- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.84, no.755, pp.167-177, 2019 (Released:2019-01-30)
The Urban Design Centers (UDCs) in Japan are practical urban design platforms for public–private–academic collaboration with three characteristics: space planning by collaboration, initiatives of experts, and a hub facility open to all people. This paper explores possibilities and challenges for UDCs in built-up areas in major provincial cities, through the UDC Matsuyama (UDCM) case-study. UDCM was established in 2014 to revitalize Matsuyama City center. Interviews of people involved in UDCM, literature surveys, and participant observations were performed. Investigations showed the following achievements and problems of UDCM. (1) Space planning by collaboration ·The double-tiered systems - a governing organization as a collaboration hub and an executing organization - enables experts to engage and collaborate in various field activities. Money management by the university counteracts the funders' influence. ·To create an appealing urban space, UDCM participates in urban renewal projects in a variety of ways. Shortly after its establishment, UDCM participated in the conventional project planning process, using connections with local government. Once UDCM's performance became known, private enterprises and local organizations directly contacted UDCM for consultation and project support. (2) Initiatives of experts ·It was necessary for UDCM to formulate a vision for the city to share with many stakeholders and to position its role. However, during start-up, UDCM relinquished this formulating vision for two reasons: it was difficult for a new vision to be consistent with existing plans if positioned within the planning framework of local government; and, if positioned as UDCM's own, it risked being unsupported because UDCM initially had no performance record. Following better understanding of UDCM's role and effect, discussions restarted in the third year toward producing a vision for the city. ·UDCM achieves a balance between specialized and local knowledge, and between practical and research power, using experts in many fields including academics with specialized knowledge and skills, retired local government employees with broad human resources and local knowledge, and private experts with rich field experience. ·Human resource development is critical in provincial cities experiencing a continuing drain of young people to large cities. UDCM enhances the community's power through a variety of programs. (3) Hub facility open to all ·Establishing rules for use and operation of the facility through lively and engaging discussions with residents, within the pilot program framsework, enabled organized operation of the facility in the city center where many stakeholders are present. ·The hub facility is used in different ways according to citizens' needs: a place to rest for people with little interest in urban design; and, for people with an active interest, to provide relevant information for beginners and to hold events and participate in human resource development. The UDCM case-study demonstrated three important points in adopting UDCs in built-up areas in major provincial cities, which have complex relationship among numerous stakeholders. ·Produce a visible result by flexibly participating in public and private urban renewal projects in a variety of ways under the organizational structure by public–private–academic collaboration. ·Formulate a vision for the city to share with many stakeholders, and move into action to realize it, in cooperation with citizens and experts in many fields inside and outside the city. ·Establish rules for use and operation of the hub facility through discussions with neighbors.