitual exercises and fall status, multivariable logistic regression analyses with stepwise selection method, were applied. The multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that dance (odds ratio (OR): 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.96) was negatively associated with “single fall”. Bicycling (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.32-10.77) was positively associated with “multiple falls”, and the period of continuity (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91) was negatively associated with “multiple falls”. None of the exercise components were selected with regard to “injurious falls”. Results indicate that dance may be an effective type of exercise for fall prevention among community-dwelling older adults. However, caution about falling is warranted toward bicycling as an exercise. Moreover, a longer period of continuity (≥ 4 years) appears to be a positive factor of habitual exercise for fall prevention.
著者
田中 喜代次 金 憲経 中西 とも子 天貝 均
出版者
日本運動生理学会
雑誌
日本運動生理学雑誌 (ISSN:13403036)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.37-45, 1999-01-30
被引用文献数
14

The results of early work completed using bioelectrical impedance for body composition assessment was limited by technological problems. Most of the research has focused on bioelectrical impedance conducted at a frequency of 50 kHz. It has been recently determined that low- and high-frequency bioelectrical impedance measurements can be used to distinguish the volume of extracellular water (ECW) from the volume of total body water (TBW). Therefore, a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance method allows an independent assessment of ECW, TBW, and intracellular water (ICW). Using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L) as a reference method, we examined the validity of bone mineral content and bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) measured by a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance instrument (MLT-100, Sekisui) using a number of frequencies ranging from 2.5 kHz to 350 kHz applied to the right side of the body. The subjects were 52 men and 109 women, aged 23 to 86 years (men: 53.2±17.37 yr, women: 52.5±17.07 yr). The average LTM determined by DXA were 49.4± 5.92 kg for men and 35.6±4.35 kg for women. Multiple regression equations developed in the present study for estimating LTM were: LTM=0.306X_1+0.003X_2+0.098X_3+3.44 (R=0.948, SEE=1.93 kg) for men LTM=0.169X_1+0.003X_2+0.186X_3+5.75 (R=0.917, SEE=1.76 kg) for women where X_1=Ht^2/R_<HIGH>, X_2=H^3/1000 and X_3=Ht^2/R_<LOW> an R_<HIGH> and R_<LOW> stand for resistance of TBW and resistance of ECW, respectively. These equations may be used to evaluate body composition for a wide range of Japanese adults with reasonable accuracy.
著者
金 憲経 松浦 義行 田中 喜代次 稲垣 敦
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.5, pp.548-558, 1992
被引用文献数
4

Excess body fat has generally been considered to influence physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. However, very few studies have been done on the relationships of percent body fat (%fat), body fat and fat-free mass with physical fitness and motor ability. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between body composition and selected physical fitness and motor ability elements in obese boys. The subjects were three hundreds and five boys aged 12-14 years. Eighteen physical fitness and motor ability elements were tested and skinfold thickness was measured at six sites using an Eiken-type caliper. Impedance (Z) was measured using a tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance plethysmograph (Selco SIF-891) . Body density was calculated from the formula of Kim et al. Variables which represented muscular power and endurance were negatively affected by %fat, while muscular strength was positively related to %fat. Flexibility variables were found not to be affected by %fat. In order to further examine the effects of %fat on physical fitness and motor ability, the subjects were categorized into three groups according to %fat: lean= less than 12% (n=64), average=12-20% (n=192), and obese=greater than 20% (n=49) . The results of comparison among groups clearly indicated that the obese group was significantly poorer in muscular power and endurance but was better in muscular strength than the other groups. To analyze the factorial structure in obese boys, principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 18 variables, and then six factors were extracted. The differentiation and integration of factorial structure was investigated from the hierarchical factor model. Two factors (muscular power and speed, and flexibility) were extracted at a lower level of rotation. The body fat was found to be one important factor that affects many physical fitness and motor ability elements. The relationships between physical fitness, motor ability and degree of fatness seem to be rather complicated, and a great deal of data should be accumulated for analysis of influence of body fatness in the obese.
著者
田中 喜代次 金 憲経 渡辺 完児
出版者
筑波大学体育科学系
雑誌
筑波大学体育科学系紀要 (ISSN:03867129)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.13-19, 2000-03

生体内の水分量や体脂肪率などの身体組成(体組成ともいう)を測定する技術開発は古くから進められてきており、その一つに生体電気インピーダンス(以下、BI)法がある。BI法は、自治体で市民を対象として実施される ...