著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.48-57, 2006

With the twin method, we tested the theory of general trust. Among data collected on 1,040 twins, data from 328 pairs of identical twins and 103 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins were analyzed to examine genetic and environmental influences on the general trust level. A univariate genetic analysis showed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 36% and 64% of the phenotypic variance of general trust respectively, while shared environmental factors did not contribute to it. This supports the argument that the general trust level is set responding to individual social circumstances, not by familial circumstances. A substantial degree of correlation between general trust and extraversion suggested that high trusters were more extraverted, which could support the emancipation theory of trust. Finally, a multivariate genetic analysis demonstrated that there is no genetic factor contributing specifically to general trust. All the genetic factors were shared by general trust and other personality traits, i.e., hostility, positive emotions, warmth, and altruism. The results suggested that heritability of general trust observed with the univariate analysis was a "reactive heritability" from personality traits. The implication of the data from the evolutionary psychological viewpoint is discussed.
著者
敷島 千鶴 安藤 寿康 山形 伸二 尾崎 幸謙 高橋 雄介 野中 浩一
出版者
数理社会学会
雑誌
理論と方法 (ISSN:09131442)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.2_105-2_126, 2008-11-30 (Released:2009-01-05)
参考文献数
45

観測された形質の分散を、「遺伝」「共有環境」「非共有環境」という3つの潜在変数の寄与に分割して推定させる行動遺伝学の方法論を用いて、権威主義的伝統主義の形成に関わる要因について検討した。4111名(12~26歳の男性双生児1279名、女性双生児1889名、および双生児の父親83名、母親860名)から権威主義的伝統主義尺度の回答を得た。一卵性双生児912組、二卵性双生児630組を対象とした双生児モデルによる分析は、権威主義的伝統主義の分散を遺伝33%、非共有環境67%で説明し、双生児親子モデルによる分析においても、結果は同等であった。これより、権威主義的伝統主義の家族内伝達を媒介するのは専ら遺伝であり、文化伝達ではないことが示された。権威主義の形成を親の養育、あるいはその家の社会背景によって説明するこれまでの理論には異議が唱えられる。遺伝を説明変数に含めた、より精緻な伝達モデルの有用性が提起される。
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 山形 伸二 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.188-201, 2011

Factors contributing to individual differences of empathy were examined using behavioral genetics methodology. Data related to individual levels of empathy and parental warmth received during childhood were collected from approximately 450 pairs of twins (ages 14-33). A bivariate model analysis clarified that shared family environmental factors did not contribute to the formation of empathy. No common shared environmental factors were detected between empathy and parental warmth, either. The positive correlation between the two variables was mediated principally by genetics. The result does not support socialization theory, which holds that warm parenting nurtures children's empathy. However, the subsequent gene-environment interaction model analysis revealed that shared family environmental factors significantly affected the formation of empathy for those with high or very low parental warmth. The results imply that individuals with a strong or very weak attachment to their parents were more influenced by the shared family environment.
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.48-57, 2006-08-25 (Released:2017-02-08)
被引用文献数
3

With the twin method, we tested the theory of general trust. Among data collected on 1,040 twins, data from 328 pairs of identical twins and 103 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins were analyzed to examine genetic and environmental influences on the general trust level. A univariate genetic analysis showed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 36% and 64% of the phenotypic variance of general trust respectively, while shared environmental factors did not contribute to it. This supports the argument that the general trust level is set responding to individual social circumstances, not by familial circumstances. A substantial degree of correlation between general trust and extraversion suggested that high trusters were more extraverted, which could support the emancipation theory of trust. Finally, a multivariate genetic analysis demonstrated that there is no genetic factor contributing specifically to general trust. All the genetic factors were shared by general trust and other personality traits, i.e., hostility, positive emotions, warmth, and altruism. The results suggested that heritability of general trust observed with the univariate analysis was a "reactive heritability" from personality traits. The implication of the data from the evolutionary psychological viewpoint is discussed.
著者
敷島 千鶴 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本家族社会学会
雑誌
家族社会学研究 (ISSN:0916328X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.12-20, 2004-07-31 (Released:2009-08-04)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
3 1

社会的態度の家族内伝達を媒介するのは専ら家庭環境か, それとも親子間の遺伝要因も関与しているのか。家族の凝集性は伝達に寄与しないか。本研究では一卵性双生児164組と二卵性双生児96組を用いて, 権威主義的伝統主義・集団同調性・自尊感情という3種の社会的態度の個人差に寄与する要因を解明し, 家族内伝達を媒介するものについて検討した。結果, 価値基準を伴う社会的態度である権威主義的伝統主義・集団同調性の伝達は, 家族の共有環境によって媒介され, 共有環境の寄与は家族の凝集性に依存することが明らかにされた。一方, 自尊感情の親子伝達は, 家族の遺伝的関係によって媒介されていることが示された。構造方程式モデリングを用いた行動遺伝学的解析を行うことにより, 伝達を家族の家庭環境と遺伝的関係という両側面から捉えた, 精緻な家族内伝達モデルの構築が可能となった。
著者
佐々木 掌子 山形 伸二 敷島 千鶴 尾崎 幸謙 安藤 寿康
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.4, pp.330-338, 2009 (Released:2012-03-20)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
2 2

This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality.