著者
田端 拓哉 池上 知子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.47-54, 2011

The present research tests the hypothesis that if people face threats to self-worth in one domain, they will elevate their self-evaluation in another domain as compensation, and that this cross-domain compensation is more likely to occur among those with high relative to low trait self-esteem. Two studies were conducted with undergraduates using a reliving task to manipulate levels of threat to the self. Participants whose academic selves were threatened exhibited self-enhancement in the interpersonal domain regardless of the level of trait self-esteem (Study 1). However, participants whose social selves were threatened did not exhibit self-enhancement in the domain of intelligence regardless of the level of trait self-esteem (Study 2). Results are discussed in terms of the asymmetry in compensation between the intellectual and social domains.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.123-132, 2016

<p>This study focuses on "satisficing" (answering behaviors in which participants do not devote appropriate attentional resources to the survey (Krosnick, 1991)) in an online survey and aims to investigate, via various indices, to what extent these behaviors are observed among students whose participation was solicited by the researchers in their universities. This study also aims to explore effective techniques to detect individuals who show satisficing tendencies as efficiently and accurately as possible. Online surveys were carried out at nine universities. Generally speaking, the predictive capability of various types of detection indices was not high. Though direct comparison with online survey panels was impossible because of differences in measurement methodology, the satisficing tendencies of university students were generally low. Our findings show that when using university students as samples for a study, researchers need not be "too intent" on detecting satisficing tendencies, and that it was more important to control the answering environment, depending on the content of the survey.</p>
著者
小宮 あすか 唐牛 祐輔 荻原 祐二 後藤 崇志
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.133-140, 2016

<p>The purpose of this study was to examine whether preference for cooperation and competition with others differs across individuals, depending on one's cultural self-construal. In this study, 35 pairs of Japanese students first completed an Implicit Association Test to measure their cultural self-construal (interdependent <i>vs.</i> independent). They then performed a creativity test assigned to either a cooperative or a competitive condition and rated their preference for the task. The results showed that individuals who scored relatively more for interdependence were more likely to report that they would like to repeat the task in the cooperative condition than in the competitive condition, whereas individuals who scored relatively more for independence were as likely to rate their preference for the task in the competitive condition as for one in the cooperative condition. We discuss the relation between implicit–explicit cultural self-construals and competitive and cooperative goals in Japan.</p>
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子 笠原 伊織
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.104-114, 2016

<p>This study investigated how social norms are maintained in societies with different degrees of relational mobility. We hypothesized that (1) in high relational mobility societies, where they need to present their attractiveness to be chosen as a relational partner, people would follow social norms when they thought it would earn them a positive reputation from others; (2) in low relational mobility societies, where they need to avoid isolation in closed relationships, people would follow social norms when they thought they would be rejected by others if they did not. We also examined to what extent their reputation estimation was accurate. In particular, normative aspects of participation in community activities were investigated using a social survey. As we predicted, the more the respondents in low relational mobility societies feared rejection by others, the more they followed norms regarding participation in community activities. They tended to assume that others would give a lower evaluation to a nonparticipant than they do, which means that they may maintain the norms as a result of "pluralistic ignorance." On the other hand, we did not find a significant interaction effect between perceived relational mobility and expectation of a positive reputation. This was explained by the respondents' tendency to underestimate the possibility of earning a positive reputation by participating in community activities.</p>
著者
二木 望 渡辺 匠 櫻井 良祐 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.81-91, 2016

<p>The present research examined the effects of perceived entitativity on attitudes toward elderly people stereotyped as "warm but incompetent." Previous research demonstrated that "warm but incompetent" stereotypes elicit active facilitation and passive harm and emotions mediate these links. Extending previous research, we predicted that entitativity would moderate these effects because of its polarizing effect. In a study (<i>N</i>=74), we manipulated the perceived entitativity of elderly people and a relative salience of stereotypes (<i>e.g.</i>, a relative salience of their warmth) by presenting scenarios. The results showed that when perceived entitativity is high, warmth elicits active facilitation and lack of competence elicits passive harm. Furthermore, admiration mediates warmth and active facilitation. On the other hand, when perceived entitativity is low, stereotypes and behavioral intentions are not associated. The findings suggest that entitativity determines the process by which stereotypes elicit behaviors.</p>
著者
横山 智哉 稲葉 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.92-103, 2016

<p>Recent studies find that political talk influences political participation. However, as of yet, there has been no clear demonstration of how political talk translates into increased political participation. This study proposes a bridging effect, which reduces the perceived psychological distance between citizens and politics. In order to test this explanation, we collected panel data on an online national volunteer sample in November 2012 and January 2013. Findings suggest that the direct relationship between political talk and participation in governmental politics may be mediated through perceived psychological distance to politics. These findings support the bridging effect explanation.</p>
著者
永田 素彦 杉万 俊夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.48-64, 1993

"Conflict analysis", a kind of meta-game theory, was applied to a conflict which occurred in the development of the Kyoto terminal building. Through a review of relevant newspaper articles and a series of intensive interviews with the players involved (i.e., Kyoto Station Building Development Co., Ltd., Kyoto Buddhism Association, an anti-development citizen's group, and a collection of ordinary citizens), the options available to each player and their preference for possible outcomes were determined. The most plausible solution to the conflict was then predicted in terms of equilibrium solutions. The results show that conflict analysis can be a valuable method for examining the macrostructure of a conflict situation.
著者
三浦 麻子 楠見 孝 小倉 加奈代
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.10-21, 2016

<p>This study examined chronological changes in attitudes towards foodstuffs from the areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, using citizens' data (<i>n</i>=1,752) from the panel surveys conducted in 4 waves between September 2011 and March 2014. Using the dual process theory of decision-making, the study attempts an empirical examination that includes the interaction of two factors: (1) anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident, which is hypothesized to lead to negative emotional decision-making following the formation of relevant attitudes, and (2) knowledge, higher-order literacy, and critical thinking, which are hypothesized to promote logical decision-making. Until three years after the nuclear accident, there was no large chronological variation in either anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident or attitudes toward foodstuffs from affected areas. The tendency regarding the latter was particularly strong in areas far from the location of the disaster. Negative attitudes regarding foodstuffs from affected areas were reduced through the possession of appropriate knowledge regarding the effects of radiation on the human body. However, the belief of possessing such knowledge may, conversely, hinder careful consideration with appropriate understanding.</p>
著者
津村 健太 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.1-9, 2016

<p>After being socially excluded, people try to reconnect with others. Previous research indicated that excluded people show an enhanced ability to distinguish between-category differences relative to within-category differences of group members. It is important that excluded people distinguish in-group members from out-group members to avoid making an unnecessary effort for social reconnection or further ostracism, because in-group members afford more opportunities to reconnect compared with out-group members. We hypothesized that this perceptual change would heighten the perception of the similarity of group members. Participants were included or excluded by Cyberball (a ball-tossing computer game) and constructed imagined histograms of the perceived distribution of members of four groups across a trait dimension. As predicted, social exclusion heightened the participants' perception of the similarity of group members.</p>
著者
二木 望 渡辺 匠 櫻井 良祐 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0879, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
24

The present research examined the effects of perceived entitativity on attitudes toward elderly people stereotyped as “warm but incompetent.” Previous research demonstrated that “warm but incompetent” stereotypes elicit active facilitation and passive harm and emotions mediate these links. Extending previous research, we predicted that entitativity would moderate these effects because of its polarizing effect. In a study (N=74), we manipulated the perceived entitativity of elderly people and a relative salience of stereotypes (e.g., a relative salience of their warmth) by presenting scenarios. The results showed that when perceived entitativity is high, warmth elicits active facilitation and lack of competence elicits passive harm. Furthermore, admiration mediates warmth and active facilitation. On the other hand, when perceived entitativity is low, stereotypes and behavioral intentions are not associated. The findings suggest that entitativity determines the process by which stereotypes elicit behaviors.
著者
白岩 祐子 小林 麻衣子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.41-51, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
44

In desperation to learn the details of their case and to achieve the right to know, the families of crime victims in Japan have been taking action to implement the victim participant system in criminal trials. Focusing on the victim participant system, which began in 2008, the present study examined whether or not family members of victims who actually participated in criminal trials felt that their demands to know were fulfilled through the process. We administered a survey targeting 173 individuals whose family member has been the victim of a crime such as murder. The results revealed that their demands were fulfilled as they had expected only when they participated in the trial. Furthermore, we found that such sufficiency level led to their satisfaction with the justice system, while insufficient fulfillment of demands led to an increase in people’s willingness to act toward changing the system. We discussed the social consequences of judicially guaranteeing a victim’s right to know.
著者
毛 新華 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.22-40, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
47

The cognitive and behavioral effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) program involving uniquely Chinese cultural characteristics was investigated through self- and others’ assessment. Chinese undergraduates (N=39) were divided into a control group and an SST group. The SST group participated a brief SST program that was developed by incorporating cross-cultural social skills and unique Chinese cultural characteristics. The control group participated in a program that bears no relationship to social skills. In order to examine the behavioral effectiveness of the program, a series of conversational and observational experiments was conducted. The results indicated that Chinese, cross-cultural, and Japanese social skills’ scores of the SST group increased significantly after the program compared with the control group. This suggested the effectiveness of the program on participants’ cognition. The scales for evaluating participants’ behaviors from self-observations and those of other observers also showed significant changes in the SST group. It is concluded that the program was effective for changing participants’ behaviors in addition to their cognition. Simultaneous changes in Chinese and Japanese skill factors suggested the possibility that cultural factors are connected to each other.
著者
和田 実 山口 雅敏
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.125-136, 1999

The purpose of this paper was to reveal the relationships between social exchanges and the quality of a romantic relationship from various social exchange perspectives, analyzing the couple as a unit. Subjects were 92 couples. Major findings were as follows: 1. Perceptions of equity and equality within the romantic dyad weren't related. On the other hand, the values of maximizing own outcome model, maximizing other's outcome model, maximizing joint outcome model, and investment model were positively related. 2. The lesser the discrepancy between the couple's self-outcome and that of equity model were, the greater the couple's satisfaction was. The lesser the discrepancy between the couples' investment model was, the greater the couple's commitment was.
著者
篠原 一光 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.144-154, 1999
被引用文献数
4

The formation process of electronic communities on WWW bulletin boards was observed for 6 months. Subjects were 106 Internet users were unacquainted with one another. They communicated freely on a WWW bulletin board. Based on time course change of the number of remarks, participants were classified into 3 groups; high-participation group, low-participation group, and early high-participation group, members of which made remarks only in the early days. Compared with the other groups, subjects in the high-paticipation group tended to more frequently use the network for sending information (e.g. making remarks on Netnews), and had higher communication skills, which formed a sub-structure of social skills. The results suggest that social skills were related to active participation in electronic communities.
著者
山本 明
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.152-164, 2004
被引用文献数
3

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of mass media reports on risk perception and images of victims. Study 1, which examined newspaper articles about human deaths, revealed that: (1) the ages of dead persons tended to be reported in headlines when they were very young or very old, and (2) suicides were reported more, while murders were reported less relative to actual rate of occurrence per population. Study 2 conducted through a survey revealed that: (1) the main information source of traffic accidents, fires, suicides, and murders was the mass media, and (2) more than half of respondents had some personal experiences with traffic accidents (more than 80%) and fire (more than 50%). Also, it was apparent that (3) the respondent's estimates and the amount of exposure to mass media reports about the distribution of dead persons over a lifetime period were correlated. The implications of these findings and future problems to be solved were discussed.
著者
藤本 学 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.23-32, 2007
被引用文献数
1

This study aimed to examine participants' predication patterns in small group communications. Distinctive prediction patterns from utterance data were extracted from two experiments which were different in acquaintanceship, controlled situations and group size. Specific patterns were related to personal traits. The interesting difference of the predication patterns between Study 1 and Study 2 was the presence or absence of "listeners." In Study 1, which has conversations by three persons, the participants needed to be actively involved in conversations to establish communication. In contrast, the participants in large groups were able to participate passively in conversation. Therefore, the notion of "listener" as a predication pattern was extracted from Study 2, which has conversations by five persons.
著者
林 洋一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.305-330, 2007

This article reviews the literature on social justice with an emphasis on the subjective properties of justice. The author contends that there are four major perspectives for understanding past research into the history of justice and its future directions: a) the antecedents of justice which identify the criteria and factors of perceptions of fairness, b) the consequences of justice which focus on the effect of fairness perceptions on individual responses, c) the motives for justice which discuss why people are sensitive to fairness, and d) the concerns of justice that highlight the internal and/or external conditions driving people to fairness. The author reviews the vast amount of theoretical and empirical research that underlies each of the 4 approaches mentioned above. Important directions of future research are also discussed.