著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991-02-20 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
1

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991
被引用文献数
4 3

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
田村 達 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.165-171, 2006

Assuming that labels describing a victim as a dehumanized entity reduce a harm-doer's control over aggressive behavior, we attempted to examine the effects of such labels on levels of aggression. A one-on-one fighting video game was used in order to conduct this experiment. During the game, 63 male undergraduates exhibited uncomfortable noises to an opponent who was given either a dehumanizing or anonymous label. We predicted that the dehumanizing label would decrease empathetic concern for, and increase both perceptual and outward hostility towards the opponent (this was measured by high levels of noises during matches). To examine the question of whether the dehumanizing label actually lessens aggressive behavior, or in fact motivates aggressive behavior, we compared the effects of the label on levels of aggression observing whether the opponent showed hostile behavior or not. The results partially-supported our hypothesis. Although the dehumanizing label did not directly increase aggression, further analysis showed that it indirectly increased aggression by lowering empathetic concern for the opponent. Similarly, our results suggested the possibility that dehumanizing labels may in fact increase aggressive behavior in people.
著者
山本 雄大 佐藤 潤美 大渕 憲一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.121-129, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
33

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers’ earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation.
著者
熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.200-207, 2009

In intergroup conflict a third party sometimes intervenes aggressively into the interactions between the concerned parties, escalating the conflicts. We hypothesized that the third party will become aggressive if they perceive that a fellow member of their group, with whom they strongly identified themselves, is harmed by the other group and that the perception of harm is more definitely determined by unfairness than by the objective severity of the harm. Group identification was manipulated by cooperative ingroup activities. Half of the participants observed that an ingroup fellow member was harmed by an outgroup member based on unfair evaluation, while the others observed that the harm was given based on fair evaluation. They were then given a chance to retaliate against the harm-doer by creating unpleasant noises. The results indicated that both aggressive motivation and behaviors were increased by unfair harm only when participants strongly identified with the ingroup. The group identification did not affect the perception of unfairness. These results suggest that symbolic or psychological harm affects third-party aggression.
著者
小松 さくら 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.45-49, 2008

The aims of this study were to examine with a Japanese sample the idea that the expectation of slack in the future is larger for time than for money and to examine the relationship between this expectation and optimism as a personality trait. The results showed that Japanese participants estimated slack with regard to both time and money, and it was larger with regard to time than to money, consistent with research done on American samples. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, however, the expectation of slack did not correlate with optimism. The low correlation between the estimated degrees of slack between that with regard to time and that with regard to money suggests that there is no consistent tendency across different resources.
著者
高田 奈緒美 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.208-218, 2009

In distinguishing internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior, we attempted to identify different motives for these two modes of forgiveness and to examine the effects of interpersonal relationships with offenders and the motives behind forgiveness. Participants recalled personal episodes in which someone hurt them and rated the episodes in terms of the closeness between them and the offender, forgiveness, and the motives for forgiveness. A factor analysis of the motives produced 6 dimensions: need for acceptance, maintenance of relationship, pervasiveness of negative event, maintenance of social harmony, non-commitment, and consideration. We regarded consideration and pervasiveness of negative events as altruistic and the others as egocentric motives. Noncommitment did not correlate with either forgiveness or forgiving behavior. Need for acceptance correlated only with forgiving behavior. Other motives were positively correlated with both internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior. Our results showed that the maintenance of a relationship was highest in conflicts with high-close others. They also showed that need for acceptance, pervasiveness of a negative event, and maintenance of social harmony were higher in conflict with high-close and middle-close others than with low-close others.
著者
川嶋 伸佳 大渕 憲一 熊谷 智博 浅井 暢子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.63-74, 2012

Although public concern about social inequality has increased, Japanese people generally do not appear to be actively engaged in activities for social reform. We hypothesized multiple levels in the perception of unfairness-micro-unfairness based on personal experiences and macro-unfairness based on evaluation toward the whole of society-and predicted that micro-unfairness would lead to more protests compared to macrounfairness (H1). We also hypothesized that three psychological variables-immutability belief, low social efficacy, and estimated costs of social changes-would regulate the positive relationship between multiple levels of perceptions of unfairness and protests (H2). The results of the social survey held in Japan in 2009 (n = 1398) not only supported H1 but found that the effects of micro-unfairness on protests varied depending on the strength of macro-unfairness. In addition, the results of immutability belief and the estimated costs of social changes basically supported H2, but the results of low social efficacy did not.
著者
上原 俊介 中川 知宏 森 丈弓 清水 かな子 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.161-173, 2012

A core relational norm regulating social interaction is the idea of responsibility for needs (RN). Assuming that anger is a signal indicating a violation of RN, we attempted to test the mediation model that the perception that one's needs are frustrated by a close other (romantic partner) would generate a perceived RN violation, which in turn would increase anger. Further, we attempted to examine whether mediation also works in relationships with friends. In a role-taking study providing participants with a series of scenarios depicting the other (either romantic partner, friend, or mere acquaintance) as responding or not responding to one's needs, we asked them to rate the intensity of anger and the perceived RN violation. The results showed that in the romantic partner condition, the frustration increased the perception of RN violation, which in turn intensified anger. Further, this mediation was also confirmed in the friend condition, suggesting that RN also operates within friend relationships.
著者
山脇 望美 山本 雄大 熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.25-31, 2013

The present study attempted to examine whether explicit and implicit measures of aggressiveness would predict aggressive behavior and whether the effects would be moderated by provocation. Seventy-one students voluntarily participated in the experiment, with their explicit aggressiveness measured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ) and their implicit aggressiveness measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Aggressive behavior was deduced by the levels of unpleasant noises which the participants gave a partner in the evaluation of his/her drawings either in the provocation or non-provocation conditions. The results showed that only IAT was significantly related with the level of unpleasant noises, independently of provocation, suggesting that aggressive behavior was predicted by the implicit measure of aggressiveness but not by the explicit measure of it.
著者
山本 雄大 佐藤 潤美 大渕 憲一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.12044, (Released:2014-06-01)
参考文献数
33

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers’ earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation.
著者
大渕 憲一 川嶋 伸佳 青木 俊明
出版者
Japan Society of Civil Engineers
雑誌
土木学会論文集D (ISSN:18806058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.3, pp.325-339, 2008

1902名の市民に対する2度の社会調査によって社会資本整備に対する公共評価の構造を探り,意思決定領域で行政優先,住民優先,手続き的公正,結果領域で事業利益,住民弊害,広域弊害,分配的公正の計7次元を抽出した.現在の政策に対して回答者は全般的に批判的だが,行政優先と事業利益の2次元は満足度と正の関係を,手続き的公正と広域弊害の2次元は負の関係を示した.自民党支持者は事業利益と行政優先の2次元を重視し,弊害,公正さ,住民意思などの次元は軽視した.野党支持者や支持政党なしの回答者はこれと正反対だった.高所得者の評価は自民党支持者と類似していたが,行政に対する信頼は低かった.高学歴者は手続き的公正や弊害を重視する反面,事業利益に注目するなど多面的な評価を示した.

1 1 0 0 OA 怒りの動機

著者
大渕 憲一 小倉 左知男
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.4, pp.200-207, 1985-10-30 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
3 2

We administered Averill's questionnaire on “the everyday experience of anger” to 123 adults and 130 university students who lived in Osaka, Japan. They were asked to rate their recent anger episodes in terms of the instigator, motive, response, etc. It was found that (1) there were two factor dimensions in the motives of anger which were interpreted as hostile and instrumental motives; (2) hostile anger was more aroused when the instigators were not so familiar to them and had authority over them, while instrumental anger was more aroused when the instigators were their loved ones or friends; (3) hostile anger, compared with instrumental, was intensified principally when the subjects perceived their instigators had malicious intent; and (4) the subjects who felt hostile anger, compared with instrumental, were likely to wish to commit aggression against their instigators.
著者
熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.200-207, 2009-02-27 (Released:2017-02-10)
被引用文献数
4

In intergroup conflict a third party sometimes intervenes aggressively into the interactions between the concerned parties, escalating the conflicts. We hypothesized that the third party will become aggressive if they perceive that a fellow member of their group, with whom they strongly identified themselves, is harmed by the other group and that the perception of harm is more definitely determined by unfairness than by the objective severity of the harm. Group identification was manipulated by cooperative ingroup activities. Half of the participants observed that an ingroup fellow member was harmed by an outgroup member based on unfair evaluation, while the others observed that the harm was given based on fair evaluation. They were then given a chance to retaliate against the harm-doer by creating unpleasant noises. The results indicated that both aggressive motivation and behaviors were increased by unfair harm only when participants strongly identified with the ingroup. The group identification did not affect the perception of unfairness. These results suggest that symbolic or psychological harm affects third-party aggression.
著者
上原 俊介 船木 真悟 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.32-42, 2011 (Released:2011-08-30)
参考文献数
37

人間関係に関して怒りが果たす重要な役割とは,相互作用を制御している関係規範,つまり相互の欲求に応じる責任を浮き彫りにすることである。この見方にしたがえば,他者が個人的欲求に応じなかったとき,親密他者に対しての方が,非親密な他者に対してよりも,怒り感情は強いと予想される。だが,本研究では,関係規範の違反に対する怒り反応は,種々の状況要因によって調整されると仮定して,以下の仮説を検討した。すなわち,親密他者が欲求に応じなかったときに非親密他者よりも怒りが強いのは,相手が特異的欲求に応じなかった場合(仮説1)と,個人が欲求情報を伝達しなかった場合(仮説2)に限られるであろうと仮説を立てた。大学生75名を対象にシナリオ調査を実施した。要因計画は人間関係(親密vs.非親密)×欲求の種類(特異的vs.非特異的)×欲求情報の伝達(ありvs.なし)である。各参加者は,人間関係と欲求情報伝達の水準を変化させた4バージョンのシナリオのうちひとつに配置された。特異的欲求と非特異的欲求のシナリオはいずれのバージョンについても含まれている。各シナリオを読んだ後,参加者はそのとき感じた怒りの強度を評定するよう求められた。分析の結果,仮説1は支持されたが,仮説2は不支持であった。これらから,親密他者に向けた怒りは利己心を反映している可能性が示唆された。
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.175-179, 1982-02-20 (Released:2010-11-26)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1 1

被害の大きさが等しい事態で, 欲求不満の帰因情報を操作することによって, 被害者の攻撃反応が変化するかどうかが欲求不満物語を使って検討された. 男女80名の大学生に対して2種類の状況を描いた欲求不満物語が呈示され, 5質問測度によって被害者の欲求不満行動が評定された. 測度毎に, 性別 (2) ×帰因情報 (攻撃意図, 過失, 利他的動機, 事故) ×物語状況 (2) の分散分析が行われ, 次のような結果を得た. (1) 攻撃意図が最も被害者の攻撃反応を強く誘起し, 次いで過失, 利他的動機, 事故の順となった. この順序は不合理判断次元に対応すると思われる. (2) 内面的情緒反応 (怒り) にも同様の条件差が観察され, 欲求不満の不合理性と攻撃反応の関係については, 反応抑制説よりも動因低減説が有力視された. (3) 欲求不満反応を帰属過程が媒介する仕組について, 阻止者への自由の帰属と態度推測のふたつの見解に関する証拠が提出されて議論された. いずれも肯定的に結論付けられた. (4) 男女差は利他的動機による阻止行動をどれくらい合理的とみなすかに関して生じた. 女性は個人の行動が家族に制約されることを受け入れ傾向があると推論された.
著者
山脇 望美 山本 雄大 熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.25-31, 2013-08-31 (Released:2017-02-24)

The present study attempted to examine whether explicit and implicit measures of aggressiveness would predict aggressive behavior and whether the effects would be moderated by provocation. Seventy-one students voluntarily participated in the experiment, with their explicit aggressiveness measured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ) and their implicit aggressiveness measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Aggressive behavior was deduced by the levels of unpleasant noises which the participants gave a partner in the evaluation of his/her drawings either in the provocation or non-provocation conditions. The results showed that only IAT was significantly related with the level of unpleasant noises, independently of provocation, suggesting that aggressive behavior was predicted by the implicit measure of aggressiveness but not by the explicit measure of it.
著者
山本 雄大 佐藤 潤美 大渕 憲一
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.121-129, 2014

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers' earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation.